Chapter 3: Understanding Learning and Memory Routledge/Taylor &

Chapter 3: Understanding Learning and Memory  Routledge/Taylor &

Chapter 3: Understanding Learning and Memory Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 Agenda Learning Objectives Fixed vs. Growth Mindsets Information-Processing System Flaws in Memory Rote vs. Meaningful Learning Discussion Chapter 4 Preview Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 Learning Objectives Evaluate your mindset and how it impacts your ability to learn and self-regulate. Explain how the information-processing system and our ability to learn are impacted by attention, working memory, encoding, and changes in memory or memory loss.

Evaluate the effectiveness of rote vs. meaningful learning and how rehearsal, elaboration, and organization strategies are related to each. Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 How much do you agree or disagree with the following two statements? 1 2 3 Strongly Agree Agree Mostly Agree No matter how much

intelligence you have, you can always change it quite a bit. Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 4 5 6 Mostly Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree You can learn new things but you cannot really change how intelligent you are. (Dweck, 2000)

What is your theory of intelligence? Fixed Mindset Growth Mindset You can learn new things but you cannot really change how intelligent you are. No matter how much intelligence you have, you can always change it quite a bit. A person with a growth mindset has an incremental theory of intelligence. A person with a fixed mindset has an entity

theory of intelligence. Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 5 Theories of Intelligence Theories of intelligence: are related to the learners goal orientation; affect learners as young as 5 years old; impact a wide range of abilities; may matter more for females or learners of ethnic or racial groups that are subject to stereotypes about ability; can be changed through interventions. Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 6 The Information-Processing System Rehearsal Input

Attention Organization Storage Short-term Sensory Store Working Memory Memory Loss Memory Loss Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 Elaboration Long-term Memory Retrieval

7 Flaws in Human Memory Transience Absent-mindedness Blocking Misattribution Suggestibility Bias Persistence Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 Rote vs. Meaningful Learning Meaningful Learning Rote Learning Simple repetition

Recognizes similarities Keeps info in WM, but does not necessarily transfer to LTM Constructs personal meaning Encodes in LTM Active learning Passive learning

Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 Rote vs. Meaningful Learning Meaningful Learning Rote Learning Rehearsal Strategies Organization Strategies Copying material Underlining text Selecting main ideas

Outlining Reciting Visual mapping Elaboration Strategies Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 Summarizing Note-making Answering questions

Example Representation (Matrix) of the InformationProcessing System Sensory Store Working Memory Longterm Memory Capaci ty Large Small 72 Large Durati on

Very Short: 5-20 seconds Indefinitely long Visual: 1 second or less Auditory: 2-3 seconds Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 Discussion Questions Now that you have learned about the information-processing system, what changes may you need to make to your study routine? What strategies do you normally use when studying? Are they rote or meaningful

learning strategies? What elaboration and organization strategies could you incorporate into your study routine? Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016 Preview of Chapter 4 Goal Setting After studying Chapter 4, you will be able to: establish personal goals; develop and implement effective plans for attaining goals. Routledge/Taylor & Francis 2016

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