Riset in Taxation Agenda Taxation in Indonesia Research

Riset in Taxation Agenda Taxation in Indonesia Research

Riset in Taxation Agenda Taxation in Indonesia Research in Taxation Paper Discussion 2 Taxation In Indonesia

Pengertian Pajak Prof. Dr. Rochmat Soemitro, S.H iuran rakyat kepada kas negara berdasarkan undangundang (yang dapat dipaksakan) dengan tidak mendapat jasa timbal (kontraprestasi), yang langsung dapat ditunjukkan dan yang digunakan untuk membayar pengeluaran umum (Dasar-dasar hukum pajak dan pajak pendapatan 1990:5) 4 Definisi Pajak Dipungut berdasarkan undang-undang Tidak menunjukkan adanya kontraprestasi Dipungut negara baik pemerintah pusat dan daerah

Diperuntukkan pengeluaran pemerintah public investment Mempunyai tujuan lain reguler 5 Mengapa Belajar Pajak ?? Kewajiban Individu Pertumbuhan ekonomi (Makro) PAJAK

Kewajiban Perusahaan (AK) Penerimaan Negara (ASP) 6 Pajak dalam Laporan Keuangan Laporan posisi keuangan Laporan laba rugi Arus kas

7 Pajak dalam Laporan Keuangan Catatan atas Laporan keuangan 8 Ilustrasi Pajak Perusahaan LABA RUGI Laba sebelum pajak xxx Pajak kini (current tax) (xxx) Pajak tangguhan (deferred tax) xxx Laba tahun bjln dari operasi dilanjutkan

Kerugian/pendapan operasi dihentikan Laba tahun berjalan xxx Penghasilan komprehensif lain xxx Pajak penghasilan terkait (xxx) Total laba komprehensif xxx Laba yang dapat diatribusikan kepada: Pemilik entitas induk xxx Kepentingan non pengendali xxx xxx xxx

NERACA Aset Pajak Tangguhan xxx atau Liabilitas Pajak Tangguhan xxx 9 Pajak dalam APBN 2018 10 Pertumbuhan Penerimaan Pajak Penerimaan Pajak Dalam Triliun Rp Pertumbuhan per tahun

Tax Ratio Arti sempit: hanya pajak saja Arti luas: termasuk SDA Migas dan minerba 11 Komposisi Penerimaan Pajak APBN 2017 12 Komposisi Pajak dan Tax Amnesty 13

Pajak Perusahaan Dipotong PPh 23 atas penghasilan jasa Penghasilan Beban yang dapat dikurangkan Penghasilan kena pajak X tarif pajak Pajak terutang 1thn fiskal Kredit pajak Angsuran pajak (PPh25) Dipotong pihak lain (22,23) Pajak luar negeri (24) Pajak kurang/lebih bayar (29/28

Badan Memotong PPh 21 atas gaji, PPh 23 atas jasa PPN atas penyerahan barang/jasa PBB Meterai BPHTB Pajak Daerah Lapor

KPP Setor Kas negara 14 Perbedaan Pajak dan Akuntansi -1 PSAK UndangUndang AKUNTANSI PAJAK PERBEDAAN

Permanen Penelitian: Book tax Gap Eff Tax Rate Temporer Pajak Tangguhan: Aktiva/utang Beban/Pendapatan 15 UU PAJAK PENGHASILAN (UU 36/2008) Perubahan keempat dari UU 7/1983

Subyek Pajak Obyek Pajak Obyek; bukan obyek; pengurang dan bukan pengurang Cara Menghitung Pajak Tarif, struktur modal, harga transaksi, revaluasi Pelunasan pajak dalam Tahun Berjalan PPh 21; 22; 23; 24; 25 Perhitungan pajak akhir tahun PPh 28; PPh 29 16

Subjek Pajak Pasal 2 Ayat (1 dan 1a) Orang Pribadi (OP) Warisan yang belum terbagi sebagai satu kesatuan, bersifat menggantikan yang berhak. Badan Bentuk usaha tetap (BUT), merupakan subyek pajak yang perlakuan pajaknya dipersamakan dengan subyek pajak badan. 17

Definisi Penghasilan Pasal 4 Ayat (1) Merupakan setiap tambahan kemampuan ekonomis yang: - Diterima atau diperoleh wajib pajak. - Berasal dari Indonesia maupun dari luar Indonesia. - Dapat dipakai untuk konsumsi atau untuk menambah kekayaan wajib pajak. Dengan nama dan dalam bentuk apapun 18

UU PPN & PPnBM (UU 42/2009) Perubahan keempat dari UU 8/1983 Pengukuhan pengusaha kena pajak Kewajiban melaporkan usaha, memungut dan menyetor dan melaporkan pajak terutang Obyek Pajak Tarif dan Cara Menghitung Pajak Saat dan tempat terutang Laporan Perhitungan pajak Ketentuan Khusus - pemungut 19 KETENTUAN UMUM TATA CARA PERPAJAKAN FISKUS

WAJIB PAJAK c Pembukuan/ Pencatatan c Pendaftaran (NPWP-NPPKP) Pemeriksaa n Penetapan (SKP)

Keberatan Pembayaran (SSP) Banding Pelaporan (SPT) BPP MA Kasasi 20

Pembukuan dilakukan Berdasarkan Standar Akuntansi Indonesia Pernyataan Standar Akuntansi Keuangan - PSAK Standar Akuntansi Keuangan Entitas Tanpa Akuntabilitas Publik signifikan - SAK-ETAP Standar Akuntansi Entitas Mikro Kecil Menengah - SAK EMKM Standar Akuntansi Syariah SAK Syariah Standar Akuntansi Pemerintahan SAP PP 71 tahun 2010 IFRS hanya diadopsi PSAK full 2012. Tahun 2013 dilakukan revisi standar dan ditambahkan standar baru 65, 66, 67, 68 yang efektif pada 2015. Pada 2015 dikeluarkan PSAK 69 Agrikultur dan revisi beberapa standar. Pada tahun 2016 dikeluarkan PSAK 70 dan PSAK 71 & PSAK 72. Tahun 2017 PSAK 73 efektif berlaku pada 2020

