Preliminary Hsc Pdhpe

Preliminary Hsc Pdhpe

HSC PDHPE CQ2 DP2 CQ2 How can psychology affect performance? How can psychology affect performance? Students learn about: Students learn to: anxiety and arousal trait and state anxiety sources of stress optimum arousal explain the difference between anxiety and arousal in terms of

the effects on performance 2. anxiety and arousal Anxiety is an emotional response to a perceived threat. Arousal, on the other hand, can be defined as the emotional, mental or physiological activation required to produce a response. Anxiety reflects a persons feelings and is

a heightened level of emotion that causes physical and psychological discomfort. A person who is worried about an examination might have trouble sleeping. An athlete might have a fear of failing or a fear of being judged. 2. anxiety and arousal In such circumstances, the athlete might:

feel threatened be unable to think clearly exhibit physiological responses seize up suffer the choking phenomenon (the inability to perform to previous standards or expectations because of pressure). trait and state anxiety It is common to distinguish between trait anxiety and state anxiety.

Trait anxiety Trait anxiety (A-trait) is the athletes general predisposition to perceive a situation as threatening or nonthreatening. This is a personality trait. Those who display high levels of trait anxiety usually perceive more

situations as threatening than those who have low levels of trait anxiety. State anxiety State anxiety (A-state) refers to the emotional response of the athlete to a particular situation. This response might be fear, worry,

tension, nervousness or apprehension. A-state might be controlled by managing the athletes situation, whereas Atrait must be controlled by the athlete as it is exists within the athlete. Two important variables in performance are: the importance of the situation to the individual the uncertainty of the outcome of the situation trait and state anxiety Both these factors have a direct impact on state anxiety and trait anxiety.

The relationship between the individual and the situationand the effects of these on anxiety and performancehighlight the role and importance of personality and its impact on the aspiration of the performer. trait and state anxiety Athletes with high A-trait have an underlying tendency to

react in a certain way (with high levels of anxiety) when confronted with stressful information. In contrast, an athlete with low A-trait but high A-state will appraise the present situation first. The athlete will then make a judgment as to whether this particular situation is threatening. Athletes with high A-trait will probably become more anxious before a competition (and might experience acute illness) than will athletes with low A-trait. The athlete with high A-trait will also tend to demonstrate A-state reactions beyond that which is necessary, given the nature of the situation. A-state and Atrait can be measured using inventories or questionnaires. Athletes are scored on a continuum for each, depending on their responses. sources of stress

Stress is the non-specific response that the body makes to demands placed upon it. Stress can be good or bad, but the physiological reactions in the body are basically the same. When athletes compete, they might experience too much

stress (hyperstress), too little stress (hypostress), good stress (eustress) or bad stress (distress). Stress is very closely linked to state anxiety. sources of stress Stress can come from internal or external sources, which might or might not be under the direct control of the performer. Because individuals vary, what one person finds stressful, another might not.

sources of stress More experienced and skilled athletes use techniques to cope with stress before, during and after events. Methods used by performers to cope with sport-related stress

include: practice planning refocusing blocking out concentration anxiety and arousal control mental rehearsal. Some of these skills can also be transferred to everyday life. optimum arousal optimum arousal

Arousal levels and performance are directly linked to motivation. In terms of sports performance, arousal refers to the degree of energy release and the intensity of readiness of the performer. This varies on a continuum from deep sleep to high excitement. The arousal levels of athletes can be measured by heart rate, respiration, muscle tension, skin temperature and brain wave activity. Arousal has also been called drive, activation, readiness or excitation, and is a requisite for optimal sports performance. The level of arousal can be measured in relation to performance.

optimum arousal Attempts have been made to explain, theoretically, the relationship of arousal to performance. The first theory was Clark Hulls (1943) drive theory. This theory assumed a direct relationship between arousal and sports performance. This meant that the possibility of the desired response occurring increased with higher arousal levels. This theory is not viable for all sports and can be applied only to simple motor tasks, not to complex ones.

optimum arousal Another theory, the inverted U theory was suggested. According to this theory, for optimal performance to occur, the individual must attain a moderate level of arousal. Optimal doesnt mean maximal; too little or too much arousal leads to a decline in performance. This theory takes into account the complexity of the task, and is useful in many situations. However, it fails to explain why, how or when arousal affects performance. An example is an athlete whose high anxiety affects performance but whose drop in anxiety does not bring about improved performance, as the inverted U would suggest. Many factors other than anxiety will inhibit

performance, so decreasing anxiety will not always lead to a better performance. optimum arousal Explain why different sports require different levels of arousal for optimal performance to occur (see above). Alternative theories There are so many individual variations in anxiety level that measuring a performers optimal level of arousal is almost impossible, especially using just one theory (such as the

inverted U theory). Alternative theories need more research but might provide further explanation of optimal levels of arousal. Read over the following theories, but do not focus on these Zone of optimal functioning theory The zone of optimal functioning (ZOF), which was proposed by Yari Hanin in 1980, is one alternative theory. It suggests that a

simple formula can be applied to measure the optimal arousal level of performers. Catastrophe theory The catastrophe theory, proposed by John Fazey and Lou Hardy in 1988, also questions the inverted U theory by suggesting that the relationship between stress and performance is not symmetrical. That is, after an athlete reaches an optimal level of

arousal, if the athlete continues to be anxious and aroused his or her performance will decline dramatically. The theory addresses how performance is influenced by physiological and cognitive factors of arousal. It also notes that performance in sport is rarely predictable. Flow theory The flow theory, put forward

by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi in 1975, suggests that an optimal performance can be achieved when the performers mind is totally absorbed in the task being undertaken. The flow experience is an interaction between skill and the level of challenge. The flow experience is more likely to occur when a performer is highly skilled and personally challenged by the situation. Supporters of this theory use an inventory to determine the individuals flow state scale (FSS). Nine characteristics of the flow state, and also factors that facilitate its occurrence, have been identified.

Reversal theory The last of the alternative theories is the reversal theory (Michael Apter 1982). This theory places the athletes interpretation of arousal as central to explaining and predicting the effect of emotions on performance. The reversal theory contends that high arousal can be seen as either excitement (pleasant) or anxiety (unpleasant). Similarly, it contends that low arousal can be considered as

relaxation (pleasant) or boredom (unpleasant). Consider the example of a task that initially is seen as dangerous or risky and causes heightened arousal (anxiety) but, upon being mastered, elicits excitement. There has been a reversal in the emotional response to the task. Theories It is ultimately the responsibility of the athlete and coach to determine the optimal arousal level for competing in a particular event because these theories might not provide full explanations. These theories

might help to explain some responses, some of the time, but often individuals will need to determine for themselves the difference between feeling up and feeling uptight. Such responses will also vary from time to time, based on individual and environmental factors. Questions to complete

Explain how anxiety and arousal differ physiologically and psychologically. Identify the limitations of the inverted U theory. Describe the advice you would give to an underaroused athlete and to an over-aroused athlete. Identify some causes of state anxiety in sport. Describe four coaching strategies to reduce state anxiety.

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