Pearson BTEC Level 4 Higher National Certificate in

Pearson BTEC Level 4 Higher National Certificate in

Pearson BTEC Level 4 Higher National Certificate in Computing Unit 2: Networking 1 Examine networking principles

and their protocols. 2 Explain networking devices and operations. 3 Design efficient networked

systems. 4 Implement and diagnose networked systems. On completion of this unit a learner should: Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcome 2: Explain networking devices and operations 2.1 Networking Devices 2.2 Networking Software 2.3 Server Type 2.4 Server Selection 2.5 Workstation

Learning Outcome 2.1 Networking Devices Networking Devices A server is a computer designed to process request and deliver data to other computers over a local network or the Internet.

The function of a computer server is to store, retrieve and send computer files and data to other computers on a network. On a larger scale, the Internet depends on a large numbers of servers located around the world. Networking Devices Also known as Communicating Devices Are components used to connect

computers or other electronic devices together so that they can share files or resources like printers or fax machines. Devices used to setup a Local Area Network (LAN). Have a single purpose, securely transfer data as fast as they can Networking Devices Hub

Switch Router Repeater Modem Bridge

Hub Is a networking device which receiver signal from the source, amplifies it and send it to multiple destinations or computers Also known as Ethernet Hub It is a device which is used multiple devices like Computers, Servers to link to each other

and make them work as a single network segment. Hub (contd) Vary in speed in terms of data transfer rate. Utilizes Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) to control Media access.

Communicates in half-duplex mode where the chances of data collision are inevitable at most of the times. Hub (contd) Is a small box in rectangular shape which have multiple ports for connecting various device to it. It has a 4 to 24 ports used for connecting

various devices and peripherals to it. Hub Types of Hub Hubs can be divided into THREE (3) types: Passive Hub Active Hub Intelligent Hub

Passive Hub Works like a simple Bridge. It is used for just creating a connection between various devices. It does not have the ability to amplify or regenerate any incoming signal. It receivers signal then forwarded it to multiple devices.

Active Hub Is a hub which can amplify or regenerate the information signal. Has an advantage as it also amplifies the incoming signal as well as forward it to multiple device. Is also known as Multiport Repeater. It can upgrade the properties if incoming signal before sending them to destination.

Intelligent Hub Can perform tasks of both Active and Passive hub. It can also perform some other tasks like Bridging and routing. It also increases the speed and effectiveness of total network thus makes the performance of whole network fast and efficient.

Switch Is a small hardware device that centralizes communications among multiple connected devices within one Local Area Network (LAN) Is a device used to connect network segments or network devices. A telecommunication device that uses the packet switching to receive, process and forward data to the destination address.

Switch (contd..) Are the multiport network bridges that process and forward data at the data link layer (layer 2 of OSI model) It process data at the network layer known as layer 3 switches or multi-layer switches. Switch

Application of Switch A switch can manage the flow of data across the network. It plays an integral part in most modern Ethernet LANs. Mid to large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. Switches are also used in Small Office/ Home Office (SOHO) applications that typically uses

a single switch to access the various broadband services and the services like voice over Application of Switch (co ntd..) A switch is a device used in a computer network to physically connect the devices together Each network device is connected to a switch

is identified using a MAC address. Therefore, a switch is considered as a intelligent network hub. Switch can transfer data to any of the other devices at a time using half duplex mode or full duplex mode. Advantage of Switch The number of broadcast domains gets decreased

Switch is a hardware oriented It cost less compare to Router It helps in logical segmentation by supporting VLan. Disadvantage of Switch Vulnerable to security attacks like spoofing IP address or capturing of Ethernet Frames. Needs a proper designing and configuration if multicast packets are being handled

Are not as good as routers. Multilayer Switch Is a function performed by a multilayer switch. It brings the functions of a switch and a router together in one device. It is a device that can forward traffic that is in the same VLAN at Layer 2 and that same device has the ability to do inter-VLAN routing and forward traffic between VLANs at Layer 3.