SAK ETAP dikeluarkan tahun 2010, dan 2016 dikeluarkan SAK EMKM Pada 26 Mei 2016: Revisi PSAK 108 Akuntansi Transasi Asuransi Syariah dan PSAK 101 LK Syariah 21 Research in Taxation Riset pajak di Indonesia Kebijakan perpajakan : Kepatuhan WP terhadap peraturan pajak Tax gap = antara potensi pajak dengan jumlah pajak yang telah masuk baik dari sisi obyek maupun subyek Pengenaan pemotongan pajak

Implikasi kebijakan perpajakan Tax amnesty, Revaluasi aset Reformasi pajak: E-filling; E-billing TP Doc Pajak dan perekonomian Trend Penerimaan pajak Tarif pajak dan kompetisi ekonomi 23 Riset Perusahaan Pengungkapan Akuntansi Pajak penghasilan Pengaruh pajak terhadap cost of debt and capital

Ketaatan perusahaan memenuhi kewajiban pajak Pajak dalam laporan keuangan book tax difference; earning management; pajak tangguhan. Tax management, tax avoidance, tax evasion Pajak internasional transfer pricing, heaven countries, thin capitalization Book tax different: Penyebab Time & Permanent (tax planning) aset tetap, foreing operation, debt Potensi rekonsiliasi fiskal untuk earning management. Dampak Book tax gap terhadap persistensi laba, nilai perusahaan. 24

Perilaku Penghindaran pajak (persepsi, laporan keuangan) Faktor yang mempengaruhi penghindaran pajak Penelitian experiment terkait perilaku penghindaran pajak Ketaatan pajak Faktor yang mempengaruhi etika, kepercayaan pada pemerintah, religuisitas. Etika dalam perpajakan data primer 25

Penelitian Pajak Penelitian pajak sebelum pertengahan 1980 menurut Shackelford dan Shevlin (2001) dikategorikan menjadi: legal research, mengevaluasi efek pajak pada transaksi exogenous, dan biasanya dipublikasikan pada jurnal hukum; dan policy studies, mengevaluasi distribusi atau efisiensi efek pajak, biasanya dipublikasikan di jurnal akuntansi publik. Riset banyak dijumpai dalam jurnal akuntansi seperti TAR, JAR, JAE. Riset pajak bersifat multidisipliner sehingga dikaitkan dengan makro ekonomi, perilaku, kebijakan publik National Tax Journal, Journal of Public Econmics, Journal of Accounting and Public Policy 26

Penelitian Pajak Paper pajak dalam tiga jurnal akuntansi terkemuka. 27 Klasifikasi Penelitian Pajak Klasifikasi penelitian pajak menurut Shevlin (1999) Riset kebijakan bagaimana pajak meningkatkan aktivitas ekonomi, mendistribusikan kekayaan dan bagaimana meningkatkan pajak. Evaluasi atas kebijakan pajak apakah dapat mencapai tujuannya. (JATA & NTJ) Perencanaan pajak bagaimana individu dan

perusahaan merespon peraturan pajak. Kepatuhan pajak judgemnet and decision making sehingg banyak dipengaruhi oleh bidang psikologi 28 Klasifikasi Penelitian Pajak Klasifikasi penelitian pajak menurut Shacklelford dan Shevlin (2001) Trade off pajak dan non pajak Perencanaan pajak mempengaruhi pilihan akuntansi keuangan dan pertimbangan akuntansi keuangan mempengaruhi perencanaan pajak (tidak independen) Pelaporan keuangan (inventory, intertemporal income shifting, Agency cost

Pajak dan penilaian saham dampak pajak atas M&A, capital structure, pengaruh pajak investor terhadap harga saham Multijurisdictional perusahaan multinasional dan perusahaan multistate 29 Klasifikasi Penelitian Pajak Klasifikasi penelitian pajak menurut Hanlon dan Heitzman (2010) : peran informasi beban pajak penghasilan perbedaan antara laba akuntansi dengan penghasilan kena pajak terkait dan implikasinya terhadap pelaporan keuangan; tax avoidance (penghindaran pajak) perusahaan;

efek pajak terhadap pengambilan keputusan perusahaan termasuk investasi, struktur modal, dan bentuk organisasi, serta kebijakan pajak mana yang efektif dilihat dari implikasi nyatanya terhadap keputusan perusahaan. pajak investor (investor level taxes) dan penilaian aset (asset pricing) terkait riset mengenai dampak dari pajak dividen untuk investor dan pajak atas capital gains 30 Klasifikasi Penelitian Pajak Klasifikasi penelitian akuntasi pajak menurut Graham et al (2012) : earnings management valuation allowance, diskresi pelaporan beban pajak,pendapan

hubungan antara perbedaan nilai buku dengan nilai pajak (book-tak differences) dengan karakteristik/kualitas laba; dan Pengaruh informasi pajak terhapda nilai saham 31 Metodologi Penelitian Pajak Coyne (2010) Analitis Archival / empiris Eksperimental Metode lainnya Klasifikasi lain

teoritis, normatif Behavioral / judgement and decision making Review / deskriptif Survey; studi lapangan 32 Research in Taxation Methodology Experimental market Behavioral /judgment and decision making 40% Analythical Empirical 50%

Top Accounting Journal & Taxation The Journal of American Taxation Association (JATA) Journal of Accounting Review (JAR) The Accounting Review (TAR) Journal of Accounting and Economic Classification Tax Policy research effectiveness of policy to achieve the goals

Tax planning research respond on tax rule Complience Research 33 Tax Research 34 Research in Tax Planning 35 TAX RESEARCH IN ACCOUNTING D.A. Shackelford, T. Shevlin, Journal of Accounting and Economics

This paper traces the development of archival, microeconomic-based, empirical income tax research in accounting over the last 15 years. The paper details three major areas of research: the coordination of tax and non-tax factors, the effects of taxes on asset prices the taxation of multijurisdictional (international and interstate) commerce. Methodological concerns of particular interest to this field also are discussed. Research before 1980 Legal research, evaluating the effects of taxes on exogenous transactions, usually published in law journals, and Policy studies, evaluating the distributional or

efficiency effects of taxes, usually published in public economics journals. 36 Research Question Tax research has long attempted to address three questions of scholarly and policy interest: Do taxes matter? If not, why not? If so, how much? Current tax research in accounting addresses these questions using a framework developed by by Scholes and Wolfson (SW, 1992).

