Workshop on Library Resource Management and Discovery Marshall

Workshop on Library Resource Management and Discovery Marshall

Workshop on Library Resource Management and Discovery Marshall Breeding Independent Consultant, Author, and Founder and Publisher, Library Technology Guides Course for Librarians in Andalusia 25 September 2015 Description

Conclusions of your annual report on the ILS An analysis of the position of Sierra, Encore and Innovative in that report Difference between the ILS concept and library services platform An analysis of trends in the field of information technology ,with special emphasis on the future of Library Services Platforms and Discovery Services An analysis of the future of the companies which offer ILS, what are the trends. Library Technology Guides w . w w

a r lib c e t ry l o hn . y og Perceptions 2014 Annual survey for Libraries Satisfaction levels for Company Current ILS Service Loyalty Migration Plans 3,141 Responses 80 Countries

Perceptions Survey 2014 Sample: Large Academic Libraries Libraries Considering Switching Systems Satisfaction levels: Large Academic Library Technology Industry Reports American Libraries 2014: Strategic Competition and Cooperation 2015: Operationalizing Innovation

Library Journal 2013: Rush to Innovate 2012: Agents of Change 2011: New Frontier 2010: New Models, Core Systems 2009: Investing in the Future

2008: Opportunity out of turmoil 2007: An industry redefined 2006: Reshuffling the deck 2005: Gradual evolution 2004: Migration down, innovation up 2003: The competition heats up Library Systems Report 2015 Operationalizing innovation / Informe sobre sistemas bibliotecarios: Hacer operativa la innovacin El profesional de la informacin, v. 24, n. 4, pp. 485-496.

Translated by Toms Baiget Industry Revenues $1.8 billion global industry $805 million from companies involved in the US $495 million from US Libraries Personnel Resources 2014 Personnel Growth / Loss 800

700 600 500 400 300 200 Ex Libris SirsiDynix Follett Software Company Innovative Interfaces, Inc. 100 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Industry and Business Trends Mergers and

Acquisitions Consolidation Industry dominated by a small number of large organizations EBSCO Information Services ProQuest OCLC Ex Libris Innovative Interfaces SirsiDynix

Axiell Mid-sized and Small Companies Limited geographic scope Sector-specific products Maintain profitable niche Acquisition targets Overlap between Content and Technology Content companies ever more deeply extended into resource management and discovery technologies

Technology companies involved in content creation and integration E-resource Knowledgebases (Journal level) Discovery indexes (Article level) EBSCO Information Services Subject Indexing: EBSCO databases Content aggregation: EBSCOhost platform Discovery Technology: EBSCO Discovery Service Print acquisition pipeline: YBP, GOBI3 Serials Acquisition pipeline

EBSCO Subscription Services E-books (academic) ProQuest Database creation and aggregation ProQuest Platform Print acquisition pipeline: Couts,

MyiLibrary Discovery Technology: Summon Resource management 360 Resource Manager 360 Link Intota (Print + electronic) Library sector involvement Ex Libris: Higher Education

oMbiel campusM platform ProQuest: Colleges and University Follett: PreK-12 schools and districts SirsiDynix: Public, academic, special Innovative: Public, Academic, special OCLC: current emphasis on academic Axiell: Public Libraries, archives, and museums Industry Growth Organic: capture new accounts Technology: Shift to hosted services Geographic: expand into new international regions

Ownership models Private Equity Family owned Ex Libris (Golden Gate) Innovative (HCCG, JMI) SirsiDynix (ICV) Follett EBSCO

ProQuest (Snyder / Goldman Sachs) Membership owned OCLC Innovative Interfaces Continuity of history and product development Sierra: New Library Services Platform + mature functionality Encore: Discovery interface

Synergy: Federated search approach to article content EDS Integration: upcoming index-based discovery Sierra implementations by Type Sierra implementations by Size Sierra selections by Year Sierra migration Patterns OCLC

Non-profit corporation based in Dublin Ohio $203.5 million revenue 2011/12 fiscal year Owned and Governed by membership: Board of Trustees, Global and Regional Councils Pending lawsuit between SkyRiver / Innovative vs OCLC (in limbo since April 2011) Annual Reports available: ts/2012/2012.pdf OCLC Product Strategy

Leverage WorldCat to power both discovery and management Leverage values of broad-based resource sharing Leverage concept of global library community WorldShare Platform Basis of new suite of management tools for libraries WorldShare Management Services: displaces basic ILS WorldShare License Manager: Displaces ERM

WorldShare Metadata Management: Initial offering involves e-book sets WorldShare Interlibrary Loan WorldShare implementations by Size WorldShare Management Services by Type WorldShare development chronology OCLC reports that 270 libraries are live on WorldShare Dec 19, 20 Management Services and a total of 340 have signed 14 contracts. Jun 12, 201 University of Delaware is first ARL and 200th library to go live 4 with OCLC WorldShare Management Services.

