ent By Raising Expectations Codi Cyrhaeddiad Trwy Godi Disgwyliadau th Form Prospectus INTRODUCTION FROM THE HEADTEACHER To all prospective students and parents I am delighted that you are considering Welshpool High School 6th Form for Post-16 education. It is hoped that this prospectus, the information gained during our Open Evening and your own personal research and ambitions will lead to a decision to join our 6th Form in September 2017. We are justifiably proud of the achievements of our 6th Form students and the quality of teaching that we offer here at Welshpool. We have a broad selection of Advanced Level and BTEC Level 3 courses available, with access to an even wider range of courses through the Powys Area Wide Prospectus; an arrangement that allows the majority of study to be based at Welshpool, whilst providing the opportunity to study additional courses delivered at other local schools and Newtown Port Talbot College (Newtown Campus). The fact that student achievement is consistently high at Welshpool High School is based on three important factors. Firstly, there is a strong commitment in the student body to do well. Secondly, the quality of teaching and learning in the classroom and thirdly the very good relationships that exist between the students, staff and parents, married with the pastoral support students receive. 6th Form life is clearly about achieving the best possible qualifications and developing appropriate skills to access a place in higher education or becoming better equipped for employment. We have a strong track record in terms of students gaining entry to their first choice university, including some of the United Kingdom's most prestigious universities while other students have been successful in gaining apprenticeships and training with reputable companies. In recent years, many of our students have been invited to join the Seren Network, which is aimed at encouraging our more able students to apply to Oxbridge and Russell Group Universities. We will continue to encourage students to aim high and develop interests and attitudes in preparation for university life and the wider world of work. We believe strongly in frequent reporting so that students and parents can gain regular and appropriate reviews of progress. Students work towards a target grade for achievement which is reviewed regularly. The target is based on high expectations. We have an independent study and computer area for sixth formers, and students are expected to attend independent study each week. We also have 6th Form common room accommodation and intend to make further improvements to benefit our students. If you would like any further information, or you have any questions about any aspect of 6th
Form life, then please feel free to contact Mrs Cottrell, Head of 6th Form, Mr Davies, Deputy Headteacher or myself and we will do our best to help. J. Toal Headteacher 1 Enrichment Activities In addition to academic success extra-curricular activities are designed to ensure students maximise their potential entry into highly competitive degree places and the workplace. At Welshpool High School we believe that all 6th form students should have the opportunity to access a wide range of activities which enrich the academic curriculum and help to develop new skills and interests. Students are encouraged to participate in at least one of these activities in order to build a strong individual profile. Opportunities include: Paired Reading and Paired Mathematics This scheme matches 6th form students with lower school pupils to improve their literacy and mathematical skills. APAUSE Students have the opportunity to train as APAUSE peer educators which involves delivering a series of lessons to Year 9 students on coping with personal issues. Duke of Edinburgh (Silver Award) A Duke of Edinburgh programme is a real adventure from beginning to end. The award is achieved by completing a personal programme of activities in 4 areas:Volunteering - helping someone, your community or the environment. Physical - becoming fitter through sport, dance or fitness activities. Skills - developing existing talents or trying something new. Expedition - planning, training for and completing an adventurous journey in unknown territory such as Snowdonia. Peer Mentoring Year 12 students are trained to provide guidance to younger students. Through this relationship peer mentors provide advice and support and serve as role models. Sports Leadership Award Organised by the PE department this offers students experience in coaching and culminates in a nationally recognised award 2 Careers Advice All students receive careers advice from a Careers Officer. In addition there are opportunities to attend fairs and workshops on careers and courses available post 6th form.
Worldwide Exchanges Each year around six students from Year 12 participate in an exchange with Canadian students. This is extremely well supported by the local Rotary Club and in turn we are visited by Canadian students in the spring. Mock Interviews These take place in the Autumn Term before students apply for university and provide an excellent opportunity for students to be interviewed by local business people and to receive constructive feedback on their performance. 3 AFTER THE SIXTH FORM An overwhelming majority of our students come into the 6th Form with expectations of going on to some form of Higher Education. Students from previous years have gone on to study: Chemical Engineering Imperial College, London Veterinary Science Liverpool Midwifery Cardiff Business Cardiff Geography & Archaeology Liverpool Physiotherapy
Coventry Natural Science Cambridge English Oxford Gap years are becoming more popular and some students elect to spend a year completing voluntary work abroad or in this country. Some students follow a more direct route into employment by embarking upon advanced training courses and apprenticeships. ENTRY REQUIREMENTS In order to follow an AS/A Level course of study, students are required to obtain 5 GCSE Grades C and above, preferably with B Grades or above in the subject chosen to study. 4 (AS + A2 = A) ART AND DESIGN (WJEC) AS ART 1: Unit 1 Art & Design Coursework Portfolio 100% 200 marks 160 UMS One unit of coursework based on themes and subject matter developed from personal starting points. All work will be selected, evaluated and presented for assessment by the candidates. Critical contextual understanding may be demonstrated through written, visual, oral or other appropriate forms. To be internally set. Internal assessments to be sent to WJEC by mid-May and externally moderated in June. A Level (the above plus the following A Level units) ART 3: Unit 3 Art & Design Personal Investigation 30% 120 marks 120 UMS One unit of coursework based on themes and subject matter developed from personal starting points that requires the candidates to communicate their understanding through integrated images and texts which includes a written element of no less than 1000 words. Critical contextual understanding may be