37 ScholesWolfson paradigm Effective tax planning requires the [tax] planner to consider the tax implications of a proposed transaction for all of the parties to the transaction. Effective tax planning requires the planner, in making investment and financing decisions, to consider not only explicit taxes (tax dollars paid directly to taxing authorities) but also implicit taxes (taxes that are paid indirectly in the form of lower before-tax rates of return on tax-favored investments). Effective tax planning requires the planner to recognize that taxes represent only one among many business costs, and all costs must be considered in the planning process: to be

implemented, some proposed tax plans may require exceedingly costly restructuring of the business. (SW, p. 2). 38 ScholesWolfson paradigm The three themes - All parties, all taxes, and all costs provide a structure for tax management that achieves organizational goals, such as profit or wealth maximization. The themes imply that tax minimization is not necessarily the objective of effective tax planning. Effective tax planning must be evaluated in the efficient design of organizations and through adoption of a contractual perspective. The paradigm implicitly assumes that if all contractual parties, all taxes (explicit and implicit), and all non-tax costs

can be identified and controlled, then the observed tax behavior will be rational and predictable. No paper challenges the validity of the SW framework. 39 Tax and non-tax tradeoffs Financial reporting considerations

Inventory accounting Compensation Inter-temporal income shifting Capital structure, divestitures and asset sales Regulated industries Other setting accounting for depreciable asset Agency Costs Compensation Tax shelters Tax research in accounting examines the coordination of taxes and other factors in business decisions. Taxes cannot be minimized without affecting

other organizational goals. This review of the tradeoff literature is dichotomized: the interaction of financial reporting and tax factors the effects of agency costs on tax minimization. 40 Taxes and assets prices

Merger and acquisition Capital structure Implicit taxes Equity price and investor taxes Dividends tax capitalization Capital gains tax capitalization studies of equilibrium prices Price pressure arising from capital gains taxes 41 Research in Taxation - methodology Methodology Experimental market

Behavioral /judgment and decision making Analythical Empirical Classification Tax Policy research effectiveness of policy to achieve the goals Tax planning research respond on tax rule Complience Research 42 Suggestion Future Research First, the better research in the future will move beyond simply documenting that taxes matter. Second, additional theoretical guidance is needed to move the literature

beyond SW and longstanding finance papers. Third, the methodological concerns raised in this paper imply that more rigorous econometrics may be needed. Fourth, we anticipate tax research in accounting to better incorporate knowledge from other areas, particularly finance and public economics. Fifth and closely related to the last development, tax research in accounting should increasingly impact the tax research being undertaken in finance and economics as the common interest across disciplines is better recognized. 43 Suggestion We close with a few thoughts about potentially new areas of research.

First , strong links have been developed between financial accounting and taxes. Second, a potentially understudied topic is accounting for income taxes, which neither tax research nor financial accounting research has closely evaluated. Finally, little is known about the potential cross-sectional differences in the willingness of firms to avoid taxes. One determinant that has attracted attention is the extent to which managers or other insiders control the firm. 44 Paper Discussion

A Review of Tax Research Michelle Hanlon and Shane Heitzman, Journal of Accounting and Economics (2010) (50) 127-178. 46 Introduction Shackelford and Shevlin (2001) limit their review to research published in accounting outlets and describe the development of the relatively young archival, microeconomic-based income tax literature that arose from the Scholesand Wolfson framework. Maydew(2001) emphasizes the need for tax researchers in

accounting to think more broadly and to incorporate more theory and evidence from economics and finance. Tax research has along history in many disciplines. The goal in this paper is to integrate the theoretical and empirical tax research from accounting, economics, and finance, to summarize what is known and unknown, and to offer suggestions for future research. 47 Review Tax Research The informational role of accounting for income taxes Taxes, book-tax

tradeoffs, and real corporate decisions Review Tax Research corporate tax avoidance Taxes and asset pricing 48 Informational role of AFIT A taxonomy of the literature

and review of the evidence Inferences from book-tax differences about current and future earnings. Are earnings managed through the tax accounts? Do changes in the valuation allowance reveal managers private information about future performance? Book-tax conformity Sources of

differences between book and taxable income The informational role of accounting for income taxes Summary and suggestions for the future 49 Tax Avoidance Theory of corporate tax

avoidance Tax system : tax rate Legal system & governance Measuring tax avoidance Effective tax rate measures Effective tax rate measures Long-run effective tax rates Book-tax differences Discretionary or abnormal measures of tax avoidance Unrecognized tax

Tax shelter firms benefits (UTB) Determinants of tax avoidance (firm characteristic, manager effects, ownership, governance, incentives corporate tax avoidance The consequences of

tax avoidance Direct: CF, Firm Value Indirect: cap structure decision Summary and suggestions for the future 50 Pengukuran Tax Avoidance Metode Pengukuran

GAAP ETR Cara Perhitungan Current Current ETR ETR Cash Cash ETR ETR Long-run cash Long-run cash ETR ETR ETR