Jan 21, 201 LIBROS consortium of 16 academic libraries in New Mexico 4 selects WorldShare Management Services. Private Academic Library Network of Indiana of 23 institutions Jan 9, 2014 selected OCLC WorldShare Management Services as its cloud-based library management system.. Dec 31, 20 OCLC reports 177 total installations of Sierra for the Library 13 Systems Report. Jul 1, 2011 General release of WorldShare Management Services. Nov 18, 20 Craven-Pamlico-Carteret Regional Library System places 10 WorldShare Management Services into Production. Apr 22, 200 OCLC announces new Web-scale Management Services (later 9 branded as WorldShare Platform). Ex Libris Positioned to be the largest company in the industry

Formidable competition for Academic Libraries Global marketing strength Europe, Asia, North America Latin American distributor Longstanding business strategy based on research and development 170 personnel in development out of 512 Ex Libris Product Strategy Legacy ILS remain viable and profitable

Aleph Many national and large research library installations Voyager Many national and academic research Customer base seeing some erosion to competing systems Alma developed as replacement for Aleph, Voyager and to attract new academic clients Academic libraries running non-specialized ILS targets for Alma

Alma Developed specifically for Academic Libraries Replaces all other strategic infrastructure systems ILS + Link Resolver + Digital Asset Management + ERM Paired with Primo and Primo Central Over 120 institutions signed so far Community Catalog / knowledgebases

Ex Libris has invested in the content resources needed to drive technology products SFX Global Knowledgebase: Developed and maintained by Ex Libris See: Knowledge Base and Link Resolver Study Knowledgebase_linkresolver_study.pdf A core component of Alma Bibliographic database component: MARC records available from LC, Harvard, national libraries, Alma implementers. Eventual product consolidation

Alma for resource management Eventual transition of Voyager and Aleph Immediate transition of Verde SFX DigiTool for digital collections Primo / Primo Central for Discovery Rosetta for Preservation Possible integration into Alma?

Alma Implementations by Type Alma Implementations by Size Alma Development Chronology 37 members of the Orbis Cascade Alliance complete implementation of Ex Libris Alma and Primo. Ex Libris reports 370 total institutions with signed contracts for Alma and 150 2014 libraries in production. Welsh Consortium chooses Ex Libris Alma and Primo for shared resource 2014 management environment. 2014 LIBISnet Library Network in Belgium places Alma into production. 2014 Ex Libris launches the Ex Libris Developer Network. 2014 University of Minnesota places Ex Libris Alma into production. 2013 Ex Libris reports 329 total contracts for Alma for Library Systems Report. 2013 BIBSYS Consortium in Norway selects Ex Libris Alma. 2012 Orbis Cascade Alliance selects Ex Libris Alma and Primo.

2012 Boston College becomes the first library to put Alma in production. Ex Libris announces that its unified resource management system will be called 2011 Alma. 2010 Ex Libris delivers the second partner release of Alma to development partners. Ex Libris announces development initiative for Unified Resource Management -2009 later branded as Alma. Jan 9, 2015 Dec 19, Dec 18, Aug 3, Apr 29, Jan 27, Dec 31, Dec 4, Oct 9, Jul 2, Jan 6, Dec 1, Jul 6,

Primo / Primo Central Very specialized discovery tool for academic libraries Local installation or hosted Libraries load and index local content through customizable pipes Customized display and indexing policies Primo Central Index Hosted index of library content resources

Articles, book chapters, e-book collections, specialized research products Ex Libris established strong publisher relations going back to OpenURL Koha Koha Traditional ILS developed in Open Source model Perl / MySQL / Linux Problems with scaleability

Apache SOLR, Plack added recently New US contracts going mostly to small to mid-sized public and academics Koha Traditional ILS developed in Open Source model Perl / MySQL / Linux Problems with scaleability Apache SOLR, Plack added recently

