USAID Office of Food for Peace Dale Skoric Title II Food Aid Programming The Big Picture Food crisis: With over 1 billion people worldwide (one-sixth of the world population) suffering from hunger, over 30 cases of food-related unrest having erupted around the world since 2008, 25,000 children dying daily from malnutrition, 2 billion people currently suffering from micro-nutrient deficiencies, local food prices in most developing countries being too expensive for hundreds of millions of people, disputes over depleting land resources, the food crisis will continue to threaten lives and livelihoods worldwide. Urbanization: With an urban population that will double in Asia and increase by
150% in Africa between now and 2050, urbanization will create massive social inequities and risks as well as tangible health problems, malnutrition rates, unemployment, and income deficits, which represent an almost permanent threat to the security of billions. Due to population growth alone, the absolute number of people at risk in emergencies is projected to increase. These challenges will call for the humanitarian system to help more people in more places (but, most likely, with fewer resources given the financial shortfall). The The Big Big Picture Picture The number of people displaced from conflict or violence has increased from 17.4 million in 1997 to 27.5 million in 2010, and displacements are increasingly prolonged.
The impacts of climate change and other extreme weather events, combined with the growth of densely populated urban centers in areas vulnerable to natural disasters, are increasing the risk of large-scale displacement, damage and death due to natural disasters. These trends are reflected in the United Nations World Food Program Appeal funding requirements, which have increased steadily over the last decade, from just under $1 billion in 2000 to $6.8 billion in 2010 . IDP Trends Natural Disasters Trends Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace
Source: United Nations Humanitarian Appeal, Consolidated Appeal Process, 2011 Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace Source: United Nations Humanitarian Appeal, Consolidated Appeal Process, 2011 Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace Title II average cost/metric ton (delivered)
Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace Legislative Context: Reliance on Agriculture Appropriations Note: Does not include MARAD reimbursements, carry over funds, and deobligations from prior year agreements. *House proposed FY2012 Budget level. Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace To Date
Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace Constant assessment of the severity of food (in)security Increasing severity Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace
Most likely food security outcomes (July September 2011) Horn of Africa Source: FEWSNET Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace 2010/11 rainfall compared to historical totals since 1950/51 in select pastoral areas of Kenya and Ethiopia Source: FEWSNET Office Officeof ofFood
Foodfor forPeace Peace Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace CHOOSING A RESPONSE: Is food aid the right response?
Who are the right people to be assisted? What are the right commodities for these people? How much is the right amount of commodity? What are the right programs for the vulnerable? How soon are the commodities needed and for how long? (right time) 15 Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace Food for Peace Emergencies
Response to rapid onset and/ or complex emergencies Selected post-emergency stabilization activities Address immediate food needs of populations at risk Non-Emergencies
Response to chronic food insecurity Maternal and child health Environmental stabilization Sustainable agriculture Risk mitigation and asset building 16 Office Officeof ofFood Foodfor forPeace Peace Overview
Over $1.5 billion in FY 2010 Prioritized based on magnitude, severity of needs Title II Emergency Food Aid Top Ten Emergency Recipient Countries Country/ Region FY10 (USD mil)
Ethiopia $389.5 Sudan $275.7 Haiti $140.7 Kenya $102 Chad $98.2
$48.7 CURRENT TITLE II NON-EMRGENCY FOOD AID STRATEGIC COUNTRY APPROACH Selection criteria using weighted average of three food security indicators: % of children stunted % of population living under $1.25 per day % of population undernourished In FY10, 16 awardees implemented 42 programs in 21 countries, benefitting 7.9 million people. In FY10, development programs used approximately 500,000 MT of Title II food assistance, valued at more than $400 million. Current Focus Countries Afghanistan
Bangladesh Burkina Faso Burundi Chad DRC Ethiopia Guatemala Haiti Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mozambique Niger Sierra Leone Sudan Uganda Zambia
PROGRAM IMPACT EXAMPLES Impact examples for Title II Development Programs that use a combination of monetization and direct distributions. Bangladesh: Child stunting was reduced by 30% and checkups during pregnancy increased from 13% to 84% DRC: 16 kilometers of irrigation canal and 27 kilometers of feeder road repaired, allowing an increase from one to three crop cycles per year. Agriculture co-operative members increased their median annual incomes by 42% Sierra Leone: Farmer yields increased by 77% for cassava, 66% for lowland rice, 65% for vegetable production Ethiopia: Average household asset values increased 20%, food self-sufficiency increased 29% Office Officeof ofFood
Foodfor forPeace Peace Top Ten NonEmergency Recipient Title II Non- Emergency Food Aid Countries Overview Over $401 million in FY 2010 Country/ Region Ethiopia Bangladesh FY10
Mozambique Malawi $19.6 $18 Madagascar $17.1 Congo $15.6 FOOD FOR PEACE ACTIONS IN PROGRESS TO IMPROVE IMPACT
An independent, meta-analysis looking at evidence of Title II development program impact across 32 countries between 2006 and 2010. An evidence based research study with Tufts University to determine program graduation options and effective exit strategies. An IFPRI impact evaluation of large-scale, under-two, malnutrition prevention programs to evaluate cost-effectiveness and ration sizes. Inclusion of the 1,000 days approach for all nutrition interventions in all Title II programs.
Revision of monetization manual to guide partners on best practices and procedures for completing monetization transactions. Availability of new food aid products with improved nutritional quality in FY11/12. EFSP (local and regional procurement) THANK YOU! 22
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