ETR Differential Differential Statutory ETR- GAAP ETR Statutory ETR- GAAP ETR DTAX DTAX Error term from following regression : ETR Error term from following differential

x Pre-tax bookregression income = a: ETR +b x differential controls + ex Pre-tax book income = a +b x controls + e Sumber : Hanlon dan Heitzman (2010) Keterangan Total tax expense per dollar of pre-tax book income Current Current tax

tax expense expense per per dollar dollar of of pre-tax pre-tax book book income income Cash Cash tax tax paid paid per per dollar dollar of

of pre-tax pre-tax book book income income Sum of taxes paid per over n Sum of taxes paid per over n years divided by the sum of years divided by the sum of pre-tax earnings over n years pre-tax earnings over n years The differences of between The differences of between the statutory ETR and the firm the statutory ETR and the firm

s GAAP ETR s GAAP ETR The unexplained portion of the The ETRunexplained differential portion of the ETR differential 51 Tax Avoidance Metode Pengukuran Total BTD Temporary

BTD Abnormal total BTD Unrecognized tax benefit Tax shelter activity Marginal tax rate Cara Perhitungan Pre-tax book income ((U.S. CTE + Fgn CTE / U.S. STR) (NOLt NOLt-1)) Deferred tax expense/ U.S. STR

Keterangan The total differences between book and taxable incomes A measure of unexplained total book-tax differences Disclosed ammount post-FIN-48 Tax liability accrued for taxes not yet paid on uncertain positions Indicator variable for firms accused of engaging in Firms identified via firm a tax shelter disclosures, the press, or IRS confidential data Simultated marginal tax rate

Present value of taxes on an additional dollar income Sumber : Hanlon dan Heitzman (2010) 52 Tax & Corporate Decison

Investment Theory of investment and taxes: a brief background Taxes and investment: some evidence Investment in intangibles Investment location decisions The reinvestment or repatriation decision Corporate inversions

to tax havens Summary and thoughts for future research Capital structure Estimating the tax benefit of debt Measuring leverage Summary and thought for

the future Payout policy Taxes, book-tax tradeoffs, and real corporate decisions Taxes and other dec: transfer pricing, aquistioan and compensation Transfer pricing Merger and aquisition Executive

compensation Executive trading Organizational form The choice of organizational form Summary and thought for future research Tax & Aset Pricing

Deviden taxation The economic effects of dividen taxation: a brief introduction Log-horizon returns: the effect of dividend yiled on expected returns Event study predictions: the valuation of dividend tax rate change

Ex-devidend day study Evidence from valuation models Summary Thoughts for future research Investor-level taxes and asset prices Capital gains taxation: capitalization & lock-in Capital gains taxes and

expected return Stock market realization and lock-in effect Remaining issues and Ques for future research How relevant the marginal investor? Are dividend taxes priced differently across firms Asset pricing in the open economy Research in

Accounting for Income Taxes John R.Graham, Jana S.Raedy , Douglas A.Shackelford Journal of Accounting and Economics (2011) Nov The Rule Governing Accounting for Income Taxes Temporary difference Permanent Different Uncertain tax contingent Permanently reinvested foreign earnings

Why Accounting of Income Taxes Income Tax expense is significant expense Tax accounts provide information to an adversarial party Tax account provide an alternative measure of income Tax expense is never included as component of operating expense Research in Accounting for Income Taxes Earnings management Research in

Accounting for Income Taxes The association between booktax differences Earnings characteristics, and the equity market pricing of information in the tax accounts. Earning Management Studies of earning management via

discreation in reporting the US tax expense on foreign profit Studies of earning management via the valuation allowance Earning Management Studies of earning management via the tax contingency account

Other studies Future research in earning management Informational role of AFIT Persistence of tax information tax change component or earning

Earning quality proxies BTD effects earning growth Association between boot tax differences and earning characteristics

BRD and earning persistence Tax Avoidance Deferred tax account Empirical studies Theoritical studies Information content of estimated taxable income and book tax difference Ass. Contemporaneous return and BTD Ass. future return and estimated taxable

income Tax Contingency The pricing of tax information reported in the FS Summary Future research in pricing of tax information in

FS Conclusion Tax on real corporate decesion difficult to document. Informational role of AFIT More detailed examination sources of books tax different Tax avoidance, gov obejctive : closer the gap, increase complience and collect more revenue. Principle agent setting Tax authority and corporate governance system Theory and evidence causes and consequences of the tax avoidance Taxes are one factor that enter into management cost banefit management decision

TAX REPORTING AGGRESSIVENESS AND ITS RELATION TO AGGRESSIVE FINANCIAL REPORTING Mary Margaret Frank, Luann J Lynch and Sonja Olhoft Rego (2009) Tujuan dan Kontribusi Tujuan Menguji validitas pengukuran Tax Reporting Aggressivenes Menguji Hubungan antara FRA dengan TRA Menguji Implikasi FRA dan TRA terhaaap kesejahteraan shareholder Kontribusi

Menemukan adanya hubungan positif yang kuat antara FRA dengan TRA (Unexplore before) Mengembangkan pengukuran TRA yang mampu mendeteksi aktivitas Tax Shelter Untuk pertama kali menguji pengaruh FRA dan TRA terhadap Future Stock Return Mengukur TRA dengan Permanen Differences Motivation of Study Skandal ENRON Investigasi kenaikan FRA dan TRA

Perusahaan Amerika FRA :Financial Reporting Aggressiveness TRA : Tax Reporting Aggressiveness SEC: Securities & Exchange Commission Treasury Dept fokus pada deteksi dan tuntutan Aktivitas Tax Shelter Motivation of Study

Trade off Company Financial Statement Income Reported to Tax Authorities Motivation of Study FINANCIAL REPORTING Book Tax TRADE OFF

Extensive Conformity TAX REPORTING UPWARD BOOK INCOME TAX COST DOWNWAR D TAX INCOME

