Microbial Hazards Microbial Hazards Microorganisms are everywhere --

Microbial Hazards Microbial Hazards Microorganisms are everywhere --

Microbial Hazards Microbial Hazards Microorganisms are everywhere -- they can be: Pathogens cause disease Spoilers cause the quality of food to deteriorate Beneficial used for food production and present in and on the body Microbial Hazards 2

Types of Foodborne Illness Infection eating food contaminated with pathogens Intoxication eating food contaminated with the toxins (poisons) formed by bacteria eating food contaminated with other biological or chemical toxins (poisons) Toxin-mediated infection Eating food contaminated with pathogens that grow in

the body and form toxins (poisons) Microbial Hazards 3 Three Microbial Hazards Three microorganisms cause most foodborne illness: Bacteria Viruses Parasites

Microorganisms are: naturally present or get into the food through poor handling practices. Microbial Hazards 4 Common Symptoms Common symptoms of foodborne illness are:

diarrhea vomiting fever sore throat with fever jaundice Microbial Hazards

5 Bacteria Basics Invisible to the naked eye. Pathogenic bacteria only grow in potentially hazardous food. Some can produce spores. Some can produce toxins. Not necessarily destroyed by freezing or cooking. Can cause infection, intoxication, or toxinmediated infection. Microbial Hazards

6 Conditions for Bacterial Growth Potentially hazardous food neutral or slightly acidic (low acid) moist protein Time 4 hours or longer in the temperature danger zone Temperature

between 41oF (5oC) and 135oF (57oC) Microbial Hazards 7 Activity The Numbers Game Oxygen Some pathogenic bacteria require oxygen; others do not. Clostridium botulinum grows in the absence of oxygen. Absence of oxygen may occur in:

Vacuum packaged food Center of thick cooked foods, such as stew Garlic in oil Foil wrapped potatoes Cooked rice Microbial Hazards

9 Controlling Bacteria Good personal hygiene Only allow healthy workers to prepare food. Have all workers wash their hands properly and frequently. Prevent cross-contamination Store foods properly. Only use cleaned and sanitized utensils and surfaces for food preparation. Time-temperature control

Cook foods to proper temperatures. Hold foods at proper temperatures. Microbial Hazards 10 Common Foodborne Bacteria

Bacillus cereus Campylobacter Clostridium botulinum Clostridium perfringens E. coli Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Shigella Staphylococcus aureus Vibrio

Yersinia Microbial Hazards 11 Virus Basics Do not grow in food; use food as a vehicle to get from one person to another Can contaminate any food Cause most foodborne illnesses in the U.S. Invisible to the naked eye Cause foodborne infection not foodborne

intoxication Microbial Hazards 12 Controlling Viruses Prevent getting viruses into food because they might not be destroyed by cooking. Prevent introduction by: Only allowing healthy workers to prepare food Having all workers frequently and properly wash their hands

Buying all food from an approved and safe source Microbial Hazards 13 Common Foodborne Viruses Hepatitis A Norovirus Rotavirus Microbial Hazards

14 Parasite Basics Most are not visible to the naked eye Do not grow in food Found naturally in many animals pigs cats

rodents, and Fish Cause foodborne infection and not foodborne intoxication Microbial Hazards 15 Controlling Parasites in Food Get food from an approved and safe source Cook foods to proper temperatures

Properly freeze seafood to be served raw Wash hands frequently and properly Use safe water sources for food preparation and cleaning Microbial Hazards 16 Common Foodborne Parasites Anisakis simplex Cryptosporidium parvum

Cyclospora cayetanensis Giardia duodenalis Toxoplasma gondii Trichinella spiralis Microbial Hazards 17 Mold Basics Most spoil foods Some form toxins that can cause illness

Grow in a wide range of foods high acid, low moisture Freezing does not destroy Requires air to grow Microbial Hazards 18 Yeast Basics Cause food spoilage and not foodborne illness

Grow in a wide range of foods high acid, low moisture Produce a smell, bubbling, or a taste of alcohol when food spoils Easily destroyed by proper processing Microbial Hazards 19 Activity Who Am I?

Beef that is served rare Whole chicken that has been on the countertop for six hours Microbial Hazards 21 Coughing foodservice worker serving food in

a cafeteria Microbial Hazards 22 Who Am I? Uncooked pork Raw fish Microbial Hazards

23 Who Am I? Grapes Bread that has been stored in a moist environment Microbial Hazards 24 Who Am I?

Apple juice Jam Microbial Hazards 25

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