Multilayer Switch Provide high-performance Layer 3 switching for routers and switches. It enables hardware-based Layer 3 switching to offload routers from forwarding unicast IP data packets over shared media networking technologies such as Ethernet. Also provides traffic statistics as part of its switching function which is used for identifying

traffic characteristics for administration, planning and troubleshooting. Router Is a device in computer networking that forwards data packets to their destinations, based on their address A device which connects different networksfrequently over a large distances. It takes information that arrives through your

broadband signal via a modem, decipher it and deliver it to other computer. Router The work a router does called Routing, which means the Router will choose the best route for the data packet so that you receive the information quickly. It contains a routing table in which all information about the address of connected

networks. Router operates in network layer of OSI model. Router Router How Router works: When data packets are transmitter over a network, they move through many Routers in their

journey from the source machine to the destination machine. Routers work with IP packets, meaning that it works at the level of the IP Protocol. Each router keeps information about its neighbors. This information includes the IP address and the Router This information is kept in a routing table, found

in all routers. When a packet of data arrives at a router, its header information is scrutinizes by the router. Based on the destination and source IP address of the packet, the router decides which neighbor it will forward it to. It chooses the route with the least cost, and forwards the packet to the first router on the route.

Advantage of Router Router limits the collision domain Router can function on LAN & WAN Router can connects different media & Architectures Router can determine best path or route for data to reach the destination Router can filter the broadcast Disadvantage of Router

Router is more expensive that Hub, Bridge & Switch Router only works with routable protocol Routing updates consume bandwidth Increase latency due to greater degree of packet filtering. Repeater Is a device that amplifies and restore the power of a signal being transmitted on the

network. It sends signals over long distances Helps computers maintain stronger wireless signals by taking from routers and remitting them. Attempt to preserve signal integrity and extend the distance over which data can safely travel. Repeater

Benefits of using a Repeater: It can improve wireless signal strength without having to move a computer or router - Placing a wireless repeater at some point between a computer to receive a stronger signal. It helps to reduce the impact of obstructions that may impact your wireless connection. - Physical objects can weaken wireless signals so we should place a repeater in a

location where few objects rest between it. Repeater Bridge Reads the outermost section of data on the data packet to determine the message destination. It reduces the traffic on other network segments, since it does not send all packets. Occurs at the data link layer of the OSI model, it

means the device cannot read IP address, it can only read the Physical Address of the packet. It forwards all broadcast messages. Bridge This networking device wont allow connection of networks with different architectures. Advantage of Bridge Bridges are simple and significant

They prevent unnecessary traffic from crossing onto other network segments Bridge can reduce the amount of network traffic on segments It also make it possible to isolate a busy network from no-so-busy network They can connect different network architectures like Ethernet and Token Ring Advantage of Bridge (co

ntd) Bridge have ability to look at the physical destination address of the frame and send the frame at the specific port. Bridge can filter the traffic, it increases throughput on a network. Disadvantage of Bridge Bridge are slower that Hubs and Repeaters because they examine each frames source and

destination addresses. Bridges do not have the ability to stop packets from being forwarded. When a bridge receives a frame with a Broadcast destination address, the Bridge will simply forward the frame out every one of its ports. A bridge can not make decisions about routes through the network.

Modem is a type of hardware device that converts between analog and digital data in real time for two-way network communication. The term is short for MOdulator DEModulator. This device convert digital data for transmission over analog telephone lines. The speed of modems was historically measured in baud but then converted into bits per second

(bps). Modem The traditional modems used on dialup networks convert data between the analog form used on telephone lines and the digital form used n computer. An external dial-up modem plugs into a computer and one end and telephone line on the other end.

