+ Fashion Fabric for Fashion / Amanda Johnston

+ Fashion Fabric for Fashion / Amanda Johnston

+ Fashion Fabric for Fashion / Amanda Johnston Introduction Fibres to fabrics Clive Hallett and Objectives

Describe the fibre to yarn process Recognize different methods of fabric construction Explain when dyeing can take place Identify different surface decoration techniques Describe the various fabric finishing processes Fibre to yarn The term fibre is applied to animal, vegetable or mineral substances Yarns are fibres spun together forming

continuous lengths of interlocked fibres Yarns are usually woven or knitted together into fabric and either dyed before or after this process All images in this presentation are subject to copyright. Copyright owners are listed in the book. By downloading these presentations you agree that they are for classroom use only. Fibre to yarn Carding is a brushing

process to align fibres in preparation for spinning Combing is an additional process after carding; it removes short fibres and gives a better and smoother finish Spinning is the process of twisting fibres together to bind them into a stronger, longer yarn All images in this presentation are subject to copyright. Copyright owners are listed in the book.

By downloading these presentations you agree that they are for classroom use only. Fibre to yarn Yarns are either Z twisted (to the right) or S twisted (to the left) Tightness of twist is measured in TPI (twists per inch) Two or more spun yarns twisted together is referred to as ply

All images in this presentation are subject to copyright. Copyright owners are listed in the book. By downloading these presentations you agree that they are for classroom use only. Fabric construction Weaving The 3 main weave types are plain weave, twill weave and satin weave Plain weave construc-tion has warps and wefts crisscrossing each other at right angles

Plain weaves can be coarse or smooth dependent on thread count All images in this presentation are subject to copyright. Copyright owners are listed in the book. By downloading these presentations you agree that they are for classroom use only. Fabric construction Twill weave has a visual diagonal effect; more pronounced effect on heavier fabrics

Twill-weave fabrics have a different appearance on face and reverse sides Higher/finer yarn counts can be used for twill weaving; when packed closely together they produce stronger, more durable fabrics All images in this presentation are subject to copyright. Copyright owners are listed in the book. By downloading these presentations you agree that they are for classroom use only.

Fabric construction Satin weave has a high sheen and smooth surface; has predominance of warp threads to the face side Sateen weave has a dull sheen and smooth surface; has predominance of weft threads Pile weaving is a technique used to make velvets and corduroys Double-cloth weaving creates fabrics with two face sides Fabric construction Jacquard loom weaving enables an unlimited variety

of designs; the term is applied to both woven and knitted fabrics Tapestry weaving is done on a vertical loom; warps are hidden Ikat weaving implies the threads have been dyed at predetermined intervals along their length Fabric construction Knitting Knitting refers to both sweater-knits (totally or partially constructed on a knitting machine) and Jerseywear garments such as T-shirts and polo shirts

(cut and made from knitted fabric) Term refers to any knitted fabric regardless of how fine it is Needle size, yarn thickness and stitch size dictates fineness of fabric Fabric construction The term gauge in machine knitting expresses the needle size The higher the gauge

number the finer the fabric Denier is a term used in very fine knitwear such as hosiery All images in this presentation are subject to copyright. Copyright owners are listed in the book. By downloading these presentations you agree that they are for classroom use only. Fabric construction Fully fashioned describes the shaping of knitwear by increasing and decreasing stitches in a row

Cut-and-sewn knitwear implies the fabric is first knitted and the garment is then cut and sewn in a similar way to woven fabrics Fabric construction Felting Felt is a non-woven cloth produced by condensing fibres together Felted fabrics predate woven and knitted

fabrics 30% wool necessary for felted fabric to hold together All images in this presentation are subject to copyright. Copyright owners are listed in the book. By downloading these presentations you agree that they are for classroom use only. Fabric construction Knotting Crocheting, lace making and macram are all forms of knotting Crocheting is produced using a hooked needle to pull

loops of yarn through other loops Lace is a lightweight fabric patterned with holes either by hand or machine; holes are created by loop twisting or braiding threads independently from backing fabric Macram is Arabic in origin; fabric is made by interlinking knots Dyeing Dyes are in liquid form or pigments (fine powder form) Dyeing is performed at either the yarn, fabric or garment stage

Yarn-dyed fabrics are more expensive but also more colourfast Fabric dyeing (piece dyeing) is a faster, less expensive process Garment dyeing is the least colourfast method Dyeing Resist dyeing is a method of patterning fabric by preventing dye reaching certain parts Resist dyeing methods

include wax or rice paste, stitching and tying, and chemical resist Stripping is a technique to create a design by removing unwanted dye All images in this presentation are subject to copyright. Copyright owners are listed in the book. By downloading these presentations you agree that they are for classroom use only. Surface decoration Printing

Hand-block printing uses engraved blocks to transfer dye onto the fabric Silk-screen printing involves dye drawn across a stencil Rotary-screen printing is used for designs of more than 5 colours Roller printing is used for large print runs Heat-transfer printing uses pre-printed paper to transfer colour onto the fabric Surface decoration Mordant printing uses a dye fixative to print a

design; dye colour only adheres to parts where the mordant has been printed In resist dyeing waxed areas do not take dye, leaving uncoloured patterns A bleaching agent is used in discharge printing to remove colour Digital printing has reduced cost and lead time; allows use of limitless colours Surface decoration Devor Also known as burn out

Describes effect achieved when part of a fabric composition is eaten away by the application of a corrosive paste Laser cutting and engraving Offers exclusivity to small-scale design brands as fabrics can be cut or engraved to intricate designs High temperature of laser beams seals the cut edges Surface decoration Embroidery Freehand embroidery is applied without regard to

weave structure Needlepoint and cross stitch are examples of countedthread embroidery In canvas work embroidery the under-fabric is completely covered Smocking is a technique used to gather fabric with decorative stitch-work Appliqu is a technique for attaching pieces of fabric with decorative stitch-work onto a base cloth Finishing processes Waterproofing treatments include oiling, waxing and chemical shower-proofing

Fabric enhancing includes brushing, milling, mercerizing and emerizing Additive treatments include chemical finishes such as anti-soiling and antibacterial treatments, as well as fire retardant treatments Key points Fibres are carded, combed and spun to produce yarn Weaving and knitting are the main fabric construction methods; alternative methods include felting and knotting Dyeing can be done at yarn, fabric or garment stage

Printing, devor, laser cutting and embroidery are different surface decoration techniques Finishing processes include waterproofing and chemical treatments to either enhance the appearance or function of a fabric

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