New US contracts going mostly to small to mid-sized public and academics Koha Libraries Worldwide Kuali OLE Enterprise level library services platform Financial and in-kind contributions from investing institutions Matched by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Major academic libraries in the US involved as original investing partners

UK: Senate House Library + Bloomsbury Colleges now committed in principal Kuali OLE Development Timeline Sep 11, 201 The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation awards $333,000 to NCSU for Phase II of Global 4 Open KnowledgeBase Aug 22, 201 KualiCo formed as a Professional Open Source company. 4 Aug 20, 201 University of Chicago Library placed the Kuali OLE software into production. 4 Aug 14, 201 HTC Global Services, Inc has joined the Kuali OLE partnership as a Tier 1 4 investment partner. Aug 4, 2014 Lehigh University places Kuali OLE into production. Kuali OLE System Partners receive $882,000 grant from Andrew W. Mellon Dec 5, 2013 Foundation. Jun 25, 201 EBSCO Information Services joins Kuali Foundation as a commercial affiliate. 3

Dec 6, 2012 Kuali OLE project awarded $750,000 from Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Jul 9, 2012 Patty Mescher named OLE Project Manager. May 22, 201 Kuali OLE announces Milestone Release 0.6. 2 Mar 15, 201 The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation awards $499,000 to NCSU for the Global Open 2 Knowledgebase (GOKb). Jan 24, 2011 HTC Global Services as the development partner for the Kuali OLE. Dec 10, 200 Indiana University awarded $2.38 million grant from The Andrew W. Mellon 9 Foundation to develop library software. Jun 13, 200 Mellon foundation provides $475,700 for Reconceptualizing Technology for 8 Modern Library Workflows - OLE. ProQuest Focus on Academic Libraries Summon: first Web-scale Discovery Service

Intota: Planned Library Services Platform Intota Development Timeline ProQuest releases foundation version of Jun 24, 20 Intota, providing management of electronic 14 resources. Nov 21, 20 Initial version of Intota Assessment 13 launched by ProQuest. Serials Solutions announces strategy to Jun 22, 20 build Web-Scale management solution, 11 later branded as Intota. Intota Components

Summon (no patron account) Intota Analytics 360 Link 360 Resource Manager > Intota ERM ProQuest Flow: provides user account capability Intota v2 includes print resource management ProQuest Strategies Focus on multi-tenant software as a service Knowledge-base driven products

KnowledgeWorks: drives 360 Core, 360 Resource Manger, 360 Link Expanded KB will drive Intota Summon+ 360 Products will drive Intota sales to displace legacy ILS Intota functionality: less complex approach than ILS model Technology Trends Deployment strategies

In previous phase, libraries preferred local hosting and were skeptical of hosted offerings Libraries now favor hosted services Lack local IT staff and facilities Prefer to use technical personnel for tasks other than infrastructure upkeep Expect leverage for resource sharing and other benefits Ongoing concern for data ownership, privacy, local control Varying requirements for in-country data hosting

Software as a Service Globally deployed platform Scaleable, redundant, secure Web-native interfaces Multi-tenant: multiple institutional, single code base Globally shared resources Institutionally segregated resources Hosted services

Hosted instances of client/server systems Locally installed staff clients Institutional or consortial instance Very difficult to reengineer client/server products to multi-tenant platforms Common to move to hosted service even when not changing systems Open source ILS Software model favored by libraries Current products oriented to small to

mid-sized libraries Koha -- institutional Evergreen consortial Academic and research libraries Kuali OLE API Ecosystem

Applications Programming Interface Programmatically extract or load data, consume functionality Real-time interoperability with external systems and services Supplements or replaces standard protocols Community platforms: documentation, sharable code, sandbox environment Metadata models MARC21 dominates ILS products

Library Services Platforms assume multiple metadata formats Full support expected for RDA Open Linked Data gaining traction as new metadata framework Some national or regional variants (danMARC) Shift away from library-specific encoding practices Expectation to support BIBFAME in near Linked Data Major trend toward information systems

based on linked data Many projects now based on linked data Area of peak interest for Library of Congress, OCLC, etc BIBFRAME Potential to transform how libraries approach description and discovery Current opportunities in making library content more discoverable Linked data

Not yet a fully operational method for library-oriented content Increasing representation of bibliographic resources BIBFRAME stands to make great impact Universe of scholarly resources not well represented Will current expectations for content providers to make metadata or full text available for discovery expand to exposure as open linked data? Hybrid models