Types of Modem External Internal Modem Modem PC Card External Modem This is the simplest type of modem to install

because you dont have to open the computer. Can connect with a cable to a computers serial port. The telephone line plugs into a socket on the rear panel of the modem. They have their own power supply where you can turn off the modem to break an online connection quickly without powering down the computer. With Modem, you can monitor your connection activity by watching the status lights.

Internal Modem Are being installed in the computer. Are more directly integrated into the computer system and therefore do not need any special attention. It will activated when you run a communications program and are turned off when you exit the program. It cost less than the external modems.

PC Card Are designed for portable computer. Size of a credit card and fit into the PC Card slot on notebook and handheld computers. Can be removed when the modem is not needed This device are like a combination of external and internal modems. How does PC Card works :

The PC card can be plugged directly into an external slot in the portable computer, so no cable is required other than the telephone line connection. The card is powered by the computer, which is fine unless the computer is battery-operated. Running a PC Card modem while the portable computer is operating on battery power drastically decreases the life of your batteries.

PC card modem Wireless Device Refer to any kind of communications equipment that does not require a physical wire for relaying information to another device. This type of device is using radio frequency signals or electromagnetic waves to communicate.

Wireless Device Common examples of wireless equipment: Cellular phones and pagers provide connectivity for portable and mobile applications, both personal and business. Global Positioning System (GPS) allows drivers of cars and trucks, captains of boats and ships, and

pilots of aircraft to ascertain their location anywhere on earth. Cordless computer peripherals cordless mouse is a common example; keyboard and printers can also be linked to a computer via wireless. Common examples of wireless equipment: Cordless telephone sets these are limited-range

devices. Home-entertainment-system control boxes the VCR control and the TV channel control are the most common examples. Remote garage-door openers one of the oldest wireless devices in common use by consumers. Usually operates at radio frequencies

Common examples of wireless equipment: Two-way radios this includes Amateur and Citizens Radio Service, as well as business, marine and military communications. Baby monitors these devices are simplified radio transmitter/ receiver units with limited range. Satellite television allows viewers in almost any

location to select from hundreds of channels Wireless LANs or Local Area Networks provide flexibility and reliability for business computer users. Common examples of wireless equipment: Cellular Phones GPS Wireless Mouse

and Keyboard Pager Common examples of wireless equipment: Cordless telephone sets Home-entertainment System Control Boxes

Remote garage Door Openers Two-way radio Common examples of wireless equipment: Wireless LAN Baby Monitors

Satellite television Access Point Is a station that transmits and receives data Also know as transceiver. It also acts as a communication hub for users of wireless device to connect to a wired LAN. Are important for providing heightened wireless security and for extending the physical range of

service a wireless user has access to. Access Point Access Point Wireless or Wired Wireless Access Point Is a device that connects a wireless (Wi-Fi) local network

to a wired (Ethernet) network. Are special-purpose communication devices on wireless local are networks (WLANs) Mainstreams of WAPs support Wi-Fi and are most commonly used to support public Internet hotspots and other business networks where larger buildings and spaces need wireless coverage. Access Point Wireless

The access points receives data by wired Ethernet and converts 2.4 Gig Hz wireless signal. It sends and receives wireless traffic to and from nearby wireless clients. An access point can be used in conjunction with a router to extend the wireless coverage around your home/business. Using wireless halves the bandwidth because it is a half duplex. It means that either the router or extender may transmit but not the same time.

Access Point Wireless Currently the most common wireless access points are based on the 802.11b protocol. This provides a maximum theoretical throughput of 11 Mbps. Speeds of 6 to 8 Mbps are considered excellent. Access Point Wireless

Advantages of Wireless Access Points Access when you need it -The ubiquity of public Internet access makes it easy to get online when you need it, no matter where you are. Cost and Convenience -Many locations offer Internet access either free of charge or for a small fee such as the purchase of a coffee.