FR COST Low Income to Share Holder THEORY Trade OFF HIGHER Book Income To share Holder Periode yang sama

LOWER Taxable Income To Tax authorities Motivation of Study Awal 1990an : US Corporation melaporkan Peningkatan Perbedaan antara Income yang dilaporkan kepada Shareholder VS Tax Authority. Indikasi tidak terjadi Trade Off terjadi Book Income Upward and Taxable Income Downward periode yang sama Intinya : Peristiwa ini dimotivasi oleh Skandal Akuntansi yang dicerminkan oleh Aggresiveness Tax Shelter Activity dan Peningkatan Book Tax Gap

NO TRADE OFF H1: Financial Reporting Aggressiveness Berpengaruh Positif terhadap Tax Reporting Aggressiveness Mengukur Tax Reporting Aggressiveness Menggunakan Corporate Tax Planning Effectiveness dengan proksi : 1. ETRs 2. Total Book Tax Difference 3. Cas ETRs 4. Discetionary Total BTD (Residual from Regrression) Propose rely on PERMANEN

DIFFERENCES Alasan menggunakan Premanen Differences (bukan Total atau Temporary BTD) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Penelitian terdahulu temporary BTD mencerminkan Manajemen Laba melalui

Pretax Accruals (mis: Philips et all, 2003) Hubungan Palsu untuk proksi FRA. (472) Cash ETR Hubungan Palsu dengan FRA Permanent Difference Dollar, sedangkan ETRs dalam persentase Permanen Difference lebih Comparable to Total Acrual Untuk mengukur TRA Permanen Difference lebih Konsisten dengan menganggap Nature aktivitas tax shelter agresif 5 dari 8 Tax Shelter generates Permanent Different (Wilson, 2009) Total BTD, Cash ETRs tidak mengontrol Non Discresionary item (mis: intangible, PPE) yang bisa menyebabkan baik temporary maupun permanent different. Alasan menggunakan Premanen Differences

(bukan Total atau Temporary BTD) Intinya : penelitian ini mengeluarkan Tax Planning yang Menggenerate Temporary Different (472) Walaupun Permanent Different lebih baik namun tidak mempetimbangkan beberapa item terkait TRA, seperti: State Income Taxe, Tax Credit, Change in tax cushion dan Change in valuation Allowance account. Penelitian ini mengestimasi Discresionary Permanent Different (DTAX) Dengan meregresi Total permanen Different on Non Discresionary item yang menyebabkan Permanen Different (mis:intangible) dan other

statutory adjustment (mis:state tax). Validasi pengukuran TRA DTAX sebagai proksi TRA dihitung dengan cara: Dengan mengontrol nondiscresionary item yang tidak berhubungan dengan Tax Planning yang menyebabkan Permanent Different dan Other Statutory Adjustment Untuk External Validity Link it to sampel perusahaan menurut Graham and Tucker (2006) ttg perusahaan yang melakukan Tax Shelter. Sampel perusahaan yang melukan tax sheltering melawan pemerintah Model 2

Memasukkan variabel lain yang berhubungan dengan Tax Planning: PTROA = Profitability (PTROA), NOL_D = Net Operating Loss Carry Forward FOR_D = Foreign Operation SIZE = Firm Size tanda dan signifikansi koefisien DTAX bertujuan untuk menunjukkan kemampuan DTAX dalam menjelaskan aktivitas tax shelter Alternatif pengukuran (Logit Regresion) membandingkan kemampuan masing-masing variabel dalam menjelaskan aktivitas tax shelter dengan kemampuan DTAX Antara lain:

DTAX = Discresionary Permanent Different DD = Residual dari Pooled Crossed Sectional Regresion dari Total BTD on Total Accrual DD= TRA by Desai & Dharmapala (2006) Keunggulan DTAX sebagai alternatif Pengukuran adalah: 1. Mampu mengeluarkan Temporary Different yang merefleksikan earning management 2. Mengontrol Non Discresionary Source of Permanent

Kelemahan: Tidak mampu merefleksikan aktivitas Tax Shelter yang mengenerate- temporary different (spt:Lease In Lease Out-LILO) Arrangement Hasil estimasi model 2 mengukur TRA Hasil estimasi model 2 menukur TRA Relation Between FRA & TRA Pengukuran FRA. Proksi FRA= Performance-Matchd discretionary Accruals (DFIN)--> Kothari et al (2005) Menggunakan Modified Jones Model (dechow et al, 1995) Model 3 Robustness Test Perubahan pada tax cushion are terrefleksi pada permanent BTD and

berpotensi menambah measurement error untuk mengukur TRA mengontrol lagged permanent differences (LAGPERM) in dalam perhitungan DTAX menghilangkan sejumlah TRA DTAX tidak secara langsung merefleksikan tax planning activity yang menghasilkan temporary different CONSISTENTLY FIND A POSITIVE AND SIGNIFICANT RELATION BETWEEN FINANCIAL AND TAX REPORTING AGGRESSIVENESS Implikasi FRA bagi kesejahteraan Shareholder KESIMPULAN A strong positive relation between financial and tax reporting aggressiveness Insufficient cost exist to offset basic financial and tax reporting incentives,

such that nonconformity between financial accounting standards and tax allows firms to manage book income upward and taxable income downward in the same reporting period Stock return analysis confirms that investor do not fully incorporate the information in discretionary accrual into stock price and reveals that much investor mispricing is attributable to a hedge portfolio based on measure of tax aggressiveness for firms with the most aggressive financial reporting Home Country Tax System Characteristics and Corporate Tax Avoidance: International Evidence T. J. Atwood; Michael S. Drake; James N. Myers & Linda A. Myers

THE ACCOUNTING REVIEW Vol. 87, No. 6, 2012, pp. 18311860 Ruang Lingkup & Tujuan Penelitian Karakteristik Sistem Pajak Tax Avoidance kesesuaian antara laba akuntansi dengan laba fiskal (book tax conformity - BTC) Pendekatan Worldwide vs territorial

