# Quantum model of an Atom Chapter 17 I

Quantum model of an Atom Chapter 17 I read Chapter 15 before coming to class 1. 2. 3. 4. Yes, the whole thing. Nope, essentially none. Well some, more than . A little only. 0% 0%

0% 0% A little only. Yes, the whole thing. Nope, essentially ...Well some, more t... 0 of 250 10 The wave nature of moving particles is interpreted as being 250 1.

2. 3. 0 An up and down path that the particle travels in as it moves. A back and forth path that the particle travels in as it moves. Not a traditional wave at all but instead is a function that tells us the probability of detecting the particle. 90% 4%

An up and down pa.. A back and forth pa.. 6% Not a traditional w... Perspective fast slow Relativity Newtons Laws ok large Wave-Particle

Duality small Standing waves are created when 250 1. 2. 3. 0 Waves reflect and bounce back to where they started from. Waves wrap around and come back to where they started

from. Both 1 and 2 are ways standing waves can be created. 62% 38% 0% Waves reflect and... Waves wrap aroun... Both 1 and 2 are ... 10 Standing Waves 2 Dimensions

It is easy to create standing waves in 2 dimensions as well. Two waves on a drum head A single wave on a drum head Three waves on a drum head Wrap standing waves around a point These are patterns of vibration. Bohr Model Explained! Take de Broglies

waves and wrap them in a standing wave pattern around the nucleus. Put one wave , then two waves, then three waves, etc and you exactly predict the location of the Bohr radii! A CRUDE representation! The Quantum Model of the Atom Electrons are found in 3-D electron

probability waves. They do not orbit. Instead they exist in the locations given by standing wave clouds. We call these wave clouds orbitals to reflect the fact that the electrons do not orbit like a planet. Three Dimensional Atomic Orbitals The shape and energies of the actual orbitals depend on the number of standing waves in the pattern. They are found from solving the Shrdinger Wave equation: h2 8 2 m d2(x) x) dx2

Kinetic Energy + V(x) (x) = E(x) + Potential Energy = Total Energy Orbital Patterns One wave: Electrons will resonate in one pattern, called an s orbital. s Two waves: Electrons

will resonate two patterns, and p s in s orbitals p Orbital Patterns Three waves: Electrons will resonate in s, p and d orbitals. One orbital s p

d S Orbitals All numbers of standing waves have s orbitals. They are all round but their interiors are different. Still, in each case there is just one orbital. P Orbital

P orbitals come in sets of 3, whether there are 2 waves or 3 waves or more. D Orbitals D orbitals come in sets of 5, whether there are 3 waves or 4 waves or more. Orbital Patterns The pattern continues on as s, p, d, f, g, h, i, j, etc. Each new orbital set has two more orbitals than the previous one. Orbital Type s

p d f g h Orbitals in set 1 3 5 7 9

11 13 15 3 i Standing Waves 1 2 Orbital Types s s,p s,p,d s,p,d,f Total Orbitals

1 4 16 9 4 j The Pauli Exclusion Principle At most two electrons can occupy the same orbital. If two electrons are in the same orbital, they

must have different spins. e- e- Spin Down f 7 Spin Up Orbital Type Orbitals in set s 1 p 3

d 5 g 9 h i j 11 13 15 Electrons 2 6 10 14 18 22 26 30 Understanding Atoms

How do electrons fill the orbitals as we move along the periodic table? Electrons fill the lowest energy levels first. For the lighter atoms, fewer standing waves and simpler orbitals usually means lower energies. From here on Ill refer to number of standing High energy waves (x) physics lingo) Low energy as energy levels or shells 21 3 (x) chemistry lingo). Electrons in an Atom: Energy Wells Fill the lowest energy orbitals first

free electron Zero Energy Level 3 3d 3p 3s Level 2 2p 2s Energy Level 1 1s It is negative for a

bound electron Hydrogen free electron Level 3 3d 3p 3s Level 2 2p 2s Level 1 1s Helium free electron

Level 3 3d 3p 3s Level 2 2p 2s Level 1 1s Lithium free electron Level 3 3d 3p 3s

Level 2 2p 2s Level 1 1s Beryllium free electron Level 3 3d 3p 3s Level 2 2p 2s

Level 1 1s Boron free electron Level 3 3d 3p 3s Level 2 2p 2s Level 1 1s

Carbon free electron Level 3 3d 3p 3s Level 2 2p 2s Level 1 1s Nitrogen free electron Level 3 3d 3p

3s Level 2 2p 2s Level 1 1s Oxygen free electron Level 3 3d 3p 3s Level 2 2p

2s Level 1 1s 250 What is the maximum number of electrons in the entire set of p orbitals of any given shell? 25% 1. 2. 3. 4. 0 1 2 3

6 1 25% 2 25% 3 25% 6 How many orbitals all together are in the third shell by itself? 250 25%

1. 2. 3. 4. 0 3 5 9 16 3 25% 5 25% 9

25% 16 10 How many electrons total are in an atom that has the first and second shells completely filled? 250 25% 1. 2. 3. 4. 0

4 6 10 12 4 25% 6 25% 10 25% 12 10 Absorption line spectra revisited

The outer electron of any atom can jump up to higher orbitals creating a unique absorption spectrum for that element free electron Level 2 3d 3p 3s 2p 2s Level 1 1s Level 3

Emission line spectra revisited It can then fall down creating the emission spectrum for that element. free electron Level 2 3d 3p 3s 2p 2s Level 1 1s Level 3

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