Access Point Wireless Disadvantages of Wireless Access Points Privacy -Locations that offer Internet access can be crowded. Avoid visiting websites concerning subjects you consider personal or private when youre in a public place. Security

-Public computers are frequently lousy with viruses and other malware. Before connecting to a wireless hot spot, ensure your anti-virus and firewall software are up to date. Firewall Is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and decides whether to allow or block specific based on a defined set of security

rules. It acts as a demarcation point or traffic cop in the network, as all communication should flow through it and it is where traffic is granted or rejected access. It enforce access controls through a positive control model which states that only traffic defined in the firewall policy is allowed onto the network. Firewall

This is how firewall works: Types of Firewall Packet Filtering -Firewall makes decisions based on the source and destination address and ports in IP packets. - can also be performed by other network devices such as routers. - this works well for a small networks but when applied to larger networks can quickly become

very complex and difficult to configure. -This type of firewall has a little or no logging capability, making it difficult determine if its been attacked. Types of Firewall Proxy -The more sophisticated proxy or application layer firewalls deal with network traffic by passing all

packets through a separate proxy application that examines data at an application level. -It does not allow a direct connection between your network and the Internet, but it accepts requests and executes them on behalf of the user. - It enables to set a firewall to accept or reject packets based on addresses, port information Types of Firewall

Hybrid -Packet-based proxy and stateful inspection used to be distinctly different types of firewalls. -Mostly modern firewall devices are hybrid. Host Intrusion Detection Syst ems (HIDS) Is one of the methods of security management

for computers and networks. Refers to intrusion detection that takes place on a single host system. It involves installing an agent on the local host that monitors and reports on the system configuration and application activity. Host Intrusion Detection Syst ems (HIDS)

The common abilities of HIDS systems are log analysis, event correlation, integrity checking, policy enforcement, rootkit detection and alerting. Is frequently deployed in monitor only mode initially. With this, it enables the administrator to create a baseline of the system configuration and activity.

Content Filtering Also known as Information Filtering. This helps decide which content is acceptable for viewing and access through a given system. Is used by corporations as part of Internet firewall computers and also by home computer owners. With this, it can help control the content on your network and know how your resources are

being Content Filtering Content Filtering consist of the following: Anti free Mail Anti Game Instant Message Recording Anti Instant Message Anti VoIP Anti P2P

File Filter Protocol Filter Block Websites Content Filtering Anti Free Mail This blocks access to official free mail providers such as Hotmail, Yahoo Mail, Gmail and etc.. The use of free email provides can often

indicate employees checking their private email during working hours. Anti Game It is often a tempting to play network games such as Counterstrike or other addictive games during work hours. Content Filtering Instant Message Recording This provides monitoring of the usage of MSN

Instant Messaging to see if your employees are communicating with your business customers or with their friends. Anti Instant Message If your security policy disallows all sorts of instant messengers such as Yahoo messengers, Google Chat, Skype Chat and etc.. Content Filtering

Anti VoIP This allows the blocking services of Skype, Yahoo Talk, Google Talk, VoIP usage and etc.. Anti P2P This will block the P2P file sharing services to prevent programs that are often used to share copyrighted materials such as music or movies. File Filter This option blocks downloading of specific file formats such as .exe, .zip or .rar files

Content Filtering Protocol Filter This allows blocking of specific protocols in your network. Example: POP3 traffic is forbidden since this is often used by employees to check their private email in working hours. Block Websites

This allows blocking of websites of your choice. Load Balancer Is a device that acts as a reverse proxy and distributes networks or application traffic a number of servers. Used to increase capacity and reliability of applications.

It divides the amount of work that a computer has to do between two or more computers so that more work gets done in the same amount of time Load Balancer Can be implemented with hardware, software or a combination of both. Are generally group into two (2) categories:

Layer 4 Layer 7 Load Balancer Layer 4 Act upon data found in network and transport layer protocols (IP, TCP, FTP and UDP) Layer 7 Distribute requests based upon data found in application layer protocols such as HTTP.

