CLINICAL METHODS IN DIAGNOSIS OF POAG OPTIC DISC 1.2-1.4 million axons/ 5000 loss/year 10% Magnocellular 90% ParvoSIZE AND SHAPE
DD: 1.5mm Surface: 2.1-2.8mm2 (/4xHDxVD) AGE: no change after 3-10 years RACE: African>Asian>Mexican>Caucasian REFRACTIVE ERROR:independent [5-+5DS] Positive correlation to rim and cup size
Vertically oval (VDmax>HDmin by 10%) Abnoral shape or tilted: corneal astigmatism- amblyopia RIM SIZE AND SHAPE Related to disc size (+) ISNT rule (vert. oval disc/ Horizontal oval cup)
Positive correlation to ret. arteriole diameter IT-ST-HT- IN-SN (predilection, mainly DIFFUSE loss) ST: sharp border cup-rim IT: some sloping (but NFL normal) Pallor: ? Non-glaucomatous (increased cup size)
OPTIC DISC CUP Increases with disc size Horizontally oval Depth: with disc size (deepest: JPOAG, Shallowest: high myopic type of POAG)- negative correlation to PPA CD RATIO
H>V hence H/V>1.0 but in early to medium G <1.0 Normal range:0.0-0.9 Independent of optic media magnification HCD/VCD: independent of cup and disc size RNFL
Ganglion cells axons+astrocytes+ Muller cell processes Visibility: unevenly distributed/ with age IT>ST>SN>IN>S>I>HT>HN Correlates with rim thickness, retinal artery caliber and foveolar location Sandwich arrangment
Red free/ wide beam Achromatic white light Clinical examination Direct Indirect
Slit lamp ophthalmoscope ophthalmoscope Red-free No stereo- Young children
Uncooperative High myopes Opacities 90D 78D
60D FCL DISC CHANGES IN POAG GENERALIZED Large cup
Cup asymmetry Progressive in cup size Saucerisation FOCAL Notching Vertical elongation
Cupping of rim margin Regional pallor Splinter haemorrhage( specificity, early-med advanced, IT-ST, Progression, NTG) LESS SPECIFIC
Exposed lamina cribrosa Nasal displacement Baring of circumlinear vessels/ constriction of arterioles PP crescent (spatial correlation with NRR loss) Shunt vessels of optic disc (advanced stage) RNFL CHANGES
Focal defects wedge shaped (disc border-broad base to temporal raphe) 20%, always pathologic but not pathognomonic v: from early to medium advanced G and very advanced Associated with notching, haem, PPA in that sector/NTG 50% loss of thickness: visible
Diffuse (commoner, more difficult to see) Sequence of sectors regarding RNFL visibility Retinal vessels( clearer- sharper) RECORDING OF FINDINGS 1. CD ratio: poor description
The ASU College of Nursing & Health Innovation New Academic and Research Programs New Personnel New Facilities New Vision Our Phase 1 and 2 Buildings at the Downtown Phoenix Campus Newly Integrated Health Promotion Programs Exercise and Wellness BS MS...
The total expenditure of people with health conditions and impairments - and their travelling companions - on tourism in England is a staggering £12.1billion a year. In 2014, one in five (20 per cent) of tourism day trips in England...
Asymptotic Freedom causes running of as(m) Soft Scale small m: as(m) ~ 1 Hard Scale large m: as(m) < 1 Perturbative QCD (pQCD) Hard scale Convergence Non-perturbative QCD Soft scale No convergence In practice m is Q2 or ET See...
PUHSD - Common Core Integrated Mathematics ... 2014-2015 Integrated Math 1 /Math A Geometry Algebra 2 AP Stats Trig/Pre-Calc AP Calc AB/BC Algebra 1 Placement Test College Readiness Math Schedule Choice - Class of 2018 2015 - 2016 8th Grade...
(Ewell, 2001) Types of Measures Direct Measures- provide clear and compelling evidence of what students are learning Course-embedded assessments, including written work and presentations scored using a rubric Scores on locally designed tests and competency exams accompanied by test "blueprints"...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!