Diartikan sebagai segala upaya yang menyebabkan terjadinya perbedaan antara jumlah pajak sesuai dengan tarif yang berlaku dengan jumlah pajak yang dibayarkan oleh perusahaan (Dyreng et al. 2008) Persepsi terhadap enforcement Variabel Moderasi Insentif Managerial Komponen Akrual Variabel Kontrol

Performance, size, operating costs, leveraga, growth, presence of multinational operations dan insdutry Statutory corporate tax rates, earnings volatility dan institutional factor Motivasi & Kontribusi Penelitian Reformasi Pajak di AS untuk meningkatkan penerapan book-tax conformity (Desai, 2005) Penggunaan pendekatan teritorial (Avi Yonah, 2010)

Perlunya penegakan hukum dalam pajak (Shulman, 2009) Tindak lanjut atas penelitian sebelumnya yang meneliti tentang faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi tax avoidance (Hanlon dan Heizman, 2010) Penelitian sebelumnya kebanyakan hanya berfokus pada salah satu negara (Hanlon dan Heizman, 2010) Literatur : Menggambarkan variasi cross-section atas tax avoidance (lintas negara).

Pembuat Kebijakan (Pemerintah): Dalam rangka menentukan/ menegakkan regulasi perpajakan Investor : Dalam rangka menginterpretasikan/ membandingkan Pengembangan Hipotesis 1 Terdapat fleksibilitas perbedaan pelaporan laba kena pajak fiskal dengan akuntansi pada setiap perusahaan di berbagai negara (Atwood et al.2010)

Perusahaan pada Home Country Required Book-Tax Conformity Tax avoidance yang dilakukan oleh manajer akan berkurang dengan adanya peningkatan kewajiban penerapan taxbook conformity di AS (Desai, 2005) Tax Avoidance

Pengembangan Hipotesis 2 Perusahaan induk di negara yang menganut pendekatan territorial akan lebih diuntungkan jika mengalihkan laba ke negara yang low enforcement karena deviden yang diterima dari anak perusahaan di luar negeri secara permanen dapat dibebaskan dari pajak pada home country, sedangkan pada negara yang menganut pendekatan worlwide, pengalihan tersebut hanya bersifat penangguhan pada home country (Hicks, 2009) Perusahaan multinasional pada home

country yang menganut pendekatan territorial cenderung menggeser pendapatan pada afiliasi asing dibandingkan perusahaan pada home country yang menganut pendekatan worldwide (Markle, 2010) Tax Avoidance oleh Perusahaan Home Country Menggunakan Pendekatan Territorial V

s Country Home Menggunakan Pendekatan Worldwide Pengembangan Hipotesis 3 Hukuman yang dikenakan langsung kepada manajer akan lebih efektif dalam mengurangi tax avoidance dibandingkan jika hukuman dikenakan kepada korporasi (Crocker dan Slemrod, 2005) Probabilitas pemeriksaan pajak yang

tinggi meningkatkan kualitas akrual dan posisi pajak perusahaan publik kurang agresif (Slemrod, 2004) Menyusul peningkatan penegakan hukum perpajakan di Rusia, pembayaran pajak meningkat, perdagangan dengan pihak terkait dibatasi dan entitas tax haven ditinggalkan (Desai, 2007) Tax Avoidance oleh Perusahaan Berdomisili di Negara Low Enforcement

Vs Berdomisili di Negara Strong Enforcement Pengukuran Tax Avoidance (Dyreng, 2008) Model Tax Avoidance Pengukuran Required Tax-Book Conformity (BTaxC) : (Atwood et al. 2010)

Kaidah Keputusan (Lihat Model Tax Avoidance ): H1 = Jika BTaxC TaxAvoid (Negatif /1 < 0)) H2 = Jika WW Tax Avoid (Negatif /2 < 0)) H3 = Jika TaxEnf Tax Avoid (Negatif /3 < 0)) Model Tax Avoidance dengan Incentive Compensation Ekspektasi Peneliti: Terdapat perbedaan koefisien antara kategori High dan Low. Model Tax Avoidance dengan Accruals Components

WC = Current operating assets Current operating liabilities NCO = Noncurrent operating assets Noncurrent operating liabilities FIN = Financial assets Financial liabilities Richardson et al. (2005) Ekspektasi Peneliti: Terdapat pengaruh positif antara TaxAvoid dengan accruals. SAMPEL DAN DATA Sampel diperoleh dari semua perushaan yang terdaftar pada Compustat Global Industrial/Commercial data base dari tahun 1993-1997 kriteria yang digunakan untuk menentukan sampel dalam penelitian adalah : Pertama penulis membatasi sampel sebanyak 33 negara sebagaimana

penelitian Atwood et al. (2010) untuk dapat mengestimasi required book-tax conformity. Kedua penulis membatasi sampel sebanyak 22 negara sebagaimana penelitian Towwers Parrin (2005) untuk dapat mengestimasi CEO Variabel pay Laporan laba rugi perusahaan selama tiga tahun yang memiliki laba positive sebelum pos luar biasa untuk menghitung tax aggressiveness. Menghapus perusahaan dari negara-negara yang tidak memiliki sedikitnya 20 perusahaan. Setelah dilakukan seleksi terhadap sampel diperoleh total akhir sampel sebanyak 69.301 perusahaan dari 22 negara. TABLE 1 Sample Composition and Median Characteristics by Country

TABLE 1 (Lanjutan) HASIL PENELITIAN 1. Penelitian ini menggunakan permodelan regresi karena tujan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan yang terjadi antara variabel terikat dengan satu atau lebih variabel bebas. Teknik pengolahan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini yaitu menggunakan regresi data panel. 2. Sebelum dilakukan regresi, terlebih dahulu penulis melakukan uji

collinearity dan multikolinearitas dengan melakukan pemeriksaan terhadap nilai Variance Inflatation Faktor (VIF), dan setelah diuji hasil menunjukkan tidak terjadi masalah multikolinearitas TABLE 2 Descriptive Statistics and Correlations TABLE 2 Descriptive Statistics and Correlations TABLE 2 (Lanjutan) TABLE 3 Tax Avoidance Regressions

TABLE 4 Tax Avoidance Regressions with Equity Compensation Interactions TABLE 5 Tax Avoidance Regressions with Controls for Accruals Components TABLE 5 (Lanjutan) Analisis Sensitivitas Dalam memperkuat bukti penerimaan hipotesis maka dilakukan robustness tests dengan menggunakan beberapa sampel penelitian: 1.

