Chapter 9 Models of Chemical Bonding 9-1 Models of Chemical Bonding 9.1 Atomic Properties and Chemical Bonds 9.2 The Ionic Bonding Model 9.3 The Covalent Bonding Model 9.4 Bond Energy and Chemical Change 9.5 Between the Extremes: Electronegativity and Bond Polarity 9.6 An Introduction to Metallic Bonding 9-2
Figure 9.1 9-3 A comparison of metals and nonmetals. Types of Chemical Bonding Ionic bonding involves the transfer of electrons and is usually observed when a metal bonds to a nonmetal. Covalent bonding involves the sharing of electrons and is usually observed when a nonmetal bonds to a nonmetal. Metallic bonding involves electron pooling and occurs when a metal bonds to another metal. 9-4
Figure 9.2 9-5 Three models of chemical bonding. Figure 9.3 9-6 Gradations in bond type among Period 3 (black type) and Group 4A (red type) elements. Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols To draw the Lewis symbol for any main-group element:
Note the A-group number, which gives the number of valence electrons. Place one dot at a time on each of the four sides of the element symbol. Keep adding dots, pairing them, until all are used up. Example: Nitrogen, N, is in Group 5A and therefore has 5 valence electrons. or N or
9-7 or N N
N Lewis Symbols and Bonding For a metal, the total number of dots in the Lewis symbol is the number of electrons the atom loses to form a cation. For a nonmetal, the number of unpaired dots equals - the number of electrons the atom gains to form an anion - or the number it shares to form covalent bonds. The octet rule states that when atoms bond, they lose, gain, or share electrons to attain a filled outer level of 8 electrons (or 2, for H and Li). 9-8
Figure 9.4 Lewis electron-dot symbols for elements in Periods 2 and 3. 9-9 The Ionic Bonding Model An ionic bond is formed when a metal transfers electrons to a nonmetal to form ions, which attract each other to give a solid compound. The total number of electrons lost by the metal atom(s) equals the total number of electrons gained by the nonmetal atoms. 9-10
Figure 9.5 Three ways to depict electron transfer in the formation of Li+ and F-. Electron configurations Li 1s22s1 + F 1s22p5 Li+ 1s2 + F- 1s22s22p6 Orbital diagrams Li
+ 1s 2s 2p F
1s 2s 2p Li+ F- 1s 2s
2p 1s 2s 2p Lewis electron-dot symbols
9-11 Li F Li
+ + F - Sample Problem 9.1 Depicting Ion Formation PROBLEM: Use partial orbital diagrams and Lewis symbols to depict the formation of Na+ and O2 ions from the atoms, and
determine the formula of the compound formed. PLAN: Draw orbital diagrams and Lewis symbols for Na and O atoms. To attain filled outer levels, Na loses one electron and O gains two. Two Na atoms are needed for each O atom so that the number of electrons lost equals the number of electrons gained. SOLUTION: 9-12 Na
O Na 2Na+ + O 2- Sample Problem 9.1
Na 3s Na + 3p O 2s
3s 3p 2Na+ + O2- 2s 2p
The formula is Na2O 9-13 2p Figure 9.6 Na(s) 9-14
The exothermic formation of sodium bromide. Br2(l) NaBr(l) Figure 9.7 9-15 The Born-Haber cycle for lithium fluoride. Periodic Trends in Lattice Energy Lattice energy is the energy required to separate 1 mol of an ionic solid into gaseous ions. Lattice energy is a measure of the strength of the ionic bond.
Coloumbs Law Electrostatic energy Electrostatic energy 9-16 charge A x charge B distance cation charge x anion charge cation radius + anion radius Holattice Periodic Trends in Lattice Energy
Lattice energy is affected by ionic size and ionic charge. As ionic size increases, lattice energy decreases. Lattice energy therefore decreases down a group on the periodic table. As ionic charge increases, lattice energy increases. 9-17 Figure 9.8 9-18 Trends in lattice energy. Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds tend to be hard, rigid, and brittle, with
high melting points. Ionic compounds do not conduct electricity in the solid state. In the solid state, the ions are fixed in place in the lattice and do not move. Ionic compounds conduct electricity when melted or dissolved. In the liquid state or in solution, the ions are free to move and carry a current. 9-19 Figure 9.9 9-20
Why ionic compounds crack. Figure 9.10 Solid ionic compound 9-21 Electrical conductance and ion mobility. Molten ionic compound Ionic compound
dissolved in water Table 9.1 Melting and Boiling Points of Some Ionic Compounds Compound bp (C) CsBr 636 1300 NaI
661 1304 MgCl2 714 1412 KBr 734 1435
CaCl2 782 >1600 NaCl 801 1413 LiF 845
1676 KF 858 1505 2852 3600 MgO 9-22
mp (C) Figure 9.11 Ion pairs formed when an ionic compound vaporizes. Interionic attractions are so strong that when an ionic compound is vaporized, ion pairs are formed. 9-23 Figure 9.12 9-24 Covalent bond formation in H2.