demonstrated through written, visual, oral or other appropriate forms. To be internally set; internal assessment to be sent to WJEC by mid-May and externally moderated in June. ART 4: Unit 4 Art & Design Controlled Assignment 20% 80 marks 80 UMS One unit that comprises an externally set assignment presented to the candidates at the start of the preparation period for the controlled test which will be a continuous period of focused study for twelve hours. All work will be selected, evaluated and presented for assessment by the candidates. Critical contextual understanding may be demonstrated through written, visual, oral or other appropriate forms. To be externally set on 1st February, internal assessments to be sent to WJEC by mid-May and externally moderated in June. 5 Subject Content Students will choose to produce work from a menu of endorsed options, which they find most suitable. They are: Arts, Fine Art, Graphic Design, Three Dimensional Design, Textiles, Photography, Critical and contextual studies. There will be two units of work for AS and a further two units of coursework for A level. Students should achieve an AS qualification and an A level qualification by the end of years 12 and 13 respectively. One unit in each year will be set by the exam board. PROGRESSION The study of Art & Design allows progression to any specialist Arts course or creative degree at university, either directly or after study on a BTEC Foundation Course at a college. The subject is an acceptable qualification to study courses at university in an unrelated subject. It is also helpful towards studying design based degrees, teaching and architecture courses. For further information see: Ms H Barker 6 (AS+A2=A) DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY (WJEC) Specialist Option: - Product Design AS DT 1: 2hours
40% of total AS marks 20% of total A2 marks Written Paper: This paper is answered in the context of the product design specialist option. Content: This paper contains two sections and will assess knowledge and understanding drawn from the subject content categories:- Design and innovation; Product Analysis; Materials and Components; Industrial and Commercial Practice. 40hours DT 2: 60% of total AS marks 30% of total A2 marks Coursework - Project Candidates will submit an integrated task to satisfy the AS Design and meet assessment criteria. The nature of most of this work will be negotiated with individual candidates by subject staff. The project will include detailed product analysis of an existing product that is similar or has similar features to their design proposal. A2 DT 3: 2 hours 20% of total A2 marks Written Paper: This paper is answered in the context of
the product design specialist option. Content: This paper contains two sections and will assess knowledge and understanding drawn from the whole of the subject content for the specialist Option, PRODUCT DESIGN. Subject content categories: 4.1.1 Designing and innovation; 4.1.2 Product analysis; 4.1.3 Human responsibility; 4.1.4 Public interaction; 4.2.1 Materials and components; 4.2.2 Industrial and commercial practice; 4.2.3 Processes; 4.2.4 Production Systems and control. DT4: Designing Skills and Making Skills 60hours 30% of total A2 marks A single, substantial project. The examination Board set eight themes for the project, although candidates can submit their own proposals for approval. The project requires candidates to demonstrate the integration of design and making skills, knowledge and understanding. Candidates are expected to take increased responsibility for the identification of appropriate work and the management of their own project. Candidates who have completed a GCSE Design & Technology project will be familiar with this Format. This element of the course is both the most demanding and the most rewarding. It allows individuals to display ability in changing the man-made world and it often proves to be exciting and arduous. It must be stressed that a determined approach to practical activity is a fundamental prerequisite for the success in Design and Technology advanced level. PROGRESSION Many degree courses benefit from the experience provided by this course. This course supports progression
into all Science and Engineering degree courses (civil, structural, mechanical etc.), Product Design degree courses, teaching and Architecture etc. For further information see: Mr R Cannon or Mr J Birch. 7 (AS+A2=A) AS BIOLOGY (WJEC) A2 Module 1: Fundamental Concepts and Module 3: Energy, Homeostasis and the Organisations Environment 1hour 30mins 50% of total AS marks 1hour 30mins 25% of total A marks & 20% of total A marks Content: Importance of energy, respiration, photosynthesis, microbiology Content: Biological compounds, cell and disease, population dynamics, the structure and function, structure of plasma membrane and transport mechanisms, endocrine and nervous systems. enzymes, including medical and industrial Module 4: Variation, Inheritance and application, cell division. Options 2hours 25% of total A marks Module 2: Biodiversity & Physiology 1hour 30mins
50% of total AS marks Content: Genetic code and inheritance. & 20% of total A marks Reproduction, variation and evolution, and one of three options. Content: Transport systems; gas exchange, transport mechanisms in plants and Module 5: Practical Assessment, humans, feeding strategies and Synoptic practical. reproductive strategies. 10% of total A mark Practical work is assessed through the Content: An experimental task and a completion of a laboratory workbook. practical analysis task, using skills developed during the course. PROGRESSION Many students progress to Higher Education and biologically-related courses leading to a range of possible careers including; Medicine, Nursing, Radiography, Pharmacy, Physiotherapy, Agriculture, Teaching, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Scientific Civil Service, Dentistry, Veterinary Science, Horticulture, Marine Biology, Pollution Control, Forestry and Conservation work, For further information see: Mr D Bass 8 (AS+A2=A) CHEMISTRY (WJEC) AS A2 Unit 1: The Language of Chemistry, Structure and Simple Reactions
1hour 30mins 20% of Qualification Unit 3: Physical and Inorganic Chemistry 1hour 45mins 25% of Qualification A series of compulsory questions, both structural and objective. Content: Redox, chemistry of p+d block, kinetics entropy, entropy and equilibrium. Content: Basic ideas about atoms, chemical calculations, chemical equilibrium and acid-base reactions, energetics, properties of groups, production of chemicals. Unit 2: Energy, Rate and Chemistry of Carbon Compounds 1hour 30mins 20% of Qualification A series of compulsory questions, both structural and objective. Content: Thermochemistry, rates of rxw, the wider impact of chemistry, organic compounds and reactions. Hydrocarbons, Halogenoalkaes, Alcohols, Analytical techniques Unit 4: Organic Chemistry and Analysis 1hour 45mins 25% of total A marks A series of compulsory questions3 structural and 2 extended answer questions. Content: Redox, chemistry of p+d block,
kinetics entropy, entropy and equilibrium. Unit 5: A2 Practical Unit 60 marks 10% of Qualification Externally assessed practical. An experimental task and a practical analysis task using skills developed during the course. PROGRESSION The course can lead to further study of Chemistry and related subjects in Higher Education or Direct entry to careers e.g. Agriculture, Brewing, Biochemistry, Chemical Engineering, Chemical Industry, Dentistry, Food Technology, Geology, Medicine, Materials Science, Pharmacy, Soil Science, Forestry, Veterinary Science. For further information see: Ms S Ormond and Mrs Hoole 9 (AS + A2 = A) PHYSICS (WJEC) AS A2 Unit 1: Motion, Energy and Matter 1hour 30mins 50% of total AS marks Written paper & 20% of total Amarks Unit 3: Oscillations and Nuclei 2 hour 15mins 25% of total A marks Written Paper Content: Forces, Particle Physics, Radiation from stars. Content: Vibrations, Energy, Molecular
Kinetic Theory and Nuclear Decay. Unit 2: Waves and Particles 1hour 30mins 50% of total AS marks Written paper & 20% of total Amarks Content: Electricity, Waves and Lasers. Content: Planning, Observing, Taking Measurements, Recording Data, Presenting Data, Interpreting Data, Applying Physics Knowledge, Recognising Patterns, Making Predications and Evaluating Outcomes. Unit 4: Fields Options 2 hours 25% of total A marks Written Paper Content: Fields of Force, Magnetic Effects of Currents, Electromagnetic Induction, Alternative currents, Orbits and the Universe. Unit 5: Practical Examination 2hour 10% of total A marks Written Paper Content: Experimental Test, Practical Analysis Task. PROGRESSION The course can lead to further study of Physics and related subjects in higher education. The subject is valued for anyone wishing to pursue a career in Engineering, Computing, Medical professions or Science in general. For further information see: Mr D Phillips and Mr A Whitley 10 (AS + A2 = A) ENGLISH LITERATURE
