Presentation Plus!

Presentation Plus!

THE AMERICAN JOURNEY Chapter 3 COLONIAL AMERICA Chapter 3 Section 1 Early English Settlements BEFORE WE BEGIN What crop saved the people of Jamestown?

How did the colonists receive political rights? Words to Know Charter: a document that gives the holder right to organize settlements in an area. Burgesses: elected representatives to an assembly. Headright: a land grant Joint-Stock Company: a company in which

investors buy stock in a company in return for a share of its future profits. Broadsides: Advertisement or news items printed on one side of a large sheet of paper. People & Places to Know PEOPLE/ PLACES Sir Francis Drake Humphrey

Gilbert Walter Raleigh Roanoke Island John White Virginia Dare Chesapeake Bay Jamestown John Smith IMPORTANCE

England in America The English defeat of the Spanish Armada ended Spanish control of the seas. England and other European nations could begin colonies in North America because it was now safe to sail the waters. In 1583, Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland for Queen Elizabeth.

England in America (cont.) Sir Walter Raleigh sent about 100 men to settle on Roanoke Island off the coast of present-day North Carolina in 1585. After the difficult winter there, the colonists returned to England. A second group of settlers came in 1587; this group deserted the island and disappeared. No clues to their fate were left except for the word Croatoan carved on a gatepost.

Jamestown Settlement In April of 1607, settlers sent by the Virginia Company in London entered Chesapeake Bay and founded Jamestown. They faced many hardships because they didnt find gold or establish any fish or fur trading so their colonists dwindled in population. Captain John Smith arrived in 1608 to govern

the colonists. Jamestown Settlement (cont.) The Virginia Company installed yet another leader to govern them after Smith. They allowed a representative government in which ten towns in the colony each sent two burgesses, or representatives, to an assembly. The assembly made local news.

The House of Burgesses met for the first time on July 30, 1619. Because of the financial problems that the Virginia Company faced, King James of England canceled its charter and made Jamestown Englands first royal colony in America. In 1619, ninety women were sent to Jamestown so that families could form and the population could increase.

When colonists discovered how to grow tobacco, the colony began to prosper because they were able to trade with the Native Americans. Pocahontas, the daughter of one of Chief Powhatan, married John Rolfe, improving the lives of both civilizations. In 1619, African peoples came to Jamestown; they were sold as servants to Virginia planters to work in the

tobacco fields. Until 1640, Africans were free and some owned property. By 1660, slavery became legal and incoming African people were enslaved or sold as slaves upon their arrival. Slavery provided free workers for plantations that grew crops, which made money for the colony. Triangular Trade PROJECT! DUE 10/4/12

You are a British publisher in the 1600s. A group that has obtained a charter to found a colony in North America approaches you for help. They want to recruit others to join in their venture. Your task is to create a poster (broadside) advertising their plans to found a British colony in North America. Your audience is British citizens of the 1600s who might consider undertaking an expedition to colonize North America. You should persuade your audience that they should accompany your clients and help establish this colony.

Procedures 1. Research to find out more about broadsides and the people who would find this venture appealing. 2. Choose images to illustrate your message. 3. Make an attention-getting slogan to accompany your artwork. 4. Design your poster. 5. Create your poster according to the Rubric! 6. Present your poster to the class! 7. See example

RUBRIC 1. The main theme of the poster is clear. 2. The title helps explain this theme. 3. Appropriate details support main ideas. 4. The ideas are connected to the main theme. 5. Information is complete and accurate. 6. Space, shapes, textures, and colors provide information and make the poster easier to understand. 7. Pictures, photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs and other elements add information and make ideas clear.

8. The words are appropriate for the topic and audience. 9. The work is very neat and presentable. BROADSIDE PRESENTATIONS TODAY! Show off your poster! 1. The main theme of the poster is clear. 1pts 2. The title helps explain this theme. 1pts 3. Appropriate details support main ideas. 3pts 4. The ideas are connected to the main theme. 3 pts 5. Information is complete and accurate. 5pts 6. Space, shapes, textures, and colors provide information

and make the poster easier to understand. 2pts 7. Pictures, photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs and other elements add information and make ideas clear. 2pts 8. The words are appropriate for the topic and audience. 1pts 9. The work is very neat and presentable. 2pts -1,-2=A -3,-4=B -5,-6=C -7,-8=D -9+=F Chapter 3 Section 2 New England Colonies

BEFORE WE BEGIN Why did the Pilgrims and Puritans come to America? How did the Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire colonies begin? Words to Know Dissent Persecute

Puritan Separatist Pilgrim Mayflower Compact Toleration Why different colonies were settled Colony Reasons why the Colony was Settled

Massachusetts 1. 2. 3. Connecticut 1. 2. 3. Rhode Island 1. 2. 3. Religious Freedom There were two groups of protestants in England:

Puritans and Separatists. Puritans wanted to reform the Anglican Church. Separatists wanted to leave and set up their own church. Separatists fled to the Netherlands for religious freedom. Some were given a guarantee from the Virginia Company to be able to practice their religion freely if they settled in Virginia. In return they had to share their profits with the Virginia Company They

became Pilgrims. The Mayflower carried Pilgrims to settle the Virginia colony but they landed in Plymouth Massachusetts because of the weather. Plymouth was not part of the Virginia Company territory and its laws did not apply so they drew up the Mayflower Compact to provide laws to live by, which is the first representative government in the Americas. The Pilgrims learned to plant crops, hunt and fish from

the Native Americans. Without the Native Americans help, the Pilgrims would have not survived. New Settlements More hard times beset the Puritans in England. In 1629 a group received a royal charter and formed the Massachusetts Bay Colony located north of Plymouth. The group settled in Boston with John Winthrope as their governor. During the Great Migration in the 1630s, more

than 15,000 Puritans came to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic difficulties in England. An elected group called the General Court ran the colony. The Massachusetts Bay Colony created a colonial legislature when settlers wanted a larger role in government.

Every adult male church member who also owned property could vote for their representatives to the General Court. Although the Puritans left England for religious freedom in America, they criticized, or persecuted, people who held religious beliefs other than theirs. This led to the formation of new colonies in America. Colonists began to settle along the fertile Connecticut

River valley in the 1630s. In 1636 Thomas Hooker founded Hartford. Three years later, Hartford and two neighboring towns adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. This was the first written constitution in America. Roger Williams, a minister, established Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, where religious toleration existed. People could worship as they pleased.

In 1638 John Wheelwright founded the colony of New Hampshire. It became independent of Massachusetts in 1679. Activity! Create a song that the Pilgrims might have sung as they crossed the Atlantic on the Mayflower. Create the lyrics for the song by using what you have learned about why the Pilgrims sailed to New England.

You will present your song to the class. Chapter 3 Section 3 Middle Colonies BEFORE WE BEGIN Why did the Middle Colonies have the most diverse populations in colonial America? Who was Americas first

town planner? Words to Know Patroon Proprietary colony Pacifist How the Middle Colonies were founded Colony

New York New Jersey Pennsylvan ia Founder Why Settlers Came England and the Colonies

In 1660 England had two groups of colonies: 1. The New England colonies run by private corporations under a royal charter. They were Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Connecticut, and Rhode Island. 2. The royal colonies run by England. They were Maryland and Virginia. England wanted to gain control of the Dutch-controlled land in between these two groups of colonies because of its harbor and river trade. The Dutch colony was New Netherland. Its main settlement of New Amsterdam on Manhattan

Island was a center of shipping to and from the Americas. The Dutch West India Company gave new settlers who brought at least 50 settlers with them a large estate. These landowners gained riverfront estates and ruled like kings. They were called patroons. In 1644 the English sent a fleet to attack New Amsterdam. The governor of New Amsterdam, Peter Stuyvesant, was unprepared for a battle, so he surrendered the colony.

The Duke of York gained control of the colony and named it New York. He promised the colonists freedom of religion and allowed them to hold on to their land. The population of New York grew to about 8,000 in 1664. New Amsterdam aka New York City, became one of the fastest-growing locations in the colony. The southern part of New York between the Hudson and the Delaware Rivers became New Jersey. Its inhabitants were diverse in ethnicity and religion, like those from New York.

Without a major port or city, however, it did not make the money the landowners expected. By 1702 New Jersey became a royal colony, yet it continued to make local laws. Pennsylvania William Penn received a large tract of land in America from the king as a repayment of a debt. The colony was Pennsylvania. Penn, a Quaker, saw Pennsylvania

as a chance to put the Quaker ideas of tolerance and equality into practice. He designed the city of Philadelphia and wrote the first constitution. To encourage settlers to Pennsylvania, he advertised the colony throughout Europe in several languages. By 1683

more than 3,000 English, Welsh, Irish, Dutch, and German people settled there. In 1701 Penn granted the colonists the right to elect representatives to a legislative assembly. In 1703 Three Lower Counties formed their own legislature and became the colony of Delaware. The counties functioned as a separate colony known as Delaware and were supervised by Pennsylvanias governor. COLONY PRIDE!

Using a sheet of notebook paper, CREATE YOUR OWN flag of one of the 13 Colonies. USE what YOU know about that colony, decide what symbols and colors would be appropriate to represent that colony. You will display and explain your flag in class. Chapter 3 Section 4 Southern Colonies

BEFORE WE BEGIN How were the Southern colonies established? How were the French and Spanish colonies different from the English colonies? Words to Know Indentured Servant Constitution

Debtor Tenant Farmer Mission Main crops of the Southern Colonies Colony Maryland North Carolina

South Carolina Main Crop Coming to America The colonies needed people to grow and prosper. Settlers came voluntarily. Others came because they were: 1. criminals or prisoners of war from England and Scotland and could earn their release if they worked for a period of time (seven years). 2. seized and brought as slaves from Africa.