2. 3. Pengujian dengan menggunakan keseluruhan sampel untuk melihat pengaruh penghindaran pajak dengan variabel yang digunakan adalah laba sebelum pajak sebelum pos luar biasa dan menghasilkan data yang signifikan. Melakukan uji antara penghindaran pajak dengan karakteristik sistem pajak dengan mengurangi sampel perusahaan multinasional diperoleh hasil BTaxC dan TaxEnf signifikan namun koeefesien WW tidak signifikan. Melakukan uji hanya memasukkan perusahaan multinasional diperoleh hasil WW dan TaxEnf signifikan, BTaxC memiliki hubungan negatif dengan tax avoidance.

KESIMPULAN 1. 2. 3. 4. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk menguji Bagaimana pengaruh karakteristik sistem pajak yaitu kesesuaian antara laba akuntansi dengan laba fiskal (book tax conformity - BTC) dengan pendekatan teritorial dan worldwide dan penegakan hukum pajak terhadap penghindaran pajak (Tax Avoidance).

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perusahaan-perusahaan dinegaranegara yang memiliki karakteristik BTC rendah dan penegakan hukum yang rendah cendrung melakukan penghindaran pajak. Penghindaran pajak juga berhubungan dengan karakteristik perusahaan di suatu negara dalam menerapkan sistem kompensasi terhadap manajemen yang terkait dengan variabel gaji (seperti bonus, saham, dan opsi saham). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, selain faktor spesifik perusahaan yang menjadi variabel independen pada penelitian sebelumnya yaitu performance, size, intangibles, debt financing, dan precence of multinational operations yang memiliki pengaruh terhadap penghindaran pajak, ternyata penghindaran pajak didorong oleh karakteristik sistem pajak di suatu negara dan interaksi antara karakteristik dan struktur kontrak kompensasi manajemen. IMPLIKASI PENELITIAN Penelitian ini memberikan kontribusi pada:

1. Otoritas pajak (negara) Memberikan kontribusi dalam terkait dengan upaya yang dilakukan oleh suatu negara untuk meminimilisasi penghindaran pajak yaitu diantaranya dengan cara: a. Negara harus melaksanakan penegakan hukum yang kuat. b. Lebih memperhatikan kebijakan yang berhubungan dengan kesesuaian antara antara laba akuntansi dengan laba fiskal (book tax conformity - BTC) 2. Perusahaan lebih memperhatikan kontrak kompensasi dengan manajemen karena hal tersebut dapat berdampak pada terjadinya tax avoidance.

Overview Tax Research A review of Tax Research, Michelle Hanlon and Shane Heitzman, Journal of Accounting and Economics (2010) (50) 127-178. Research in accounting for income taxes, John R.Graham, Jana S.Raedy , Douglas A.Shackelford Journal of Accounting and Economics (2011) Nov. 412-434. The Future of tax Reserach: From an Accounting Proffessors Perspective, Terry Shevlin, the Journal of the American Taxation Association, Fall 2007; 87 Empirical tax research in accounting Douglas, A.Shackelford, Terry Shevlin, Journal of Accounting and Economics (2001) 321-387. BTD & ETR Determinants of the Variability in Corporate Effective Tax Rates, Evidence from Longitudinal Data, Sanjay Gupta and Kaye Newberry,

Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 16, (1997), 1-34. Tax Avoidance: Does Tax-Specific Industry Expertise Make a Difference?, Sean T. McGuire, Thomas C. Omer, Dechun Wang, The Accounting Review, Vol. 87, No. 3, 2012, pp. 9751003. Determinants of the variability in corporate effective tax rates and tax reform: Evidence from Australia, Grant Richardson, Roman Lanis, Journal of Accounting and Public Poliy, 26, 689-704. 120 BTD & QUALITY OF INCOME Tax Avoidance, Large Positive Temporary Book-Tax Differences, and Earnings Persistence, Bradley Blaylock, Terry Shevlin, Ryan J. Wilson, The Accounting Review, Vol. 87, No. 1 (2012), pp. 91120 Taxable Income as a Performance Measure:The Effects of Tax Planning and

Earnings Quality, Benjamin C. Ayers, John Xuefeng Jiang and Stacie K Laplante, Contemporary Accounting Research, Vo 26, No 1 (Spring 2009) pp. 15-54 The Persistence and pricing of earning accrual, and cash flows when firms have large book tax difference, Michelle Hanlon, The Accounting Review, Vol 80 No 1, (2005) pp 137-166. The Persistence, Forecasting and Valuation Implication of Tax Change Component of Earnings, Ancrew P. Shmidt, The Accounting Review, May 2006:81 An uninteded consequence of book-tax conformity: A loss of earnings informativeness, Michelle Hanlon, Edward L. Maydew, Terry Shevlin, Journal of Accounting and Economics 46 (2008) 294-311. BTD & ASET PRICING Uday Chandra and Byung T. Ro, The Association between Deferred Taxes and Common Stock Risk, Journal of Accounting and Public

Policy, 16, 311-333 (1997) Tax Avoidance & Earning Management Can booktax differences capture earnings management and tax Management? Empirical evidence from China, Tanya Tang, Michael Firth, The International Journal of Accounting 46 (2011) 175204. Tax Reporting Aggressiveness and Its Relation to Aggressive Financial Reporting, Mary Margaret Frank, Luann J. Lynch, Sonja Olhoft Rego, The Accounting Review, 2009, Vol 84 No 2 pp.467-496 Creating a Bigger Bath Using the Deferred Tax Valuation Allowance, Theodore E. Christensen, Gyung H. Paik and Earl K. Stice,Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, 35(5) & (6), 601625, June/July 2008. Earning Management: New Evidence Based on Deferred Tax Expense, John Philips and Porton Pincus, Sonja Ofhoft Rego, The Accounting Review, Apr 2003:78.