AS A2 20% Unit 1 Prose and Drama: Students study a Victorian novel and Elizabethan drama. 20% Unit 2 Poetry: (WJEC) 20% Unit 3 Students study the poetry of John Donne. They also have to analyse an unseen poem. 20% Unit 6 Students study a Shakespeare play. Students study and analyse the poetry of two authors. 20% Unit 5 (coursework) Students compare two modern novels. PROGRESSION The course outlined above is ideal preparation for the study of English Literature or a variety of other courses in higher education; progression to the next level of vocational qualifications; or direct entry into employment. In addition, the specification provides a coherent, satisfying and worthwhile course of study for candidates who do not progress to further study of this subject. English Literature is a subject that requires candidates to evaluate the significance of cultural, historical and other contextual influences on literary texts. Through their studies, students will therefore have opportunities to reflect on a range of spiritual, ethical, social and cultural issues. The course also provides opportunities for students to develop key skills, especially those in communication. For further information see: Mr E Jopling 11
MATHEMATICS (Pure and Applied) (Edexcel) YEAR 13 Y EAR 12 1hour 30mins examination Non-Calculator CORE 1: C1 CORE 3: 1hour 30mins examination Topics studied: algebra, co-ordinate geometry, sequences and series, differentiation, integration. Topics studied: algebra, trigonometry, exponential and logarithms, differentiation, numerical methods. CORE 2: C2 1hour 30mins examination CORE 4: C4 1hour 30mins examination Topics studied: algebra, co-ordinate geometry, sequences and series, trigonometry, exponential and logarithms, differentiation, integration. Topics studied: algebra, co-ordinate geometry, sequences and series, differentiation, integration, vectors. STATISTICS: S1
MECHANICS 1: M1 1hour 30mins examination Topics studied: mathematical models, representation and summary of data, probability, correlation and regression, discrete random variables, discrete distributions, the normal distribution. Topics studied: mathematical models, vectors, kinematics, dynamics, statics, moments. An AS in mathematics consists of the best marks from modules C1, C2 and S1. An A2 in mathematics consists of the best mark from each of the six modules above. Greater than 80% is required for an A, Greater than 70% for a B etc. NOTES: All modules have equal weighting; there is no coursework. C1 is a non-calculator examination. Scientific calculators are allowed in all other examinations. Calculators with a facility for symbolic algebra, differentiation and integration are NOT allowed in any examination. For further information and course entry requirements see Mr R Powell. 12 (AS + A2 = A) FRENCH (WJEC) AS (3 units) Unit 1: Speaking (non-exam) 12% Task 1: Arguing a point of view (based on a written stimulus). Task 2: Discussion (based on a second written stimulus). Unit 2: Listening, Reading and Translation Exam 28% A2
Unit 3: Speaking (non-exam) 18% Independent research project a) Presentation of a research project b) Discussion on the content of the research project Unit 4: Listening, Reading and Translation Exam 30% Section A: Listening Section B: Reading Section C: Translation from French into English Section A: Listening Section B: Reading Section C: Translation from English into French Section D: One essay (based on the study of a French film). Unit 5: Critical and Analytical Response Written Exam 12% 1 x essay (based on a piece of literature). Subject Content: -Leisure and lifestyles (travel/ tourism/ sport/ entertainment/ health) - The individual and society (relationships/ youth culture/ education/ careers) Subject Content: - Environmental issues (Pollution/ transport/ energy/ conversation/ global warming) - Social and Political Issues (media/ racism/ immigration/ terrorism/ world of work) PROGRESSION For further information see: Mrs E Guppy 13
(AS + A2 = A) SPANISH (WJEC) AS 3 Units A2 Unit 1: Speaking (non-exam) 12% Task 1: Arguing a point of view (based on written stimulus). Task 2: Discussion (based on a second written stimulus). Unit 3: Speaking (non-exam) Independent research project a) Presentation of research project. b) Discussion on the content of the research project. Unit 2: Listening, Reading and Translation Exam 28% Section A: Listening. Section B: Reading. Section C: Translation from Spanish into English. Section D: Critical response to writing Subject Content: A: Leisure and lifestyles (Travel and tourism, sport, hobbies, entertainment, customs, traditions, healthy living and exercise, unhealthy living- drugs, aids, smoking, alcohol)
B: The individual and society (Relationships and responsibilities; gender issues; youth culture; education; future careers) PROGRESSION For further information see: Miss N OSullivan 14 Unit 4: Listening, Reading and Translation Exam Section A: Listening. Section B: Reading. Section C: Translation from English into Spanish. Unit 5: Critical and Analytical Response in Writing 1 x essay (based on a piece of literature). Subject Content: C: Environmental Issues (Technology, pollution, global warming, transport, energy, nuclear energy, renewable energy, conservation, recycling) D: Social and Political Issues (Role of media; racism; immigration; social exclusion and integration; terrorism; world of work) (AS + A2 = A) CYMRAEG AIL IAITH WELSH SECOND LANGUAGE AS (WJEC) AS
Unit 1: 20% Unit 4: 15% play in production Oral Examination Oral Examination Content: Watching and discussing the film Hedd Wyn. A group oral examination with the opportunity to discuss all aspects of the production. Content: The Welsh Drama Siwan by Sanders Lewis Group oral examination. Unit 2: 15% Coursework Unit 5: 20% 2hour Written paper Content: A Rough Guide to any aspect of life in Wales, e.g. a specific area in Wales. Unit 3: 15% Content: Written examination, based on short stories studied in class. Unit 6: 15% Written paper Content:
Question 1: Grammar - idioms and correcting sentences. Question 2: Based on poetry studied in class. 2 hour Written paper Content: Written examination paper based on poetry studied in class. PROGRESSION This is a very valued A level for students wishing to enter university for degree level work. It is also particularly useful for students contemplating any manner of employment within Wales and beyond. For further information see: Mr S Monk 15 (AS + A2 = A) GEOGRAPHY (WJEC) As with many of the A Levels in 2016/17 you will be following a new syllabus in Geography. It has changed quite considerably from the last course and is outlined below: AS The AS course can be done as a stand-alone exam or as part of the whole A2 course. In the past, nearly all students have completed the whole A2. Unit 1: Changing Landscapes (2 hour exam, 24% of final mark) Tectonic Hazards Glacial Landscapes Unit 2: Changing Places (1 hour 30 minute exam, 16% of final mark)
Changing Places Fieldwork in Physical and Human Geography Two Fieldwork Days: One day investigating glacial environments at Cwm Idwal in Snowdonia and one day investigating urban and rural change at Pattingham in Staffordshire and in the CBD of Birmingham. A2 Unit 3: Global Systems & Global Governance (2 hour exam, 24% of final mark) Water & Carbon Cycles Global Migration Global Governance of the Worlds Oceans 21st Century Challenges: Data response questions on any topic from Units 1, 2 or 3. Unit 4: Contemporary Themes in Geography (2 hour exam, 16% of final mark) Tectonic Environments (building on knowledge from Year 12) Energy Challenges Weather & Climate Unit 5: Independent Investigation (20% of final mark) Independent student fieldwork investigation of 3000-4000 words We will do a 3 day residential field trip in June/July, probably to Aberystwyth University to give you ideas for the project and to practice fieldwork techniques You will then choose a topic to investigate
