WORLD CIVILIZATION HISTORY 106 A COMPARATIVE INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY

WORLD CIVILIZATION HISTORY 106  A COMPARATIVE INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY

WORLD CIVILIZATION HISTORY 106 A COMPARATIVE INTERDISCIPLINARY STUDY OF THE HISTORY

OF HUMAN SOCIAL ORGANIZATION FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES UNTIL THE 17TH CENTURY Universals?

Necessities: (reproduction based): food, water, shelter, reproduction/ child raising?, waste, reflection, creativity, spiritual expression.

Subsistence: scavenging hunting-fishing/ gathering slash & burn (swidden) horticulture - pastoralism agriculture

Social Organization: family clan band/tribe nation (semi-nomadic, or nomadic) village town city city/ state state nation/ state.

Civilization Organized human responses to change, seeking equilibrium or being civilized. Well bred and

complaisant. Highly developed social organization. Change may be gradual or catastrophic

A daptations to change A gents of change

Culture Beliefs Observations (receptivity)

Environment Social

Geographic Theo-philosophic Political

Economic Technologic Ideological

Technologic > war/ invasion Economic

History: History is the interpretation of the incomplete written record or oral tradition of the

experiences of humans through the contexts of time. While history demands many types of critique such as political, economic, technological, or social critique all are dependant on documents and their

interpretation. History, like language, is very plastic. Society: A society is an artificial construction of a collection of linked formal and informal institutions that govern group

behavior. Culture:

Culture is the set of conscious and unconscious beliefs and assumptions about the way in which world works that governs individual behavior.

Diff usion: The movement or spread of one or more

elements of a society or culture from one place to another. Community:

Communities are formed from the interactions of culture and society. When individuals are united into groups by complimentary internal (cultural) and external (social) influences, the groups of people can be identified as communities.

Race: Biologically, there is only one race human. A ll other

categories of race are artificial social constructs of classification based on visual differences, cultural expressions, political necessity, and economic priority. What is commonly called race is really racism. The history of the concept of race parallels the development of the human identity.

Racism (also called ethnocentrism) When a labeled group is disadvantaged socially based on the artificial classifications of race by another group i n possession of the unearned

power and privilege to do so* . Ethnicity: Ethnicity refers to heritage or culture expressed over time. The cultural history of a group of people produces differences in

populations that give rise to ethnicity. Class: Class is the stratified level of economic opportunity within a culture or society. Class differences differences in opportunity and

access may be based on racism, ethnicity, gender, education, age, disability or a host of other recognized group classifications. Gender: For the purposes of this discussion, the term gender

will include gender orientations as in the case of gay men and lesbians. Nationality: Nationality is a political description of place of birth or naturalization.

A sibiya: Social glue (voluntary to coercive). What happened to the ancient and old civilizations?

A re all civilizations temporary? What about ours? Is there progress? Why do civilizations seem to rise and fall?

Determinism: Causation. Cause and effect models. Dialectic

x+ y = z. If you drop a ____, when it hits the ____, it makes_____. Theoretical orientation. Critique:

Identification of apparent conflicts and resolving those conflicts

Thesis A ntithesis

\ /

\ / \

/ \

/ \ /

Synthesis In addition there are some concepts that are useful in the discussion of

world civilization. Push Factor: Push factors cause individuals or groups to relocate from one place to another.

Pull Factor: Pull factors draw individuals or groups to a specific location.

Diaspora: Diaspora refers to the (often forced) dispersal of populations from a specific location to several locations throughout the world.

POLITICAL SYSTEMS Matriarchical societies and patriarchical societies. Families, bands, and tribes. Hunting and gathering.

Horticulture and settled agriculture. Pastoralism, nomadic and semi-nomadic societies. Agriculture and the rise of the state. Monarchy and theocracy.

Military organization and civilized life. The nation-state. Oligarchy and democracy. The republic & empire

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Altruism and egalitarian exchange. Agricultural surplus, division of labor, and

class divisions. Specialization of labor, labor organization, and production. The role of private property.