Dhaliwal, D., C Gleason, dan L. Mills. (2004). Last chance earnings management: using the tax expense to meet analysts forecasts, Contemporary Accounting Research 21 (2): 431-457. Tax Behavior The impact of audit risk, materiality and severity on ethical decision making: An analysis of the perceptions of tax agents in Australia, Rex Marshall, Malcolm Smith, Robert Armstrong, Managerial Auditing Journal, 21 5, 2006, 497-519 Social responsibility, Machiavellianism and tax avoidance: A study of Hong Kong, tax professionals, William E. Shafer, Richard S. Simmons, Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 Iss: 5, (2008), pp. 695 720. The importance of faith: Tax Morale and religiosity, Benno Torgler, Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 2006:81-109 A Note on the Relation between Frames, Perceptions, and Taxpayer Behavior, Scot B. Jackson and Richard C. Hatfield, Contemporary Accounting Research

Vol. 22 No. 1 (Spring 2005) pp. 145-64 Tax Avoidance, CG, CSR Tax avoidance, tax management and corporate social responsibility, Fariz Huseynov, Bonnie K. Klamn, Journal of Corporate Finance, 18 (2012), 804-827 Minnick, Kristina dan Tracy Noga. (2010). Do Corporate Governance Characteristics Influence Tax Management?. Journal of Corporate Finance, 16, 703-718 International Tax The determinants of thinly capitalized tax avoidance structures: Evidence from Australian firms, Grantley Taylora, Grant Richardsonb, Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation 22 (2013) 12 25. The demand for tax haven operations, Mihir A. Desai, C. Fritz Foley, James

R. Hines Jr. Journal of Public Economics 90 (2006) 513 531. International Corporate Tax Avoidance Practices: Evidence from Australian Firms, Grantley Taylor and Grant Richarson, The International Journal of Accounting, 47 (2012) 469496. Cross-Jurisdictional Income Shifting by U.S. Multinationals: Evidence from International Bond Offerings Kaye J. Newberry; Dan S. Dhaliwal Journal of Accounting Research, Vol. 39, No. 3. (Dec., 2001), pp. 643-662.) Book Tax Gap The Persistence and pricing of earning accrual, and cash flows when firms have large book tax difference, Michelle Hanlon, The Accounting Review, Vol 80 No 1, (2005) pp 137-166. Book Tax Gap Tax Avoidance, Large Positive Temporary Book-Tax Differences, and

Earnings Persistence, Bradley Blaylock, Terry Shevlin, Ryan J. Wilson, The Accounting Review, Vol. 87, No. 1 (2012), pp. 91120 ABSTRACT: We investigate why temporary book-tax differences appear to serve as a useful signal of earnings persistence (Hanlon 2005). We first test and show that temporary book-tax differences provide incremental information over the magnitude of accruals for the persistence of earnings and accruals. We then opine that there are multiple potential sources of large positive booktax differences. We predict and find that firms with large positive book-tax differences likely arising from upward earnings management (tax avoidance) exhibit lower (higher) earnings and accruals persistence than do other firms with large positive book-tax differences. Finally, we find significant variation in current-period earnings and accruals response coefficients and insignificant hedge returns in period t1, consistent with investors being able to look through to the source of large positive book-tax differences (earnings management and tax avoidance), allowing them to correctly price the persistence of accruals for these subsamples.

Book Tax Confirmity Atwood, T.J., Drake, M.S., & Myers, L.A. (2010). Book-tax conformity, earnings persistence and the association between earnings and future cash flows. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 50, 111125. Calls for eliminating differences between accounting earnings and taxable income in the US have been debated extensively. Proponents of increased book-tax conformity argue that tax compliance will increase and earnings quality will improve. Opponents argue that earnings quality will decline. We examine whether the level of required book-tax conformity affects earnings persistence and the association between earnings and future cash flows. We develop a comprehensive book-tax conformity measure and find that earnings have lower persistence and a lower association with future cash flows when conformity is higher. Our evidence suggests that increased book-tax conformity may reduce earnings quality.

Book Tax Confirmity Home country tax system Characteristics and corporate tax avoidance: international Evidence, T.J. Atwood, Michael S. Drake, James N. Myers Linda A. Myers, The Accounting Review, ol 87, No 6 (2012) pp.1831-1860 We examine whether three tax system characteristicsrequired book-tax conformity, worldwide versus territorial approach, and perceived strength of enforcement impact corporate tax avoidance across countries after controlling for firm-specific factors previously shown to be associated with tax avoidance (i.e., performance, size, operating costs, leverage, growth, the presence of multinational operations, and industry) and for other cross-country factors (i.e., statutory corporate tax rates, earnings volatility, and institutional factors). We find that, on average, firms avoid taxes less when required booktax conformity is higher, a worldwide approach is used, and tax enforcement is perceived to be stronger. However, the relations between tax avoidance and all three tax systems characteristics are contextual and depend on the extent to

which management compensation comes from variable pay, including bonuses, stock awards, and stock options. TERIMA KASIH Dwi Martani - 081318227080 [email protected] atau [email protected] http://staff.blog.ui.ac.id/martani/ 131

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