and collect the fieldwork in the summer holiday between your AS and A2 years PROGRESSION All universities accept Geography as an entry qualification for a wide variety of degree courses. Geography equips students with a broad range of key skills together with an excellent understanding of global and environmental issues and the physical and human worlds around them. For further information see: Mr R Pengelly 16 (AS + A2 = A) HISTORY AS (WJEC) A2 Unit 1: Period study :1 hour 30 mins 20% - 60 marks Political and Religious change in Europe c1500-1598. Unit 2: Depth study :1 hour 45 mins 20% - 60 marks Unit 3: Breadth study :1 hour 45 mins 20% - 60 marks The American Century 1890-1990. Unit 4: Depth study :1 hour 45 mins 20% - 60 marks The Civil War 1642-1660. The Civil War 1629-1642. Unit 5: Historical Interpretations Trench Warfare in World War 1 - Lions led by donkeys. Coursework 20% - 60 marks. PROGRESSION
This course can lead to the further study of History at University. Successful completion of the course would prove useful in a wide variety of careers including Law, Journalism and teaching. For further information see: Mr N Butler 17 (AS+A2=A) A LEVEL PSYCHOLOGY (WJEC) We follow the WJEC A-Level Psychology syllabus, which is designed to give students an understanding of the breadth of study in psychology. There are opportunities for practical experience of the subject too, with a variety of investigations to be undertaken. Unit 1 Psychology: Past to Present Assessed by a written exam of 1hr 30mins and worth 20% of final A level (50%of AS qualification) This unit aims to give a solid grounding in the basic core elements of psychology, looking at classic research and application of different approaches of psychology to different psychological therapies. In all, five psychological approaches are studied: the biological, psychodynamic, behaviourist, cognitive and the positive approaches. For each approach students must study the key assumptions, application through a therapy, the explanation of a formation of a relationship and a piece of key research. This unit tests the ability to know, understand and retain information and to analyse and evaluate that information from the perspectives of theory, methodology and ethical implications. Unit 2 Psychology: Investigating Behaviour Assessed by a written exam of 1hr 30mins and worth 20% of final A level (50%of AS qualification) The second AS unit requires students to consider various contemporary debates within psychology. Each of these debates is linked to one of the five approaches in Unit 1 and includes consideration of ethical, social, cultural and economic factors. Students will also focus on two pieces of classic research, drawn from the work into obedience and child development. Finally, this unit requires students to demonstrate a sound understanding of psychological research methods and includes planning, conducting and reporting on their own psychological investigations. This experience will enable them to apply these skills to the consideration of other research, and to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of psychological investigations. Unit 3 Psychology: Implications in the Real World Assessed by a written exam of 2hr 30mins and worth 40% of final A level qualification
The first of the two A2 units requires students to study three different behaviours in depth. The behaviours that can be studied are addictive behaviour, autistic spectrum behaviour, bullying behaviours, criminal behaviours, schizophrenia and stress and a selection of three topics will be made (by the teacher) from this list. In each case students need to understand and evaluate the biological, individual differences and social psychological explanations for the chosen behaviours and critically consider two methods of modifying this behaviour. The second part of this unit involves looking at controversies in psychology and understanding why each issue is controversial. Students are also required to makes judgements about the nature of issues and come to conclusions from a psychological perspective. 18 A LEVEL PSYCHOLOGY continued Unit 4 Psychology: Applied Research Methods Assessed by a written exam of 1hr 30mins and worth 20% of final A level qualification This final unit is based on students individual practical experience. They are required to conduct two investigations using two different research methods and they will then be examined on the understanding they have gained of research methods and considerations of validity, reliability and inferential statistics. This unit builds on the research method skills gained in AS unit 2, and these skills must also be applied to a novel scenario presented in the final exam. The research investigations to be undertaken are specified by the exam board and could include experiments, observational studies, case studies or surveys/questionnaires. It is important that students have solid mathematical skills in order to complete both units with a focus on research methods. PROGRESSION Psychology is research based and develops skills essential to academic university life. Reading Psychology helps students to develop analytical and evaluative skills and to gain an understanding of other people and themselves. Psychology graduates have skills suitable for careers in numerous areas: - Advertising, Television research, Public relations, Insurance, Marketing, Personnel, Research/Industrial/Educational/Clinical Psychologist, Therapist, Police work, Social Care and Health Service Management to name a few. For further information see: Mrs V Jones 19 POLITICS AQA (AS+A2=A Level)
AS UK Government & Politics Unit 1 People, Politics & Participation; Electoral Systems; Political Parties; Pressure Groups. Examination end of year - 1 hour paper 25% of total mark Unit 2 The British Constitution; Parliament; The Core Executive; Multi-level Governance. Examination end of year - 1 hour paper 25% of total mark A2 USA Government & Politics Unit 3 - The Politics of the USA The Electoral Process and Direct Democracy; Political Parties; Voting Behaviour; Pressure Groups. Examination end of year - 1 hour paper 25% of total mark Unit 4 - The Government of the USA The Constitutional Framework of US Government; The Legislative Branch of Government: US Congress; The Executive Branch of Government; The Judicial Branch of Government: The Supreme Court. Examination end of year - 1 hour paper 25% of total mark For further information see: Mrs K Grindley or Mr S McDermott 20 (AS+A2=A) MUSIC AS Unit 1: Performance 12% of A Level You will perform a minimum of two pieces (with or without accompaniment) lasting 6-8
minutes in total. These performances can be solos or ensembles. The performances are marked by a visiting examiner. (WJEC) A2 Unit 4: Extended Performance Pupils have two options: Option A: 10-12 minute performance. 22% of qualification (minimum 3 pieces). Unit 2: Composition 12% of A Level You will create two compositions, one of which will be in response to a brief set by the WJEC. You will complete a log and have to provide a score for the examiner. Unit 3: Developing Musical Understanding 16% of A Level This unit is assessed through a listening exam based on two areas of study, including the Symphony and Rock and Pop. Option B: 6-8 minute performance. 14% of qualification (minimum of 2 pieces). Unit 5 Composition & Technical Study Pupils have two options: Option A: 3-6 minute compositions. 14% of qualification. Option B: 5-9 minute compositions. 22% of qualification.
