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State Board of Education Overview of Structure, Roles, and Responsibilities Ben Rarick May 2017 Board Meeting Goals for presentation Help provide sense of history for SBE. Identify the key authorities in law. What are they? How did they come about? Do other states do it differently? Why? How? Look at some case study states What have been some key moments for SBE over the last 10 years?

What is possibly on the horizon; key moments of the future? Answer your questions/stimulate discussion for the Board. 2 Overview of Authorizing Statute RCW 28A.305.130 Provide advocacy and strategic oversight of public education. Provide leadership in the creation of a system that personalizes education. Promote achievement of the goals of basic education. Implement a standards-based accountability framework. Adopt performance goals in reading, writing, science and mathematics. Identify scores students must achieve to meet standard on statewide

assessments and obtain a certificate of academic achievement. Approve private schools. Articulate with early learning, higher education, workforce board to unify the work of the public school system. 3 Additional Powers and Duties Basic Education Program requirements and compliance RCW 28A.150.220 and .250 Waivers RCW 28A.305.140 and .141 High School Graduation Requirements RCW 28A.230.090 Accountability System (Achievement Index, Framework, Etc)

RCW 28A.657 Charter Schools Approve and exercise oversight of district authorizers RCW 28A.710. Educational System Health Set goals for educational system health Report on progress toward goals and recommend reforms. 4 Statutory Authority of the State Board of Education 5 SBE: Accomplishments, 2008 2012 2008 2009

Required third credit of math for high school diploma. Developed Core 24 graduation requirements framework. 2010 New definition of basic education adopted. (HB 2261). Established Required Action school and district accountability process (SB

6696). 2011 Required additional credit of English and half-credit of social studies. 2012 Developed online Achievement Index dashboard. Adopted criteria for evaluation of BEA waiver requests.

Convened the Achievement and Accountability Workgroup for input on accountability framework. SBE: Accomplishments, 2008 2012 Developed Achievement Index and made first Washington Achievement Awards. Adopted math and science standards. Completed high school transcript study.

Established competencybased crediting and outcomesbased accountability. 6 SBE: Accomplishments, 2013 2016 2013 2014 Statewide accountability system (HB 5329) 24-credit career and college ready diploma (SB 6552).

Revised Achievement Index to include student growth. Statewide CTE course equivalency models. (SB 6552). Adopted charter authorizer process and approved first district authorizer (Spokane). Achievement Index incorporated into unified accountability system.

First educational system health report (HB 5291) 2015 Established first cut scores for Smarter Balanced Assessments. Released three districts from Required Action status. 2016 Conducted 24-credit graduation workshops across the state. Convened, with OSPI,

a workgroup for accountability provisions of state plan under Every Student Succeeds Act. Received grant for policy work on deeper learning and career readiness from National Association of State Boards of Education. 7 How do these powers come into play? 8 Case Study: 3rd Credit of Math & Revision to Math Standards The 2007 Legislature gave the SBE one-time responsibilities to add a third credit of mathematics to graduation requirements and prescribe

the content of that credit (HB 1906) To implement the legislative directives, the Board: Consulted with mathematics advisory panel in OSPI on the new standards. Retained a national consultant to review and comment on proposed recommendations on revised math standards and curricula. Conducted extensive outreach on the new standards. Submitted a final report and recommendations to the SPI for implementation. Adopted rules adding a third credit of math to graduation requirements and specifying the content of the three credits. Source: 9 2007 memo on Meaningful High School Diploma & 3rd credit of math 10 Case Study: 24-Credit Graduation Requirements 2006 The Legislature directs SBE to develop and propose a revised definition of the purpose and expectations of a high school diploma. (HB 3098)

2009 Legislature amends the definition of basic education to include Instruction that provides students the opportunity to complete twenty-four credits for high school graduation. (HB 2261) 2010 After extensive work and public input, the SBE adopts but does not implement 24-credit Career-and College-Ready graduation requirements, as the Legislature has made adoption contingent on explicit funding in the state budget. 2014 Board revises original Core 24 Framework with an eye toward flexibility and less emphasis on a 4-year university pathway; adopts by resolution in January of 2014. 2014 Legislature passes SB 6552, directing the SBE to adopt rules to implement the new graduation requirements, with some changes. The Board adopts the rules later that year, amid some controversy. 11 Case Study: Basic Education Waivers (2012)

