Strategies for Developing a Research Active Curriculum Mick
Strategies for Developing a Research Active Curriculum Mick Healey www.mickhealey.co.uk We need to encourage universities and colleges to explore new models of curriculum. There are several models that we might explore. They should all: Incorporate research-based study for undergraduates (Paul Ramsden, 2008) Brief biography HE Consultant and Researcher; Emeritus Professor University of Gloucestershire (UoG), UK; Visiting Professor University College London, UK; The Humboldt Distinguished Scholar in
Research-Based Learning McMaster University, Canada; Adjunct Professor Macquarie University, Australia; International Teaching Fellow, University College Cork, Ireland; Visiting Fellow University of Queensland, Australia National Teaching Fellow and Principal Fellow HE Academy International co-editor Council on Undergraduate Research Quarterly Economic geographer and previously Director Centre for Active Learning UoG Ex-VP for Europe International Society for Scholarship of Teaching and Learning Advisor to Canadian Federal Government Roundtable on Research, Teaching and Learning in post-Secondary Education (2006) Advisor to Australian Learning and Teaching Council / Office of Learning and Teaching Projects on the Teaching-research nexus (2006-08), Undergraduate research (2009-10); Teaching research (2011-13 ); and Capstone curriculum across disciplines (2013-15) Advisor to League of European Research Universities (2009) Advisor to EU Bologna and HE Reform Experts on research-based education (2012)
Research interests: linking research and teaching; scholarship of teaching; active learning; developing an inclusive curriculum; students as change agents and as partners Embedding research and inquiry in the curriculum One minute each way In pairs you each have ONE minute to tell your partner about one way in which you have experience or would like to see research and inquiry embedded in the curriculum. The job of your partner is to listen enthusiastically but NOT interrupt.
Our argument: a research active curriculum All undergraduate students in all higher education institutions should experience learning through, and about, research and inquiry. We argue, as does much recent US experience, that such curricular experience should and can be mainstreamed for all or many students through a research-active curriculum. We argue that this can be achieved through structured interventions at course team, departmental, institutional and
national levels (Healey and Jenkins, 2009, 3). Engaging students in research and inquiry For the students who are the professionals of the future, developing the ability to investigate problems, make judgments on the basis of sound evidence, take decisions on a rational basis, and understand what they are doing and why is vital. Research and inquiry is not just for those who choose to pursue an academic career. It is central to professional life in the twenty-first century. Brew (2007, 7)
Engaging students in research and inquiry Developing the Student as Scholar Model requires a fundamental shift in how we structure and imagine the whole undergraduate experience. It requires, as a minimum, the adoption of the Learning Paradigm in everything from the first introductory course through the final capstone experience. It requires a culture of inquiry-based learning infused throughout the entire liberal arts curriculum that starts with the very first day of college and is reinforced in every classroom and program.
(Hodge et al. 2007, 1) Embedding research and inquiry 1. Different ways of engaging students 2. Strategies for engaging students at the beginning of their course 3. Strategies for engaging students at the end of their course capstones and dissertations 4. Going beyond traditional boundaries of undergraduate research STUDENTS ARE PARTICIPANTS
Research-tutored EMPHASIS ON RESEARCH CONTENT Research-based Engaging in research discussions Undertaking
research and inquiry Learning about current research in the discipline Developing research and inquiry skills and techniques Research-led
EMPHASIS ON RESEARCH PROCESSES AND PROBLEMS Research-oriented STUDENTS FREQUENTLY ARE AN AUDIENCE Curriculum design and the research-teaching nexus (based on Healey, 2005, 70)
STUDENT-LED Pursuing (information-active) Authoring (discovery-active) PARTICIPATING IN BUILDING KNOWLEDGE EXPLORING AND ACQUIRING EXISTING KNOWLEDGE
Identifying (information-responsive) Producing (discovery-responsive) STAFF-LED Inquiry-based learning: a conceptual framework (Based on Levy, 2009)
Strategies for engaging students at the beginning of their courses In pairs, each skim read at least ONE different year one case study (1.1 1.17 pp 4-9). Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts. 5 minutes Strategies for engaging students in final year and capstone courses In a different pair, each skim read at least
ONE different final year and capstone case study (2.1 2.11 pp 9-13). Discuss whether and how any of the ideas may be amended for application in your contexts. 5 minutes The developmental journey of the student University curricula need to support student and citizen development from absolute knowing [where] students view knowledge as certain; their role is to obtain it from authorities (to) contextual knowing [where] students believe that
knowledge is constructed in a context based on judgement of evidence; their role is to exchange and compare perspectives, think through problems, and integrate and apply knowledge (Baxter Magolda, 1992, 75). The developmental journey of the student Developmental Level Student traits Reliance on external references