Both have to follow a brief set by the WJEC in one composition. Unit 6: Further Musical Understanding 24% of A Level An exam that will assess knowledge through the areas of study including the Symphony and Pop music. For further information see Miss G Charles 21 DRAMA AND THEATRE STUDIES AS (WJEC) A Unit 1: Theatre Workshop 24% Candidates will create, develop and perform a piece of theatre based on an extract from a text. Candidates will also produce a log and evaluation of their work. Unit 3: Text in Action 36% A. Candidates will perform a scene from a text and a devised piece based on a given theme. B. Candidates will write an evaluation on both performances. Unit 2: Text in Theatre 16% Unit 4: Text in performance 24% 1 hour 30mins Written Paper
2 hours Written paper A. Candidates will answer a series of questions on a text under exam conditions. A. Candidates will answer two questions based on two different texts. PROGESSION AS and A level subject Theatre Studies combines well with a whole range of subjects. English Literature, Art, History and Psychology are, perhaps, the most obvious partners. The course enables students to progress to university, to drama colleges or to employment, and it offers the way to careers that require excellent communication and inter-personal skills. For further information see: Mrs F Davies 22 BTEC NATIONAL SUBSIDIARY AWARD IN BUSINESS BTEC LEVEL 3 Over the two years you will complete the following Core Units of Study: YEAR 12 YEAR 13 THE BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Understand the different types of business activity and ownership Understand different types of business information Understand how the type of business influences the setting of strategic aims and objectives
Be able to present business information effectively Understand the issues and constraints in relation to the use of business information in Understand functional activities and organisational structure organisations Know how external factors in the business environment impact on organisations Know how to communicate business information using appropriate methods BUSINESS RESOURCES You will also study two specialist units: Business Accounting and Creative Product Promotion Know how human resources are managed Understand the purpose of managing physical and technological resources You will enjoy this course if you would like to: Develop an understanding of how business works in the real world Understand how to access sources of finance Be able to interpret financial statements Discover the problems and opportunities faced by local, national and international businesses INTRODUCTION TO MARKETING
Understand the concept and principles of marketing and their application in the business environment Learn about how business functions such as marketing, finance, human and physical resources work together as part of a whole business Know how and why marketing research is conducted by organisations Take part in practical activities Understand how marketing information is used by organisations At the end of the course you will be awarded a Pass, Merit or Distinction. The BTEC is a different type of course and is graded differently than other A Level courses, however you will gain UCAS points on the same level as a traditional A Level so a DISTINCTION will give you the same point allocation as an A Grade. This course also allows access to the D* grade. Understand how marketing techniques are used to increase demand for products For further information see: Miss M Jones/Mrs C Francis-Jones 23 BTEC LEVEL 3 NATIONAL EXTENDED CERTIFICATE IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE (Edexcel/Pearson) This course offers a broad basis of study for the health and social care sector. This qualification is designed to support progression to higher education when taken as part of a programme of study that includes other appropriate BTEC Nationals or A Levels.
YEAR 12 YEAR 13 Unit 1 Effective Communication in Health and Social Care This unit aims to enable learners to understand effective communication, the barriers that may exist and ways to overcome these. The unit will give learners the opportunity to gain the interpersonal skills needed to embark on a career within the health or social care sectors. Unit 4 Development through the life stages This unit aims to enable learners to gain knowledge and understanding of the different stages throughout the human lifespan. Learners will be able to develop an understanding of both the physical and psychological changes of ageing and be able to apply theories of ageing to health and social care provision. Unit 2 Equality, Diversity and Rights in Health and Social Care This unit aims to develop learners understanding of concepts related to equality, diversity and rights in health and social care. Learners will be able to gain knowledge of discriminatory practice and means of combatting this. They will also develop understanding of national initiatives that promote anti-discriminatory practice in health and social care settings. Unit 3 Health, Safety and Security in Health and Social Care This unit aims to enable learners to gain an
understanding of the health, safety and security of individuals in a health and social care context. They will explore legislation, policies and procedures and gain an understanding of the purpose of risk analysis. Learners will also gain an understanding of how to deal with incidents and emergencies in a health and social care environment. Unit 14 Physiological Disorders This unit aims to develop learners understanding of the nature of physiological disorders. They will also be able to gain knowledge about the diagnosis and treatment of these disorders. Learners will, additionally, learn how to produce care pathways which include an understanding of strategies to support individuals with particular disorders. Unit 20 Promoting Health This unit aims to enable learners to understand the principles underpinning health education and related models of behaviour change. This will enable them to apply these principles to the design and implementation of a small health education campaign. BTEC is a national qualification recognised by employers and universities. All work is marked as a Pass, Merit, Distinction or Distinction* and at the end of the course you will be awarded an overall grade which based on the results of the internal and external assessments. Although a BTEC gives different grades than other A Level courses, you will gain UCAS points on the same level as traditional A Levels. This is a new course designed to replace the current Applied A Level in Health and Social Care, this means that this course may change if another suitable course becomes available. For further information see: Mrs A Cottrell 24 BTEC NATIONAL SUBSIDIARY IN
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BTEC LEVEL 3 This course is an excellent combination of practical, theory and real hands on IT. It gives you: the opportunity to gain a nationally recognised vocationally specific qualification to enter employment in the IT sector good grounding to progress to higher education vocational qualifications such as the Edexcel BTEC Higher National in Computing or IT based degree courses the opportunity to develop a range of skills and techniques, personal skills and attitudes essential for successful performance in working life The hands on and theory units will be delivered so that you are continually improving your ICT skills. You will cover the following units: E-commerce, Communication and Employability Skills and Computer Systems. All the units are delivered online - this allows you to progress at your own pace. Online learning supports study sessions and encourages independent learning. YEAR 13 Year 13 is a perfect opportunity for you to gain valuable skills: Time management Planning Organisation Independent working Practical application of IT Year 13 really prepares you for the future whether it be progression into further education, higher education or the world of work. This final year is very different and will mostly cover the practical application of IT for a given scenario. You will plan and deliver an IT project for a company of your choice. In doing this project you will cover the following units: Unit 17, Unit 28 Website Production and Unit 30 Creating Graphics. BTEC is a national qualification recognised by employers and universities and all work is marked as a Pass, Merit or Distinction. At the end of the course you will be awarded a