VPN Concentrator The most advanced encryption and authentication techniques available. Is a type of networking device built specifically for creating and managing VPN communication infrastructures. They were specifically developed to address the requirements for a purpose-built, remoteaccess VPN device.

VPN Concentrator This type of concentrator is typically used for creating site-to-site VPN architecture. It can: Establish and configure tunnels Authenticate users Assign tunnel/IP address to users Encrypt and decrypt data Ensure end-to-end delivery of data Learning Outcome

2.2 Networking Software Networking Software Is a foundational element for any network. It helps administrators deploy, manage and monitor a network. Is not the same as software applications. It exposes the inner-workings of the network to administrators, while software applications

enable end users to perform specific tasks. Networking Software Is invisible to end users because it simply used to facilitate the access those users have to network resources in a seamless way. This allows the multiple devices such as desktops, laptops, mobile phones, tablets and other systems to connect to one another.

Networking Software The basic functionality of network software includes: User management enables administrators to add or remove users from the network. File management allows administrators to define the location of data storage and user access to that data.

Networking Software Client Software Is used to refer to the software that acts as the interface between the client computer and the server. Software that resides in a users desktop or laptop computer or mobile device. Networking Software

Client Software For example Microsoft Outlook is a client software which is used to check email. iTunes, MySQL, Google Chrome, AVG, Adobe Photoshop, MS Excel, MS Word and etc. are the other examples of Client Software. Networking Software

Server Software Is a type of software that is designed to be used, operated and managed on a computing server. Is primarily built to interact with a servers hardware infrastructure. Including the processor, memory storage, input/ output and other communication ports.

Networking Software Server Software Server Software are classified into various forms: Web server software Application server software Database server software Server Software Web Server Software

Is a program that uses Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to serve the files that form Web pages to users in response to their requites which are forwarded by their computers HTTP clients. All computers that host Web sites must have Web server programs such as Apache. Server Software

Application Server Software Is a server program in a computer in a distributed network that provides the business logic for an application program. Is frequently viewed as a part of a three-tier application, consisting of a graphical user interface (GUI) server, an application (business logic) server and a database and transaction

server. Server Software Application Server Software Three (3) tier application: 1. A first-tier, front-end, Web browser-based graphical user interface usually at a personal computer or workstation. 2.

A middle-tier business logic application or set of applications, possible on a local area network or intranet server. 3. A third-tier, back-end, database and transaction server, sometimes on a mainframe or large server.

Server Software Database Server Software Is the back-end portion of a database application, following the traditional clientserver model. May also refer to the physical computer used to host the database. Networking Software Client Operating System Is the system that works within computer

desktops and various portable devices or the control program in a users machine. This system is different from centralized servers because it only supports a single user. Also knows as desktop operating system Networking Software Types of Operating Systems: Single-tasking systems -Performs one task at a time.

-It is an instance of a software program currently being executed. -Example is an addition operation or a print operation. Networking Software Types of Operating Systems: Multitasking system -Can run several task simultaneously and allows programs from multiple users to share in the use

of the CPU and other hardware. -the swapping of task occurs quickly that the operations are transparent to the user. Networking Software Types of Operating Systems: Single-user system -Used by one user at a time on one machine at a time. Multiuser systems

-Supports many simultaneous user sessions on one computer Networking Software Types of Operating Systems: Multiprocessing systems -Some computers have multiple processors (CPUs). If so, different programs might run on the different processors.

Networking Software Client Operating Software Most popular Client Workstation Operating Systems are the following: Windows XP Windows 7 Windows 8/ Windows 8.1 RedHat Enterprise Linux Desktop SuSE Desktop Ubuntu Desktop

LinuxMint Networking Software Server Operating System Offers its services to a group of Network Client devices. Has more features and processing capabilities compared with the client computers operating system.