Likely interim hybrid discovery models: central indexes + Linked Data Can index-based search tools be improved through Linked Data Browse to related resources Add additional hierarchies of structure to search results Trends in Library Resource Management Academic Libraries:

Collection spending dominated by subscriptions to electronic content Remnant spending for monographs Firm orders for print Demand-driven acquisitions for e-books Transition to Electronic Publishing Academic libraries devote majority of

collections budgets to electronic materials Open access represents a growing proportion of scholarly resources, though still a small minority Public libraries increasingly offer e-book lending services Academic libraries: primarily electronic collections Public Libraries: Primarily physical Implications of e-publishing Resource management systems for academic libraries must be optimized for electronic resources

License management Open access outside of paid subscriptions Portfolio-based management use knowledge base to delineate individual titles and date coverage of aggregated content packages Efficiently manage e-books Demand-driven acquisitions Public Libraries: Vigorous lending of print materials Rising interest in e-book lending Marginal investment in e-resource databases

E-book lending High demand for integration technologies E-book lending fully blended within the librarys own online catalog or discovery interface Simple selection, download, and reading of e-books Librarians demand fair pricing models Publishers continue to fear impact on sales

Impose policies that create more friction Integrate e-book platforms Overdrive 3M Cloud Library Axis 360 Manage local e-book collections Douglas County model Owned, locally hosted titles Odilo as example of new type of e-book service provider

School Libraries: Access to appropriate resources Age Reading level Oriented to district-wide resource management and discovery Low per-school costs for technology Technologies that penetrate beyond the library into the school or district

Different assumptions for privacy and security Functionality Trends Fragmented Resource Management Integrated Library System for management of (mostly) print Duplicative financial systems between library and university

Electronic Resource Management E-Resource knowledge base and Link Resolver A-Z e-journal lists and other finding aids Interlibrary loan (borrowing and lending) Digital Collections Management platforms (CONTENTdm, DigiTool, etc.) Separate systems for archival materials and special collections Discovery-layer services for broader access to library collections No effective integration services / interoperability among disconnected systems, non-aligned metadata schemes Cycles of fragmentation > unification Early Phase: Modular automation

Integrated Library Systems Proliferation of systems to manage electronic resources and digital collections Current unification phase: library services platforms bring together print and electronic resource management Next phase? Bring archival and digital assets under common management platform Comprehensive Resource Management Simplify resource management through platform consolidation Separate components: ILS + ERM +

OpenURL Resolver + Digital Asset management, etc. very inefficient model Consolidation requires a flexible platform capable of managing multiple type of library materials, multiple metadata formats, with appropriate workflows Library Services Platform Library-specific software. Technical infrastructure to help libraries automate their internal operations, manage collections, fulfillment requests, and deliver services Services

Services-oriented architecture Exposes Web services and other APIs Facilitates the services libraries offer to their users Platform General infrastructure for library automation Consistent with the concept of Platform as a Service Library programmers address the APIs of the platform to extend functionality, create connections with other systems, dynamically interact with data Library Services Platforms Functional

Manages electronic and print formats of materials Replaces multiple incumbent products Extensive Metadata Management Multiple procurement workflows Knowledgebases Built-in collection analytics Decision support for collection development Knowledge bases Electronic Resource Management based on collective database of the body of e-content rather than library-by-library management

LSP extends knowledge base model to all resources Make links or associations from local holdings to common bibliographic records WorldShare Management Services based on WorldCat Bibliographic records Ex Libris Alma includes Community Zone of shared records and resources Intota: expanded knowledge base that includes MARC and other resources Actionable analytics

Previous generation of ILS offered reports Libraries now expect sophisticated analytics Make data-driven collection decisions Anticipate interest and use levels Cost per use Support for BIBFRAME

New bibliographic framework based on mapping MARC concepts and data into linked data model No direct support for BIBFRAME in either integrated library systems or library services platforms Developers are involved in BIBFRAME initiative Operational implementations will come once the model has stabilized Current phase of experimental projects and prototypes Applies differently to discovery versus resource management Library Services Platforms Technical

Beyond Client/Server Computing Multi-tenant platforms Web-based interfaces Services-oriented architecture Exposes APIs for extensibility and interoperability Interoperable New Library Management Model Search: Library Services Platform API Layer ` Stock Stock Manageme