The concept of monetary capital and capitalism. Class and caste. Trade, mercantilism and economic

specializations. TECHNOLOGY Lithic technology and metallurgy.

Agriculture, astronomy, religion, and early scientific thought. Water technologies. Agricultural technologies.

Architecture. Military technologies. SOCIAL & CULTURAL SYSTEMS

Female and male gender roles. Feminist approaches to gender. Homosexualities, heterosexualities, intersexualities, and transgender issues.

Religion and religious diversity. Art and literature. Philosophy and reason. Migrations and population movement.

Urbanization and social consciousness SOCIAL & CULTURAL SYSTEMS Social justice, and civil rights

movements. Ethnic consciousness movements. Gender movements. Generational age cohort.

Disability, ability, and social identity. Disease and medicine. WORLD CIVILIZATION

IN THE TIME OF PRE-LITERACY 17,000 YEARS BPE Sophisticated hunter-gatherer cultures with diverse toolkits appropriate to

their environments and resources. Dogs have been domesticated. Art flourishes. 12,000 YEARS BP

AFRICA OCEANA AMERICAS

SAN hunter-gathers Tehuacanos Mammoth cave

Qadan horticulture (Mexico) (Egypt) Saharan cattle herders

(Tassili) ASIA Jarmo

Natufian Jericho EUROPE ----------Knossos

(olives) Karanovo 7000 BP (5000BC)

AFRICA AMERICAS

ASIA EUROPE

Badarian agriculture Cochise (SWNA) Yangshao (wheat/barley) (maize) (rice)

(yams/taro) Hacilar Catal Huyuk

Danubian (wheat) 6000 BP (4000BC)

Pre-unification Egypt Archaic period Ubaid Melanesian Unified archaic Egypt

Harrapan expansion Narmer/Menes Non Nok Tha

Loang Spean Minoan Varna

OCEANA Kuk

5000 BP (3000BC) AFRICA OCEANA

AMERICAS Old Kingdom Egypt Lapita

Pyramids Preclassic

ASIA Indus EUROPE

(Kurgan) Battle Axe Ban Chieng Beaker Folk

Lungshan Troy Sumer

Sargon of Akkad 4000 BP (2000BC) Old Kingdom Egypt

Intermediate Period Middle Kingdom Early Olmecs

Shang China Myceneans Hitittes

Thera (Iron) Babylonians Aryan Invasions

Barbarian Invasions 3000 BP (1000BC) AFRICA

AMERICAS ASIA

EUROPE OCEANA

Middle Kingdom Olmecs

Assyrians New Kingdom Adena

Phoenicians Alexander) Late Period Hopewell

Canaanites Bantu Kingdoms Anasazi Gupta India

Han China La Tene/Hallstatt Celts & Germania

Hellenic Greece (Pericles through Carthage Etruscans/Rome

2000 BP (1 AD) Ghana Polynesians

Maya China

Rome WORLD

CIVILIZATION THEMES IN WORLD HISTORY

Who was the First? The case for Asia MESOPOTAMIA

(Sumer) The case for Africa

- EGYPT (Kemet)

EMPIRES WAR

AGRICULTURE RELIGION

GENDER RACE

CLASS LABOR

ART & LITERATURE African

Civilizations The Nile River Valley West Asian

Civilizations Mesopotamia & Indus Map of Near East with locations for Nevali Cori

and Gobekli Tepe: The Oldest Megalithic Cro-Magnon Man: The Late Pleistocene Hunter and the first real artists.

about 30,000 years ago. Built by hunter-gatherers (no sign of agriculture here). All bones found are wild animal. There is no evidence of

inhabitation; the structures are interpreted as temples. After 8,000 BCE, the site was abandoned and purposefully covered up with tons of soil below the hill. Did humans recognize that they had made a

big mistake against nature? Segment D is one of the near circular shaped pillared areas in the best condition of Gbekli Tepe. The largest

weigh about 50 tons Mesopotamian Civilization

The Tigris & Euphrates River Valleys Harappan

Civilization The Indus River Valley Asian Civilizations

Early China American Civilization

North and South America European

Civilization Minoan & Mycenean

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