Is in charge to balance the needs of all users accessing the server rather than giving priority to any one of them. Server Operating Systems Prominent features of Server Operating Systems: Support port interfaces for Ethernet and other

protocols Manage traffic coming into and out of the machine Provide authentication, authorization and logon filters Furnish name and directory services Support file, print, web service and backup mechanisms for data (fault tolerance systems discussed earlier)

Server Operating Systems Most popular Server Operating Systems: Novell NetWare Microsoft Windows Server 2003 Microsoft Windows Server 2008 Microsoft Windows Server 2012 UNIX Linux Networking Software

Firewall Is a program that acts as a barrier to keep destructive elements out of a network or specific computer. Is configured with specific criteria to block or prevent unauthorized access to a network. They work as filters for your network traffic by blocking incoming packets of information that are seen as unsafe.

Networking Software Firewall Is used to protect both home and corporate networks. It filters all information coming through the Internet to your network or computer system. The main purpose is to separate a secure area from a less secure area and to control communications between the two.

Networking Software Firewall Prevents unwanted access to the computer over a network connection by identifying and preventing communications over risky ports. Firewall Common Firewall Filtering Techniques Packet Filter

- looks at each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. - is fairly effective and transparent to users, but it is difficult to configure. Application Gateway - applies security mechanisms to specific applications such as FTP and Telnet servers. Firewall

Common Firewall Filtering Techniques Circuit-level Gateway -applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection is established. Once the connection has been made, packets can flow between the hosts without further checking. Proxy Server - intercepts all messages entering and

leaving the network. - it effectively hides the true network addresses. Learning Outcome 2.3 Server Type Server As mentioned in LO2: Networking devices; A

server is a computer designed to process request and deliver data to other computers over a local network or the Internet. It can perform a variety operations, depending on the specific vendor product and the software loaded on the machine. Types of Server Web Server

Combination Server File Server Virtualisation Database Server

Terminal Services Center Web Server Serves static content to a Web browser by Loading a file from a disk and serving it across the network to a users web browser. Is a computer where the web content is stored.

Web Server Web server respond to the client request in the following: Sending the file to the client associated with the requested URL. Generating response by invoking a script and communicating with database.

Web Server File Server Is a computer who is responsible for the central storage and management of data to the other computers on the same network can access the files. Stores network users data files. It allows users to share information over a

network without having to physically transfer files by floppy diskette or some other external storage device. File Server It may be a ordinary PC that handles requests for files and sends them over the network. It can be a network-attached storage (NAS) device that also serves as a remote hard disk drive for other computer which allows anyone

on the network to store files as if their own hard drive. Database Server Manages common databases for the network, handling all data

storage, database management and requests for data. It provides other computers with services related to accessing and retrieving data from a database. Database Server

Can be access through an application: Front end - e.g phpMyAdmin Back end -from the command prompt -e.g. myisamchk or mysql Database Server

The user can access the data by executing a query using a query language specific to the database. Combination Server Use for small applications all the separate server functions can be combined on one system. For a distributed solution or for greater

capacity, spreading the functions on different servers is a better idea. Combination Server In a 2 server configuration, one server would be front end, the other server would handle the application and database functions. For greater robustness and redundancy more

than one server for each function can be used. Many different combinations are possible, and the best solution will be determined for each customer. Virtualisation Known as Virtual Server or Web Server A server that shares computer resources with other virtual servers. Is a server at someone elses location that is

shared by multiple Web site owners so that each owner can use and administer it as though they had complete control of the server. Virtualisation Advantage of Virtual Server Virtualisation Disadvantage of Virtual Server

Terminal Services Center Is a hardware device or server that provides terminals with a common connection point to a local or wide area network. It provides the ability to host multiple, simultaneous client sessions on the server. Terminal Services

Center The use of a terminal server means that each terminal doesnt need its own network interface card or modem The connection resources inside the terminal server are usually shared dynamically by all attached terminals Terminal Services Center

The diagram describes the Terminal Services architecture components Learning Outcome 2.4 Server Selection Server Selection Cost Purpose

Operating system requirement Cost Have server platforms aimed at the small business user. Find a server at the right price for your business When you select a server, its important to match the needs of your business. And make sure you are not paying for anything you

wont utilize. Purpose Choosing the right server for your If it can manage to handle multiple needs. workloads If can work both hardware and Software

Has a better data security Scalable Operating System requirement Windows Server is the most popular server operating system. Assisting the setting up of server with deploying applications.