Manageme nt nt Enterprise Enterprise Resource Resource Planning Planning Learning Learning Manageme Manageme nt nt Digital Digital Coll Coll ry

Consolidated ve index e co ic is rv D Se SelfSelfCheck Check// Automated Automated Return Return Unified Presentation Layer ProQue ProQue st st EBSCO EBSCO

JSTOR JSTOR Other Other Resour Resour ces ces Smart Smart Cad Cad// Payment Payment systems systems Authentica Authentica tion tion Service

Service Resource Management Models Category Resources managed Technology platform Knowledgebases Physical Progressive Library Services integrated library Platform System Print, electronic Electronic, Physical

Server-based Server-based Multi-tenant SaaS None None Patron interfaces Staff interfaces Browser-based Graphical Desktop (Java Swing, Windows, Mac OS) Purchase Browser-based Browser-based

e-holdings, bibliographic Browser-based Browser-based Purchase, license license Local install, ASP Batch transfer, proprietary API SirsiDynix Symphony, Local install, ASP Batch transfer, RESTful APIs, Sierra, SirsiDynix Symphony/BLUEclou Saas Only

APIs (mostly RESTful) WorldShare Management Procurement models Hosting option Interoperability Products Integrated Library System Development Timeline for Library Services Platforms Library Services Platform Installations Production installations as of December 2014 Product Sierra

Alma WorldShare Management Services Kuali OLE Intota Installatio ns 495 406 303 2014 Sales 123 43 79 2 0 10

21 Cycle of adoption and deployment Beginning of a new cycle of transition that will last a decade Development and beta phase complete Now in mass deployment phase Over the course of the next decade, academic libraries will replace their current legacy products with new platforms Not just a change of technology but a substantial change in the ways that libraries manage their resources and deliver their services

Trends in library resource discovery ILS Data Web-scale Index-based Discovery (2009- present) Search Results Usagegenerate d Data Custome r Profile Consolidated Index Search:

Digital Collections Web Site Content Institution al Repositori es Aggregate d Content packages E-Journals Reference Sources Pre-built harvesting and indexing Comprehensive Library

Portal Public Interfaces: Presentation Layer Integrated Library System Library Web site Subject Guides Article, Databases, E-Book collections Discovery Service Statistics Discovery Product EBSCO Discovery Service

Primo Encore Summon WorldCat Discovery 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014Installed 1774 2634 506 111 56 101 72 164 214 98 8246

88 1529 195 697 36 158 2085 Multi-Role Stakeholders Content provider / Discovery Service

EBSCO Information Service ProQuest Resource Management / Discovery Provider OCLC Ex Libris Demise of the local catalog Many library services platforms do not include the concept of an online catalog dedicated to local physical inventory

Designed for discovery services as public-facing interface Implication: Discovery service must incorporate detailed functionality for local materials and related services Fully Integrated Strategy Library services Platform Index-based discovery service Integrated link resolution Shared e-resource knowledgebase Analytics available from back-end and discovery perspective Split Management / Discovery Strategy

Library Services Platform for management of print and electronic resources Separate index-based discovery Knowledge base probably provided through Library Services Platform Link Resolution separate from Discovery: how to perform smart linking? Export and sync resource records from management to discovery service API look-ups for resource availability and status Patron profile and services request split between

discovery and resource management components Beyond Library Discovery Discovery happens elsewhere Discovery Beyond Library-provided Interfaces Reality that most discovery happens external to library Improve discoverability of library resources Locally: through incorporation of SEO and semantic encoding Especially Globally: OCLC, Google Scholar and other services Discovery beyond Library Interfaces Improved performance of library content through Google Scholar Better exposure of library-oriented content or other microdata formats

Better exposure of scholarly resources Same expectations for transparency? Open access & Proprietary Embedded tools in other campus interfaces Changing models of Resource Sharing Progressive consolidation of library services Centralization of technical infrastructure

of multiple libraries within a campus Resource sharing support Direct borrowing among partner institutions Shared infrastructure between institutions Examples: 2CUL (Columbia University / Cornell University) Orbis Cascade Alliance (37 independent colleges and universities to merge into shared LSP) Integrated Library System Search:

Holdings Model: Multi-branch Independent Library System Main Facility Bibliographic Database Branch 1 Branch 5 Branch 2 Branch 6

Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System Patrons use Circulation features to request items from other branches Floating Collections may reduce workload for Inter-branch transfers Consortial Resource Sharing System Search:

Holdings Holdings Main Facility Main Facility Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7

Branch 4 Branch 8 NCI P Discovery and Request Discovery and Request Management Management Routines Routines NCI P Library System A Branch 1

Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System D Bibliographic Database Holdings Holdings

Main Facility Main Facility Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8

NCI P NCI ISO Z39. SIP ILL Inter-System 50 P Communications NCI P Communications Library System B Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2

Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System E Staff Staff Fulfillment Fulfillment Tools Tools Holdings Main Facility

Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7 Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System C NCI P

Resource Sharing Application Holdings Main Facility NCI P Branch 1 Bibliographic Branch 2 Database Branch 5 Branch 6 Branch 3 Branch 7

Branch 4 Branch 8 Library System F Shared Consortial ILS Search: Holdings Model: Multiple independent libraries in a Consortium Share an ILS Bibliographic Database

Library 1 Library 6 Library 2 Library 7 Library 3 Library 8 Library 4 Library 9 Library 5 Library 10 Shared Consortia System

ILS configured To support Direct consortial Borrowing through Circulation Module Shared Infrastructure Common discovery Retention of local automation systems Technical complex with moderate operational benefits

Common discovery + Resource Management Systems Shared Resource management with local discovery options Benefits of shared infrastructure Increased cooperation and resource sharing Collaborative collection management Lower costs per institution Greater universe of content readily available to patrons Avoid add-on components for union

catalog and resource requests and routing Shared infrastructure Projects Orbis Cascade WHELF South Australia Ireland Public Libraries JULAC

California State University University System of Georgia Complete Florida Plus Program University of Wisconsin system Orbis Cascade Alliance Orbis Cascade Alliance Campus Libraries 37 Aggregated 258,000 Enrollment Total Titles

9 million Total Items 28 million WHELF Wales Higher Education Libraries Forum Institution Prior ILS Aberystwyth University Bangor & Glyndwr University Cardiff University & Welsh National Health Service Cardiff Metropolitan University National Library of Wales Voyager Sierra Voyager

Royal Welsh College of Music and Drama Swansea University University of South Wales Voyager Alto Virtua Voyager Symphon y Bib Records 677,846 591,673 856,381 269,965

6,643,69 6 53,544 738,399 365,602 California State University Institution Bakersfield Channel Islands Chico Dominguez Hills East Bay Fresno Fullerton Humboldt Long Beach Los Angeles Maritime Academy Monterey Bay Northridge

Pomona Sacramento San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Jose San Luis Obispo San Marcos Sonoma Stanislaus Total Titles Volumes Circulation Staff FTE 473,134

100,433 850,000 628,193 944,415 1,928,624 1,153,714 692,017 1,198,788 926,498 42,854 277,228 1,575,695 776,251 1,189,093 935,366 2,340,641 1,524,464 1,505,676 805,508 441,812 506,040 344,311

637,606 255,594 1,265,907 637,064 1,139,057 1,345,398 1,256,867 807,101 3,073,252 983,229 154,820 333,982 2,170,589 1,058,236 1,415,562 868,453 2,513,984 1,677,437 1,441,279 724,531 538,203

585,082 513,565 15,714 32,182 8,456 33,491 208,491 61,486 30,300 147,461 35,665 5,439 27,768 130,322 43,514 98,675 29,001 46,402 89,161 94,745 38,895

17,071 191,187 31,611 25 24 59 38 43 78 74 31 68 48 8 16 138 48 66 90 106 89

88 62 47 34 27 21,160,755 25,396,798 1,417,037 1,307 Norway: BIBSYS Provides automation services for:

National Library of Norway 105 Academic and Special Libraries History of local system development Originally selected WorldShare Platform for new generation system development (Nov 2010) and later withdrew (Oct 2012) Primo implemented for Discovery (May 2013) Alma selected for new shared infrastructure (Jan 2014) Comparison of Projects Institution Volumes

Harvard University Orbis Cascade Alliance WHELF California State University University of California 18,900,000 28,000,000 10,834,432 25,396,798 Librari es 79 66 32 25 45,000,000 100

Large-scale Implementations Scale of any given project is no longer limited Multi-tenant systems are already supporting very large numbers of sites Shared implementation does not necessarily require more resources than separate ones Industry Impact:

Winner-take-all dynamic can disrupt sales trends Favors products and companies oriented Questions and discussion

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