Figure 9.13 Distribution of electron density in H2. At some distance (bond length), attractions balance repulsions. 9-25 Electron density is high around and between the nuclei. Bonding Pairs and Lone Pairs Atoms share electrons to achieve a full outer level of electrons. The shared electrons are called a shared pair
or bonding pair. The shared pair is represented as a pair of dots or a line: H H or HH An outer-level electron pair that is not involved in bonding is called a lone pair, or unshared pair.
9-26 F F or FF
Properties of a Covalent Bond The bond order is the number of electron pairs being shared by a given pair of atoms. A single bond consists of one bonding pair and has a bond order of 1. The bond energy (BE) is the energy needed to overcome the attraction between the nuclei and the shared electrons. The stronger the bond the higher the bond energy. The bond length is the distance between the nuclei of the bonded atoms. 9-27 Trends in bond order, energy, and length For a given pair of atoms, a higher bond order results in a
shorter bond length and higher bond energy. For a given pair of atoms, a shorter bond is a stronger bond. Bond length increases down a group in the periodic table and decreases across the period. Bond energy shows the opposite trend. 9-28 Table 9.2 Average Bond Energies (kJ/mol) and Bond Lengths (pm) 9-29 Table 9.3 The Relation of Bond Order, Bond Length, and Bond Energy 9-30
133 pm Sample Problem 9.2 Comparing Bond Length and Bond Strength PROBLEM: Using the periodic table, but not Tables 9.2 or 9.3, rank the bonds in each set in order of decreasing bond length and decreasing bond strength: (a) SF, SBr, SCl (b) C=O, CO, CO PLAN: (a) S is singly bonded to three different halogen atoms, so the bond order is the same. Bond length increases and bond strength decreases as the atomic radius of the halogen
increases. (b) The same two atoms are bonded in each case, but the bond orders differ. Bond strength increases and bond length decreases as bond order increases. 9-32 Sample Problem 9.2 SOLUTION: (a) Atomic size increases going down a group, so F < Cl < Br. Bond length: SBr > SCl > SF Bond strength: SF > SCl > SBr (b) By ranking the bond orders, we get Bond length: CO > C=O > CO Bond strength: CO > C=O > CO
9-33 Figure 9.15 Strong forces within molecules and weak forces between them. 9-34 Figure 9.16 9-35 Covalent bonds of network covalent solids: quartz and diamond. Tools of the Laboratory
Infrared Spectroscopy Figure B9.1 Vibrational motions in general diatomic and triatomic molecules. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 9-36 Tools of the Laboratory Figure B9.2 9-37 Infrared Spectroscopy The infrared (IR) spectrum of acrylonitrile.
Tools of the Laboratory Figure B9.3 9-38 Infrared Spectroscopy The infrared (IR) spectra of 2-butanol (green) and diethyl ether (red). Tools of the Laboratory Figure B9.4 9-39
Infrared Spectroscopy The infrared (IR) spectra of 1,3-dimethylbenzene (green) and 1,4-dimethylbenzene (red). Bond Energies and Horxn The heat released or absorbed during a chemical change is due to differences between the bond energies of reactants and products. Hrxn = Hreactant bonds broken+ Hproduct bonds formed 9-40 Figure 9.17 9-41
Using bond energies to calculate Hrxn for HF formation. Figure 9.18 9-42 Using bond energies to calculate Hrxn for the combustion of methane. Sample Problem 9.3 Using Bond Energies to Calculate Hrxn PROBLEM: Calculate Hrxn for the chlorination of methane to form
chloroform. H H PLAN: 9-43 C H H + 3 Cl Cl Cl
C Cl + 3 H H Cl bonds broken H positive bonds formed H negative Cl
All the reactant bonds break, and all the product bonds form. Find the bond energies in Table 9.2 and substitute the two sums, with correct signs, into Equation 9.2. Sample Problem 9.3 SOLUTION: For bonds broken: 4 x C-H = (4 mol)(413 kJ/mol) = 1652 kJ 3 x Cl-Cl = (3 mol)(243 kJ/mol) = 729 kJ Hbonds broken = 2381 kJ For bonds formed: 3 x C-Cl = (3 mol)(-339 kJ/mol) = -1017 kJ 1 x C-H = (1 mol)(-413 kJ/mol) = -413 kJ 3 x H-Cl = (3 mol)(-427 kJ/mol) = -1281 kJ Hbonds formed = -2711 kJ
Hreaction = Hbonds broken + H bonds formed = 2381 kJ + (-2711 kJ) = - 330 kJ 9-44 Figure 9.19 9-45 Relative bond strength and energy from fuels. Table 9.4 Enthalpies of Reaction for Combustion of Some Foods Substance Hrxn (kJ/g)
table sugar (sucrose) -16.2 brown rice -14.9 maple syrup -10.4 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity A covalent bond in which the shared electron pair is not shared equally, but remains closer to one atom than the
other, is a polar covalent bond. The ability of an atom in a covalent bond to attract the shared electron pair is called its electronegativity. Unequal sharing of electrons causes the more electronegative atom of the bond to be partially negative and the less electronegative atom to be partially positive. 9-47 Figure 9.20 Bonding between the models. Polar covalent bonds are much more common than either pure ionic or pure covalent bonds.