The Legislature originally delegated authority to the SBE in 1985 to grant waivers of basic education requirements at district request. As amended, the law required the SBE to adopt criteria to evaluate the need for the waiver or waivers. The SBE studied criteria for BEA waivers over several board meetings and considered multiple options. The Board received extensive input from educators and the public on rules on waivers of the 180-day school year requirement. The Board adopted rules on 180-day waivers in November 2012. 12 Case Study: Minimum scores on state assessments

2011 Legislature directs SBE to establish by the end of the 2014-15 school year the scores students must achieve on the ELA and math assessments to meet standard and earn a certificate of academic achievement. The scores established . . . for the purposes of earning a certificate of academic achievement may be different from the scores used for the purposes of determining a students career and college readiness. (HB 2115) 2014 - SBE states in rule that The state's graduation requirements should ultimately be aligned to the performance levels associated with career and college readiness, but that a transition will be needed to adapt to the increased rigor of Common Core State Standards and aligned assessments. 2015 SBE establishes first cut scores on Smarter Balanced Assessments for graduation, taking an equal impact approach as the state transitions to Common Core and the standard of career and college readiness for all. 13 Case Study: Achievement Index (2009 - present) 2009: SBE adopts by resolution an accountability framework, to include an index to

identify all schools and districts for continuous improvement. 2009: HB 2261 requires the SBE to develop an accountability index based on student growth and multiple indicators. 2010: Legislature directs SBE to develop a Washington Achievement Index to identify schools and districts for recognition, continuous improvement, or additional state support. (SB 6696) 2012: SBE convenes an Achievement and Accountability Workgroup to inform and advise the SBE on development of the revised index. 2013: SBE revises Achievement Index to include student growth data. 2014: SBE adopts the Achievement Index for the purpose of meeting state and federal accountability requirements.

2015: SBE revises weightings of indicators, makes other changes related to transition to Smarter Balanced assessments. 14 Do other states do it differently? Do Other States Do It Differently? How? Why? Some Case Studies 15 How Does Washingtons K-12 Governance System Compare? In recent years there has been a trend in the states toward fewer elected chief state school officers and more governor- or state board of education-appointed chiefs. Most of the elected state chiefs are to be found in the West and South. Chief State School Officers State Boards of Education Elected 13 9 Appointed by Governor

14 33 Appointed by State Board of Education 22 NA Mix of Appointed/Elected NA 3 Appointed by Legislature NA 2 Appointed by Governor and Legislature NA

1 None (MN, WI) NA 2 Data: Education Commission of the States, 2011, 2013. 16 State Boards of Education: Authority and Responsibilities No. of States State Board Established in Statute 22 State Board Established in Constitution 24 State Board Established in Statute and Constitution

1 (NY) State Board Has Authority for Teacher Licensure 32 State Board Has Authority for Standards Adoption 26 No State Board 2 (MN, WI) Source: National Association of State Boards of Education (NASBE), 2017. 17 Case Study: Indiana CSSO: Constitutional, Elected SBE: Statutory, Appointed, plus SPI

SBE Powers and Duties Establish the educational goals of the state, developing standards and objectives for local school districts. Assess attainment of the established goals. Assure compliance with established standards and objectives. Coordinate with higher education and workforce agencies. Make recommendations to the governor and legislature on the educational needs of the state, including financial needs. Provide for reviews to ensure validity and reliability of statewide assessment program. 18 Case Study: California CSSO: Constitutional, Elected SBE: Constitutional, Appointed SBE Powers and Duties Approve statewide academic standards.

Adopt curriculum frameworks and instructional materials. Consider requests to waive statutory and regulatory requirements. Adopt tests and set policies for the statewide assessment system. Authorize charter schools, and consider appeals of decisions by district authorizers to revoke a charter. Oversee the states compliance with federal laws, including ESSA. State Board is the State Education Agency (SEA) for federal purposes. Study the educational needs of the state. 19 Case Study: Wyoming CSSO: Constitutional, Elected SBE: Statutory, Appointed SBE Powers and Duties Work with the Department of Education to review and approve rigorous state assessments.

Prescribe state content and performance standards. Measure student performance and progress, including national comparisons. Establish high school graduation requirements, in consultation with local districts. Annually accredit K-12 schools. Review and decide on charter schools appeals. Review and approve requests by districts for alternative schedules. 20 Case Study: New Hampshire CSSO: Statutory SBE: Statutory, Appointed SBE Powers and Duties Regularly review all programs and activities of the Department of Education and make recommendations to the CSSO with regard to them. Advise the CSSO on department goals, information gathering, and other aspects of elementary and secondary education. Hear appeals on any dispute between individuals and school systems or the Department of Education.