Pass, Merit or Distinction. The BTEC is a different type of course and is graded differently than other A Level courses, however you will gain UCAS points on the same level as a traditional A Level so a DISTINCTION will give you the same point allocation as a A Grade. This course also allows access to the D* grade. - For further information see: Mrs D Williams or Mrs C Francis-Jones 25 BTEC LEVEL 3 SUBSIDIARY Diploma in Hospitality The Diploma in Hospitality combines modules to develop practical cooking skills with the opportunity to explore the wider hospitality industry. It is an interesting course with a high practical element. Links with local and national hospitality businesses enable students to have a real insight into this large and varied industry. The modules covered include European Food, Advanced Skills and Techniques in Producing Desserts and Petits Fours, Planning and Managing a Hospitality Event as well as modules giving an overview of the Hospitality industry and how to provide excellent customer care and service. We are very fortunate as a department to have the new catering kitchen which we use for this course. During the course of study in Year 12 and Year 13, you will be awarded the level 3 BTEC Subsidiary Diploma if you meet all the course requirements. This can be achieved at a Pass, Merit, Distinction or Distinction Star level. This course prepares you for future study at higher education and/or a career in the hospitality and catering industry. You do not have to have studied Food or Hospitality at Key Stage 3 to be accepted onto this course as we aim to build upon a students current skills level. Aims of the course: To provide you with the knowledge and experience for a range of management careers within the hospitality and catering industry. To provide knowledge skills and motivation for you to progress to graduate and post graduate studies. To provide experience and skills in preparation for progression on to Chef training courses.
Course information: The course lasts for two years. You will have to complete seven units of work to gain the BTEC National Diploma (this involves a balance of written work and practical cooking). You will complete visits to establishments within the industry as part of the group and by yourself. You will complete a large scale event as part of one of your units. You will have the opportunity to complete the Level 2 Food Safety Award from the Chartered Institute of Environmental Health, which is nationally recognised. There is no examination; the course relies on the completion of the assessed units. You complete a portfolio of evidence for each separate unit. Future prospects: What you will learn: A knowledge of the hospitality industry Careers within the hotel industry Customer care Hotel management Food & beverage manager Health & hygiene safety Culinary skills Banqueting manager Head chef Service knowledge & skills Human resources manager Planning and organising events Professionalism and attention to detail Careers within the catering industry Running a kitchen Chefs - head chef, sous chef, comme Food standards chef Catering manager Hospitality manager- organising private functions & private dining events Restaurant manager Running your own business 26
University courses Possible courses that you could take: BA (Hons) Culinary Arts Management FdA Culinary Arts Management BSc (Hons) Food and Consumer Management FdSc Food and Consumer Management BA (Hons) Events Management FdA Events Management BA (Hons) Hospitality and Food Management FdA Hospitality and Food Management BA Hospitality and Tourism Business Administration FdA Hospitality and Tourism Business Administration BA (Hons) Hospitality and Tourism Management FdA Hospitality and Tourism Management BA (Hons) Hospitality Business Management FdA Hospitality Business Management BA (Hons) Hospitality with Events Management FdA Hospitality with Events Management BA (Hons) Entertainment Management FdA Entertainment Management BA (Hons) Marketing with Hospitality Management Dip HE Marketing with Hospitality Management BA (Hons) Marketing with Events Management Dip HE Marketing with Events Management BA (Hons) Spa Management with Hospitality FdA Spa Management with Hospitality For more information see: Mrs M Rowland or Mrs R Lewis 27 PHYSICAL EDUCATION (WJEC) GCE, AS and A Level in Physical Education - Subject content: The WJEC, AS and A level in Physical Education provides a coherent combination of four areas of study: 1. Exercise physiology, performance analysis and training. 2. Sports Psychology. 3. Skill Acquisition. 4. Sport and society.
Any of the areas of study can be assessed in any of the units. The content can be assessed in Units 1 and 3 as part of the written examinations and in Units 2 and 4 as part of the analysis and evaluation of performance. The specification enables learners to understand the interrelationships between the areas of study and apply them in a variety of contexts. SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT This specification is divided into a total of 4 units, 2 AS units and 2 A2 units. Weightings noted below are expressed in terms of the full A Level qualification. AS (2 units) A Level Units (AS units plus a further 2 units) Unit 1: Exploring physical education Written examination: 1 hour 45 mins 24% of qualification / 72 marks Unit 3: Evaluating physical education Written examination: 2 hours 36% of qualification / 90 marks To assess all AS subject content. Question types: Contextualised questions to include multiple choice, data response, short and extended answers. To assess all A Level subject content. Question types: A range of questions to include data response, short and extended answers. Unit 2: Improving personal performance in physical education Non-exam assessment 16% of qualification / 48 marks To assess:
1.Practical performance in one activity as a player/performer. 2. Practical performance as a coach or official. 3. Personal performance profile. Unit 4: Refining personal performance in physical education Non-exam assessment 24% of qualification / 60 marks To assess: 1.Practical performance in one activity as a player/performer, coach or official. 2. Investigate Research. PROGRESSION Physical Education is used by many students as a vehicle to enable them to study sports-related courses in Higher Education. For others it is a subject of great enjoyment which they can combine with other A levels in order to study any wide range of degrees at university. There is no problem combining other subjects and recent students have found Biology and Psychology to be particularly helpful in the study of Physical Education. For further information see: Mr B Jones/Miss W Langford 28 MEDIA STUDIES SUMMARY OF ASSESSMENT This specification is divided into a total of 4 units, 2 AS units and 2 A2 units. AS (2 units) A2 (2 units) Unit 1: MS1 25% (50%) External Assessment: 2 hour written paper Media Representations and Responses Three compulsory questions on unseen audio-visual or print-based material (interactive media will be presented as printbased) (40, 30 &30).