E.g. Red Hat, SUSE or Ubuntu Learning Outcome 2.5 Workstation Workstation - Hardware A computer designed for technical or scientific application To be used by one person at a time

Commonly connected to a local area network The term workstation has been used loosely to refer to everything from a mainframe computer terminal to a PC connected to a network Workstation Companies that produce workstation: SUN Microsystems

SILICON Graphics Hewlett-Packard IBM Apollo Computer Workstation Memory Is where the computer stores a program and data while the program is

running It commonly known as Random Access Memory or RAM Memory Random Access Memory (RAM) is a volatile type memory that is used for temporary storage while the progra m is running.

Storage is a type of memory that can hold data for long periods of time, even when there is no power to the computer. Stores large amount of data on an electro-magnet ically charged surface or set of surfaces. The most common storage device is the Disk Dri ve or Hard Disk.

Storage Hard Disk is a enclosed storage device used to store the operating system, user files and progra ms of a computer Processor Is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a

computer. Processor CPU or Central Processing Unit is part of the computer that actually runs th e programs. This is where most of computers calculation take place. is the most important element of a computin g system.

Is the brain of the computer. Commonly referred to as the microprocessor. Processor CPU Processor CPU or Central Processing Unit There are two typical components of a CPU:

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) - Component which performs arithmetic and logical operations. Control Unit (CU) - Component which extracts instructions from memor y and decodes and executes them, calling on the AL U when necessary.

Input Device Is a component of computer that collects t he data and sends it to the computer. Example: Keyboard Mouse Microphone

Output Device Is any data the computer produces from th e input device. output information from the computer. Common output device is a Monitor. Output Device Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

LCD monitor Network Interface Card Can also be called as Ethernet card and ne twork adapter Allows a computer to connect to the exterior. Network Card

There are TWO (2) categories of network cards: Internal network card External network card Internal Network Card A network card that looks like a printed circuit board with some objects attached

or glued to it. External Network Card A network card that can be used or installe d externally. Can be done using USB. Network Cable Is used to connect computers Can carry much more data per second and

more secure. Used to connect one network device to other network devices or to connect two or more computers to share printer scanner et c. Network Cable Uses RJ-45 connectors at each end. -Twisted-Pair Network Cables Straight-through Cable

Crossover Cable Rollover Cable Network Cable Network Cable Twisted-Pair Network Cables Straight-through Cable Used to connect different devices Network Cable

Network Cable Twisted-Pair Network Cable s Rollover Cable used to connect the comput er and the switch or router s console port THANK YOU

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Bridge https://www.boddunan.com/articles/computers-techno logy/34-hardware-a-troubleshooting/8688-bridges-a-itstypes.html http://www.comptechdoc.org/independent/networking /guide/netdevices.html Modem https://www.slideshare.net/111gaurav/ch-5network-de vices?qid=90087f7a-a3c4-42c4-97f3-606e923ffd7d&v= &b=&from_search=1 Wireless Devices

http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/definiti on/wireless http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-wireless-device.ht m https://www.slideshare.net/chetansk/wireless-device-a Reference Access Point - wireless https://www.lifewire.com/definitions-of-wap-816548

http://www.linksys.com/us/r/resource-center/what-is-a -wifi-access-point/ https://kb.netgear.com/235/What-is-a-wireless-accesspoint?cid=wmt_netgear_organic http://techin.oureverydaylife.com/advantages-disadva ntages-wireless-internet-access-points-cyber-cafes-431 7.html Access Point - wired http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/54758/wire d-access-point http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/answer/What