3. indentured servants who worked without pay for a certain period of time in exchange for their passage. Maryland became a proprietary colony in 1632. King Charles I gave Sir George Calvert, called Lord Baltimore, a colony north of Virginia. Lord Baltimore wanted to establish a safe place for Catholics, and he also hoped that the colony would make him rich.

Maryland tobacco farmers also produced wheat, fruit, vegetables, and livestock so that they would not be dependent upon one cash crop. Wealthy landowners became powerful. As plantations grew in number, indentured servants and enslaved Africans were used to work the plantations. Baltimore became the largest settlement, founded in 1729.

Because the boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania was disputed, the British astronomers, Mason and Dixon, were hired to resolve the issue and establish a boundary. (Mason-Dixon Line) A conflict between Catholics and Protestants, who outnumbered them, resulted in the passage of the Act of Toleration in 1649. It stated that both groups had the right to worship freely. The colonys Protestant majority repealed this act in

1692. Virginia Expands As Virginia grew, settlers moved inland to open up the backcountry. Native Americans lived on these lands. The governor, Sir William Berkeley, worked out an arrangement in 1644 that kept settlers from moving farther into

Native American land. The settlers received a large piece of land, and conflicts were diminished. Many Virginia westerners resented Berkeleys pledge to the Native Americans and settled in the lands anyway. As a result, Native Americans raided these settlements. Nathaniel Bacon opposed colonial government because

it was made of easterners. He led attacks on Native American villages, set fire to the capital, marched into Jamestown, and drove Berkeley into exile. England summoned Berkeley and sent troops to restore order. Settling the Carolinas King Charles II founded the colony of Carolina. The proprietors took large estates for

themselves and hoped to sell and rent land to new settlers. In 1670 English settlers arrived, and by 1680 they founded Charleston. The English philosopher John Locke wrote their constitution. Northern Carolina was settled by small farmers.

Because this northern region did not have a good harbor, settlers relied on Virginias ports. Southern Carolina was more prosperous due to the fertile farmland and its harbor city, Charleston. Rice became the leading crop, and indigo, a blue flowering plant, became the blue gold of Carolina. Most of the settlers of southern Carolina came from the English colony of Barbados in the

West Indies. They brought with them enslaved Africans to work in the rice fields. Because so much labor was needed to grow rice, the demand for slaves increased. By 1708 more than half of southern Carolinas new settlers were enslaved Africans. Carolinas settlers were angry at the proprietors. They wanted a greater

role in the colonys government. In 1719 the settlers in southern Carolina seized control from its proprietors. Carolina was formally divided into two coloniesNorth Carolina and South Carolinain 1729. Georgia James Oglethorpe founded the colony of

Georgia in 1733. It was the last British colony to be founded in the Americas. Great Britain created Georgia for several reasons: 1. as a place where British debtors and poor people could make a fresh start 2. as a military barrier to protect the other British colonies from Spain due to its location between Spanish Florida and South Carolina

Georgia did receive poor people but few debtors. Religious refugees also settled there. The town of Savannah was created in 1733. Oglethorpe banned slavery, Catholics, and rum in the colony and limited the size of farms. As settlers came, they objected to the laws, so he lifted all the bans except on slavery. In 1751, he turned the colony back to the king. New France The French settlement in the Americas grew

slowly. The French were interested mainly in the fishing and fur trade at first. Their settlement called New France became a royal colony in 1663. They had settlements in two regions: 1. North in Quebec and along the St. Lawrence River. They consisted mostly of forts, trading posts, and later large estates. 2. South along the Mississippi River to the Gulf

of Mexico. La Salle claimed the region called Louisiana for France. In 1718 the port city of New Orleans was founded. The French, years later, did send explorers, traders, and missionaries farther west to the Rocky Mountains and southwest to the Rio Grande.

The French respected the ways of the Native Americans, so they had better relations with them than did other Europeans. The fur trappers traveled far into Native American territory, so they needed to learn to live among the Native Americans. These trappers did not push the Native

Americans off their land. The missionaries did not try to change their customs. New Spain Spain had a large empire in Mexico, the Caribbean, Central, and South America called New Spain. To keep control and protect their claims, they sent soldiers, missionaries, and settlers north of this region into: 1.present-day New Mexico, where Santa Fe was founded in late 1609

or early 1610 2. Arizona in the late 1600s 3. the region that is now Texas in the early 1700s, establishing San Antonio and other military posts 4. California In California Spanish priests built missions to convert people to Catholicism. In 1769 Junpero Serra founded a

mission at San Diego. Many more missions that eventually became large cities were established along the El Camino Real. Rivalries in Europe between Great Britain and France often resulted in fighting between the British and Spanish colonies in America. Wars between the British and French in Europe also greatly affected their lands in the

Americas. Study for your test on Chapters 1-3 FOR THE CLASS AFTER NEXT! Chapter Review will be posted by tomorrow night! Print it out and bring to our next class! VENN DIAGRAM

English Colonies Spanish Colonies French Colonies Complete the Venn Diagram above in order to compare the three colonies. Make sure you write three (3) facts for each area.

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