[Foundations] Knowledge viewed as certain Reliance on authorities as source of knowledge Externally defined value system and identity At the crossroads [Intermediate Learning] Evolving awareness of multiple perspectives and uncertainty Evolving awareness of own values and identity and of limitations of dependent relationships
Self-authorship [Capstone] Awareness of knowledge as contextual Development of internal belief system and sense of self capacity to engage in authentic, interdependent relationships Source: Hodge et al. (2008) Modes of IBL Importance of scaffolding provided by lecturer and development of independence in learner Structured where lecturers provide an issue or problem
and an outline for addressing it Guided where lecturers provide questions to stimulate inquiry but students are self-directed in terms of exploring these questions Open where students formulate the questions themselves as well as going through the full inquiry cycle (after Staver and Bay, 1987) Pursuing Identifying Authoring
Producing Information-oriented: products of research Discovery-oriented: process of research Conceptual model Darker shading = strengthening of teaching-research links AND enhanced learning outcomes (Spronken-Smith and Walker, 2009; Spronken-Smith et al., 2009) Scaffolding inquiry throughout a degree
3rd year 1st year 2nd year 2nd year 1st year 3rd year Definitions of UGR Undergraduate research (UGR) is: An inquiry or investigation conducted
by an undergraduate student that makes an original intellectual or creative contribution to the discipline. (Council on Undergraduate Research, undated) Ten ways of diversifying UGR 1. Going beyond research e.g. inquiry-based learning 2. Going beyond selectivity e.g. embedding in curriculum; course-based UGR journals 3. Going beyond individual students e.g. group work projects 4. Going beyond conference presentations, posters and UGR journals e.g. videos, performances, exhibitions, websites, products
5. Going beyond universities e.g. UGR in Collegebased HE Aim - To review the contribution of CBHE in the development of research-based learning Collected - Over 50 mini-case studies from UK, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Netherlands, New Zealand and United States Ten ways of diversifying UGR
6. Going beyond institutions I e.g. scholarship of engagement; community-based research and inquiry 7. Going beyond institutions II e.g. consultancy projects; work-based research and inquiry 8. Going beyond disciplines e.g. integrated science programmes; addressing grand challenges 9. Going beyond subject-based research e.g. UG SoTL projects; students as change agents projects 10. Going beyond place-based conferences e.g. International CUR Students as partners
in learning Source: Healey, Flint and and(2014, Harrington 25) teaching in higher education Source: Healey, Flint and Harrington (2014, 25)
2014, The Higher Education Academy. All rights reserved Ten ways of diversifying UGR 6. Going beyond institutions I e.g. scholarship of engagement; community-based research and inquiry 7. Going beyond institutions II e.g. consultancy projects; work-based research and inquiry 8. Going beyond disciplines e.g. integrated science programmes; addressing grand challenges 9. Going beyond subject-based research e.g. UG SoTL projects; students as change agents projects
10. Going beyond place-based conferences e.g. International CUR International Conference on Undergraduate Research (ICUR) A virtual international UR conference 2012 - Established by Warwick-Monash alliance in ICUR 2014 held concurrently in 21/22 September in Australia, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the States Partner institutions - Baruch College; City University of New York; Monash University; Nanyang Technological University; Singapore Management University; The University of Warwick; The University of Washington; The University of Western Australia
http://www.icurportal.com/ Different views on undergraduate research Dimensions of undergraduate research Student, process centred Outcome, product centred Student initiated Faculty initiated Honors students All students Curriculum based Co-curricular fellowships Collaborative
Individual Original to the student Original to the discipline Multi-or interdisciplinary Discipline based Campus/community audience Professional audience Capstone/final year Starting year one Pervades the curriculum Focussed (Source: Adapted from Beckham and Hensel, 2007) Oklahoma University definition of UGR
mentored intellectual engagement using established scholarly processes to make a meaningful contribution to a project, question, or problem, where the outcomes are presented or performed publicly with review, critique or judgment, and both the process and product are based upon disciplinary standards. The work will be at least partially novel, but may result in a preliminary product, a partial solution, or additional questions for future investigation. (Walden, 2014, 2) UGR: Challenging the boundaries
In small groups discuss what implications do these and other ways of going beyond have for the development of UGR? 3 mins Mainstreaming research and inquiry Turn to your neighbour and tell them ONE thing you intend to do in the next academic year to develop an active research curriculum 2 minutes Mainstreaming undergraduate research and inquiry:
conclusions If undergraduate research is to be truly integrated into HE then the nature of higher education itself will need to be reconceptualised. universities need to move towards creating inclusive scholarly knowledge-building communities. The notion of inclusive scholarly knowledge-building communities invites us to consider new ideas about who the scholars are in universities and how they might work in partnership. (Brew, 2007, 4)
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