-is-the-difference-between-wired-and-wireless-access-p oints Reference Firewall http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/security/firewa lls/what-is-a-firewall.html https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/safety/pc-security/fir ewalls-whatis.aspx

https://www.paloaltonetworks.com/cyberpedia/what-is -a-firewall http://www.blackbox.co.uk/gb-gb/page/28186/Resourc es/Technical-Resources/black-box-explains/Security/Typ es-of-Firewall/ HIDS https://www.sans.org/security-resources/idfaq/what-isa-host-intrusion-detection-system/1/24 http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/HIDS-N IDS

Reference Content Filter https://www.secpoint.com/what-is-content-filtering.ht ml https://www.techopedia.com/definition/14314/content -filtering http://searchsecurity.techtarget.com/definition/conten t-filtering Load balancer

https://f5.com/glossary/load-balancer http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/loa d-balancing VPN Concentrator https://www.techopedia.com/definition/30748/vpn-con centrator http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/answer/Howdoes-the-VPN-concentrator-work Reference

Networking software https://www.sdxcentral.com/sdn/definitions/networkin g-software/ Client Software http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/39797/clie nt-software https://techterms.com/definition/client http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/s/software.htm Server Software https://www.techopedia.com/definition/23735/server-s

oftware Reference Web Server http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Web-server https://www.slideshare.net/webhostingguy/web-server -hardware-and-software?qid=248cb4a7-acf2-4d14-aaa 5-c1788c2e0bca&v=&b=&from_search=1 Database Server https://www.techopedia.com/definition/441/databaseserver

Client operating system http://www.certiology.com/tech-terms/what-is/client-o perating-system.html http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/client+op erating+system http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-client-operating-s ystem.htm http://www.omnisecu.com/basic-networking/client-ope Reference

server operating system http://www.omnisecu.com/basic-networking/client-ope rating-systems-and-network-operating-systems-nos.ph p Firewall http://www.pctools.com/security-news/what-does-a-fir ewall-do/ http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/F/firewall.html http://whatismyipaddress.com/firewall

Types of server http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/s/server.htm http://www.webopedia.com/quick_ref/servers.asp web server https://www.tutorialspoint.com/internet_technologies/ web_servers.htm Reference file server

http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/fileserver https://www.sqa.org.uk/e-learning/HardOSEss04CD/pa ge_33.htm database server https://www.sqa.org.uk/e-learning/HardOSEss04CD/pa ge_33.htm http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/d/database-ser ver.htm combination http://www.comsys.net/technology/speechframe/serv

er-types.html Reference Virtual http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/definition/virt ual-server terminal https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc755399 (v=ws.10).aspx

http://searchvirtualdesktop.techtarget.com/definition/ terminal-server Server Selection - Cost http://www.techradar.com/how-to/computing/servers/ how-to-choose-the-right-server-for-your-business-10924 68 https://hostandstore.com/10-things-to-consider-whenbuying-a-server-for-business/ Reference Purpose and Operating System requirements

http://www.techrepublic.com/blog/10-things/10-things -to-keep-in-mind-when-purchasing-a-new-server/ http://www.pcworld.com/article/251993/how_to_choos e_a_server_for_your_small_business.html http://www.techradar.com/how-to/computing/servers/ how-to-choose-the-right-server-for-your-business-10924 68 https://hostandstore.com/10-things-to-consider-whenbuying-a-server-for-business/ Workstation http://smallbusiness.chron.com/desktop-pc-vs-workst

ation-47069.html https://redshift.autodesk.com/pc-versus-workstation/ https://www.slideshare.net/911119/workstation-hp-wo rkstation?qid=9856ddc9-1f6a-4b5a-8339-2a389342753 d&v=&b=&from_search=5

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