9-48 Figure 9.21 9-49 The Pauling electronegativity (EN) scale. Trends in Electronegativity The most electronegative element is fluorine. In general electronegativity decreases down a group as atomic size increases. In general electronegativity increases across a period as atomic size decreases. Nonmetals are more electronegative than metals.
9-50 Figure 9.22 9-51 Electronegativity and atomic size. Electronegativity and Oxidation Number Electronegativities can be used to assign oxidation numbers: The more electronegative atom is assigned all the shared electrons. The less electronegative atom is assigned none of the shared electrons. Each atom in a bond is assigned all of its unshared
electrons. O.N. = # of valence e- (# of shared e- + # of unshared e-) 9-52 Example: H Cl Cl is more electronegative than H, so for Cl: valence e- = 7 shared e=2 unshared e- = 6 O.N.
= 7 (2 + 6) = -1 H is less electronegative than Cl, so for H: valence e- = 1 shared e= 0 (all shared e- assigned to Cl) unshared e- = 0 O.N. = 1 (0 + 0) = +1 9-53 Depicting Polar Bonds The unequal sharing of electrons can be depicted by a polar arrow. The head of the arrow points to the more electronegative element. H
F A polar bond can also be marked using + and - symbols. 9-54 H F Figure 9.23
Electron density distributions in H2, F2, and HF. In HF, the electron density shifts from H to F. The HF bond has partial ionic character. 9-55 Figure 9.24 9-56 EN ranges for classifying the partial ionic character of bonds. Figure 9.25
9-57 Percent ionic character as a function of EN. Sample Problem 9.4 Determining Bond Polarity from EN Values PROBLEM: (a) Use a polar arrow to indicate the polarity of each bond: NH, FN, ICl. (b) Rank the following bonds in order of increasing polarity: HN, HO, HC. PLAN: (a) We use Figure 9.21 to find the EN values for each element. The polar arrow points toward the more electronegative element. (b) The greater the EN between the atoms, the more polar
the bond. SOLUTION: (a) The EN values are: N = 3.0, H = 2.1; F = 4.0; I = 2.5, Cl = 3.0 NH 9-58 FN ICl Sample Problem 9.4 (b) The EN values are: N = 3.0, H = 2.1; O = 3.5; C = 2.5 EN for HN = 3.0 2.1 = 0.9 EN for HO = 3.5 2.1 = 1.4
EN for HC = 2.5 2.1 = 0.4 H-C < H-N < H-O 9-59 Figure 9.26 Electron density distributions in bonds of the Period 3 chlorides. There is a steady increase in electron sharing from left to right. 9-60 Figure 9.27
Properties of the Period 3 chlorides. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. As EN decreases, melting point and electrical conductivity decrease because the bond type changes from ionic to polar covalent to nonpolar covalent. 9-61 Metallic Bonding The electron sea model of metallic bonding proposes that: All metal atoms in the sample contribute their valence electrons to form a delocalized electron sea. The metal ions (nuclei with core electrons) lie in an orderly array within this mobile sea. All the atoms in the sample share the electrons. The metal is held together by the attraction between the
metal cations and the sea of valence electrons. 9-62 Properties of Metals Metals are generally solids with moderate to high melting points and much higher boiling points. Melting points decrease down a group and increase across a period. Metals can be shaped without breaking. The electron sea allows the metal ions to slide past each other. Metals are good conductors of electricity in both the solid and liquid states. The electron sea is mobile in both phases.
Metals are good conductors of heat. 9-63 Table 9.5 Melting and Boiling Points of Some Metals Element 9-64 mp (C) bp (C) Lithium (Li)
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