Paper raw mark total: 100 Paper UMS total: 100 Unit 3: MS3 25% Internal Assessment Media Investigation and Production Three components: a written investigation into media text(s) based on one or more of the key media concepts - genre, narrative and/or representation (45); a media production (45); and an evaluation of how the production is informed by the investigative research (10) (Group work permitted for audio-visual productions only) Paper raw mark total: 100 Paper UMS total: 100 Unit 2: MS2 25% (50%) Internal Assessment Media Production Processes Three components: One pre-production (20); One production which develops from the preproduction (40); and one report on the production process (40) (Group work permitted for audio-visual productions only) Paper raw mark total: 100 Paper UMS total: 100 Unit 4: MS4 25% External Assessment: 2 hour written paper Media - Text, Industry and Audience Three questions (30 marks per question) Section A: One question from a choice of two. Section B: Two questions from a choice of four. Candidates must answer each question on a different media industry. Paper raw mark total: 90 Paper UMS total: 100
Students will study a variety of media texts, including films, television, advertising, computer games, magazines, newspapers, video games, music videos, CD covers. There is a large creative element to the course where students produce their own magazine covers and contents pages in Year 12 and produce their own music videos, film trailers or TV trailers in Year 13. For further information contact: Mr C Haskew 29 WELSH BACCALAUREATE (WBQ) Bagloriaeth Cymru (CBC) The central focus of the Welsh Baccalaureate at Advanced level is to provide a vehicle for level 3 learners to consolidate and progress the development of essential and employability skills. The qualification will help learners develop more complex skills, attributes and behaviours. It will provide experiences which will enable learners to be better prepared for their future destinations, whether university, further training or employment. The Welsh Baccalaureate will encourage the learner to value skills development as a key aspect of education and life-long learning. Offering a learning experience relevant to the needs and demands of the workplace will develop learners confidence, drive and initiative, preparing them to enter, succeed and progress in the world of work. The Welsh Baccalaureate is based on a Skills Challenge Certificate alongside Supporting Qualifications. The Skills Challenge Certificate consists of four components which are followed by all learners: Individual Project Enterprise and Employability Challenge Global Citizenship Challenge Community Challenge These four areas of study are delivered through formal lessons with specialist teachers. The Challenges are designed to develop the essential and employability skills of: Literacy Numeracy Digital Literacy Critical thinking and Problem Solving Creativity and Innovation Personal Effectiveness Success in the top four areas of study will give you the Skills Challenge Certificate. If you successfully achieve 2 A levels or BTEC equivalent, along with GCSE Mathematics Numeracy and English Language, both at grades A*- C, then you will receive the full WBQ Advanced Award.
After you have finished the teaching required for each challenge you will complete a controlled assessment. In the controlled assessment you will show, through a variety of difference evidence, how your skills have developed. The grades for the four challenges will be added up to create your overall gradefrom A* to E There is a range of assessment from taking part in a conference to creating a business plan for an innovative idea! The range of assessments are interesting and useful and will provide you with purposeful evidence for University Personal Statements and interviews. Career progress: the Advanced Welsh Baccalaureate has the same value as any other A Level and will be accepted by all but a small number universities in the UK. The Welsh Baccalaureate has been designed alongside stakeholders at all levels including employers and universities; I believe the Welsh Baccalaureate core, along with 3 A levels will set them up in good stead ready for university DR SAMINA KHAN (Director for Undergraduate Admissions Oxford University) 30 COLLABORATIVE PROVISION ACROSS NORTH POWYS The three schools in North Powys, Welshpool, Llanfair and Llanfyllin, and Coleg Powys have worked effectively together to provide an extended range of subjects. Together the three schools, Trisgol, and Coleg Powys are able to provide a range of qualifications which encompass traditional academic subjects and exciting new vocational courses for all our learners. On the following pages are courses which post-16 learners can access and study with our partner institutions. FURTHER MATHEMATICS - WJEC AS/A Level Further Mathematics is for students who want more variety or challenge in their maths. It can only be studied in conjunction with AS/A Level Maths. The double A level course is for those students who truly love mathematics and who wish to study mathematics, physics or engineering at university. To gain an AS in Further Mathematics, 2 additional units are needed in addition to the 2 AS Maths units. To gain an A Level in Further Mathematics, all the A Level Mathematics units must be taken plus an additional 4 units which continue and extend the Mathematics units. From September 2017 the AS/A Level is changing significantly and at the time of writing some details are still to be decided. However, as currently, assessment will be via external exams for each unit. There is no coursework. Careers Career opportunities are many and varied: accountancy, actuarial work, architecture, astronomy, banking, building societies, computing, economics, engineering, hospital administration, insurance, market research, quantity surveying and teaching.