Appoint members of the Professional Standards Board and other advisory bodies. 21 General Observations Authorizing statutes for SBEs borrow from each other. You tend to see the same clauses and phrases repeated. Membership varies widely, and Washington is a unique outlier in this way. Authority spheres are similar, but powers are quite different. Some are more advisory, whereas others wield formal power. Some wield power with the ability to approve/reject policies brought to them; others by actually developing & setting policy themselves.

Some write regulations (WAC) for particular sections of law. Others appear to review and approval rules for all sections of applicable law. Most all state boards review and approve academic standards. Except WA! State Boards are constantly under scrutiny nationwide! It tends to track election cycles. Arizona is my least favorite example. Delaware also. In states where the agency chief is elected, constitutionally-created, or both, (and when the board is not) a challenge is figuring out an appropriate balance of duties where the chief is not subordinate to the Board, but the Board has meaningful role/authority. How is the Chief dependent on the Board? How is the Board dependent on the Chief? Figuring this out is important to avoiding fundamental separateness which can foster misalignment. 22 What are some key moments around the corner? Re-setting the math cut score for the SBA graduation requirement for the Class of 2019.

Revising the Achievement Index for the next generation of Washington accountability. How will the Board lead on career readiness? How will the Board lead on student transitions? How will the Board lead on graduation requirements? Current assessment requirements are not built for the long haul. Most agree; changes are needed. 23 Contact Us Website: Blog: Facebook: Twitter: @wa_SBE

Email: [email protected] Phone: 360-725-6025 Web updates: 24 Appendix Last Section/Appendix Slides from Original Presentation (May) not in use for the Retreat 25 State Board of Education History Established by territorial legislature in 1877. Membership, duties reconstituted in different eras.

Last reconstituted in 2005-2006. State Board of Education in 1994 1994 2005-06 Reconstitution: Membership Change Previous membership: 11 members: One member from each of Congressional district (9 total), elected by local school boards; The SPI; One member elected by private schools. New membership: 16 members: Seven members appointed by the governor Five members elected by local school boards, three from western Washington, two from eastern Washington; The SPI One member elected by private schools.

How many SBE members are appointed vs. elected has always been major point of contention! WA SBE is unique in its membership composition. -ESSB 5732, C 497 L 05 Read the bill summary from 2005 here. 28 2005-06 Reconstitution: Powers and Duties Educator standards SBE duties for educator preparation and certification transferred to Professional Educator Standards Board (PESB). Facilities Duties for facilities planning, rule-making and allocation of funds transferred to SPI. Grad requirements Duties for high school graduation requirements retained, but standardized transcripts and

course equivalencies transferred to SPI. Goals & standards New SBE duties to adopt performance standards, in consultation with SPI, performance improvement goals, and performance standards for the Certificate of Academic Achievement. Advocacy & Strategic Oversight Purpose of SBE expanded to include advocacy and strategic oversight of public education and leadership in creation of a system that personalizes education for each student. (C 497 L 05; C 263 L 06.) 29 Case Study: Delaware CSSO: Statutory, Appointed SBE: Statutory, Appointed

SBE Powers and Duties Provide the CSSO with advice and guidance on policy. Provide guidance on initiatives which may be proposed by the CSSO. Recommend to the CSSO initiatives the Board believes would improve education. Provide the CSSO with advice and guidance on its budget requests. Provide the CSSO with guidance on implementation of the student achievement and statewide assessment program. Approve certain department rules and regulations. Note: Delaware was in the news this year for similar reasons law proposed to eliminate their authority, questioning of relationship with agency, etc. 30 State Board Key Roles (NASBE) The National Association of State Boards of Education identifies seven common areas of jurisdiction for state boards of education. How does Washingtons State Board stack up in each? Area of Jurisdiction WA SBE Setting statewide curricular standards

No Establishing high school graduation requirements Yes Determining qualifications for professional education personnel No Establishing state accountability and assessment programs Limited role Establishing standards for accreditation of school districts and teacher and administrator preparation standards No Implementing ESSA and administering federal assistance programs No Developing rules and regulations for administration of state programs Limited role 31 State Board sets lower bar on Common Core Tests 32 Newpaper clip[pings 33 More newspaper clippings 34

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