Entry requirements/skills Students wishing to follow this course should have obtained an A or A* grade GCSE Mathematics and Mathematics-Numeracy. It is an advantage to have studied for the Certificate in Additional Maths. Students will need to be prepared to study some sections of the course independently. For AS Further Mathematics Unit 1 Pure Mathematics (13.3%) For A Level Further Mathematics Unit 3 Pure Mathematics (40%) Unit 2 Mechanics & Statistics (26.7%) Unit 4 Mechanics (20%) or Statistics (20%) Life is good for only two things, discovering mathematics and teaching mathematics Simeon Poisson 31 BTEC LEVEL 3 NATIONAL EXTENDED CERTIFICATE IN ENGINEERING Edexcel Engineering concentrates on the technical, mathematical and practical elements of manufacturing. Pupils complete engineering tasks which get collated into a portfolio of evidence. If you enjoy hands on focussed practical tasks; working as an individual and in groups, using real brief set by existing engineering companies, then this is the course for you. Careers Edexcel's BTEC Level 3 National Extended Certificate in Engineering can provide a spring board to a University Degree or Foundation Degree in an appropriate vocational discipline, to BTEC Higher National qualifications (HNC's and HNDs), or to employment: Technical Engineer Manufacturing Engineer Maintenance Research and Development Mechanical Engineer Entry requirements / Skills
A practical person who has the patience and dedication required to manufacture components of a high tolerance. At least grade B in Mathematics at GCSE level. Students will complete tasks within the disciplines listed below: Mandatory Units 1: Engineering Principles 2: Delivery of Engineering Processes Safety as a team 3: Engineering Product Design and Manufacture Specialist Units 41: Manufacturing Secondary Machining Processes, or/ 44: Fabrication Manufacturing Processes 32 AGRICULTURE (Edexcel) Students in Year 12 study the Level 3 Certificate in Agriculture. This consists of 3 units chosen from an extensive list. Some examples include Livestock Husbandry, Estate Skills and Grassland Management. Students wishing to continue into Year 13 then study a further 3 units to gain a Level 3 Subsidiary Diploma in Agriculture. A compulsory unit (Animal Anatomy and Physiology) is followed by any two optional units e.g Participating in Business Planning and Improvement in the Land-based Sector. For a full list of units please visit the EDEXCEL website. Since Years 12 and 13 are taught as one teaching group, students are usually asked to sign up for two years in order to gain a valid qualification. Careers Careers related to agriculture include: Farm worker Farm management Equine Veterinary Science Small Animal Care Environmental work Assessment
All units will be assessed both internally and externally. A portfolio of evidence will be required to meet grading criteria. The portfolio may include projects, assignments, case study work, performance observations etc. Learners can achieve a Pass, Merit or Distinction grade, dependent on the level of competence Entry Requirements/Skills All students should have gained at least 3 grade Cs at GCSE level to include maths and science. Work experience within Agriculture would be an advantage but is not a compulsory requirement. 33 LEVEL 3 BTEC SUBSIDIARY DIPLOMA COURSES CHILDRENS CARE, LEARNING & DEVELOPMENT Course Content: This course prepares you to work in the exciting and stimulating area of children's care, learning and development. The programme structure includes a number of core units such as Positive Relationships for CCLD, Positive Environments for CCLD, Promoting Children's Development, Safeguarding Children and Reflecting on Practice in the CCLD sector plus other specialist units. Assessment: You will complete assessments, observations and satisfactory placement reports. Progression: You can go on to work in a variety of early years settings without supervision or open your own day care facility. You may also wish to continue your studies by progressing onto higher education. CREATIVE MEDIA (GAMES DEVELOPMENT) Course Content: This course is made up of a combination of common core units and optional units. Core units consist of Pre-production Techniques for the Creative Media Industries, Communication Skills and Research Techniques for the Creative Media Industries plus three other specialist units. Assessment: The majority of units are internally assessed by completing projects and coursework assignments based on realistic workplace scenarios. Progression: On successful completion of this qualification, learners may progress into employment, continue their study in the vocational area or progress to higher education. CREATIVE MEDIA (INTERACTIVE MEDIA) Course Content:
This course is made up of a combination of common core units and optional units. Core units consist of Pre-production Techniques for the Creative Media Industries, Communication Skills and Research Techniques for the Creative Media Industries plus three other specialist units. Assessment: The majority of units are internally assessed by completing projects and coursework assignments based on realistic workplace scenarios. Progression: On successful completion of this qualification, learners may progress into employment, continue their study in the vocational area or progress to higher education. 34 CREATIVE MEDIA (TV & FILM) Course Content: This course is made up of a combination of common core units and optional units. Core units consist of Pre-production Techniques for the Creative Media Industries, Communication Skills and Research Techniques for the Creative Media Industries plus three other specialist units. Assessment: The majority of units are internally assessed by completing projects and coursework assignments based on realistic workplace scenarios. Progression: On successful completion of this qualification, learners may progress into employment, continue their study in the vocational area or progress to higher education. PUBLIC SERVICE Course Content: The course is for learners who would like to gain employment in the public services uniformed and non-uniformed. The course comprises of a number of modules which include: Government, Policies and the Public Services, Leadership and Teamwork in the Public Services and Citizenship, Diversity and the Public Services plus two other specialist units. Assessment: You will be assessed through a range of projects and assignments that are based on realistic workplace situations, activities and demands. Progression: You could continue into higher education or progress directly into employment in the Public Sector TRAVEL & TOURISM Course Content: On this course you will study: Investigating the Travel and Tourism Sector, The Business of Travel and
Tourism, The UK as a Destination, Customer Service in Travel and Tourism plus two other specialist units. Assessment: Units will be assessed through a combination of methods that include assignments, case studies, log books, practical skill observations, witness testimonies, oral questioning, written questioning, verbal presentation and project work. Progression: You could continue on to higher education or gain employment in a related area. 35 NPTC Group Art & Design Department Newtown Campus AS/A2 PHOTOGRAPHY This course will give you the opportunity to develop technical and artistic skills in photography. You will be producing exciting creative work in both digital and traditional media, using specialist facilities; darkroom, lighting studio and our newly upgraded Mac computer suite. You will develop knowledge of darkroom practice as well as how to manipulate images digitally, using Adobe Photoshop, within the context of thematic projects. You will also learn specialist vocabulary and gain a knowledge and understanding of historical and contemporary photographers and relevant artists and designers. AS Level Year 1 Unit 1: Personal Creative Enquiry. A2 Level Year 2 Unit 2: Personal Investigation. Unit 3: Externally Set Assignment. Entry Requirements You will generally need 4 appropriate GCSEs at grades C or above, an Art and Design First Diploma or equivalent. You do not necessarily need an artistic background to take this course, just enthusiasm and commitment! Career Prospects From this AS/A2 programme students can progress to the Foundation Diploma in Art & Design L3/4 course at NPTC Group or directly to university or employment. Study Mode Full-time/Part-time
Campus Newtown Course Length 2 years part-time Course Time Please call to discuss or see the Consortium Timetable. Exam Board WJEC Assessment Practical project work, digital sketchbooks and assignments. Written and verbal feedback is given frequently on how to improve your work. There is an externally set assignment at the end of the A2 year. 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47