Music Basics Music notation the staff QuickTime and

Music Basics Music notation the staff QuickTime and

Music Basics Music notation the staff QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Music notation

clefs QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Music notation QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Script letter G QuickTime TIFF (Uncompressed) are needed to and

see a thi Music notation QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Middle C in G clef

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Middle C in other clefs QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

Notes in the Grand Staff QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Pitches Refers to pitch only as in cycles per second

440Hz equals A above middle C 220Hz equals A below middle C Overtone Series All pitches except sine waves have these Different emphasis on different overtones produce different timbres Partials begin on 1, overtones begin on 0 QuickTime and a

TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Notes Refers to pitch, duration, loudness, etc. Notes equate to cope-events Pitch is the second element of a copeevent Duration

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Durations QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor

are needed to see this picture. Relationships QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Rests

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Meter QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor

are needed to see this picture. Tempo Fast (q = 120) - Allegro Moderate (q = 90) - Moderato Slow (q = 60) - Adagio Dynamics

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Articulations QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Notes sounding alone

One after another is called monody Or monophony Or melody Or musical line Tonality Tonality usually means notes sounding

primarily according to a given scale Major scales consist of stepwise intervals Major scale: M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 M2 m2 Natural minor scale M2 m2 M2 M2 m2 M2 M2 Notes not in scale called chromatic Key Keys are defined by scales and can be

centered around any one of 12 starting notes To create the proper intervallic content some keys must have sharped and flatted notes Key signatures make these easier to read Motives

Motives are groups of 3 to 7 notes that have some distinctive property (pitch, rhythm, etc.) Motives are varied in many ways (transposition, inversion, extrapolation, etc.) Motives help identify longer melodic lines

Notes sounding together Are called harmony if they move together Are called polyphony or counterpoint if moving offset Fugues and canons are examples of polyphony Harmony

Harmony has function (syntax and semantics) Harmonic syntax means what can follow what Harmonic semantics means what constitutes the harmony itself Harmonic syntax and semantics In tonal music, some harmonies can follow

other harmonics but not others We use Roman numerals in indicate semantics as in a major scale: I, IV, and V indicate Tonic, Subdominant, and Dominant harmonic called primary functions ii (supertonic), iii (mediant), vi (submediant), and vii (leading-tone), called secondary functions

Harmonic syntax I can be followed by anything V is best followed by I (authentic) or vi (deceptive) but never IV IV can be followed by V (mostly) and I ii belongs to the IV family, iii the I family, vi the I family, and vii the V family interchangeably.

Harmonic syntax I means home base IV means moving toward V (predominant) V means needs to go home Phrases Music consists of phrases usually as long as a human breath (based on past on singing)

Phrases end in cadences Cadences usually end in I (authentic), V, (half), or V-vi (deceptive) Phrases usually come in pairs in tonal music as in (cadences V and then I question/answer. Modulation Modulation means to subtly change keys for variety

Best key changes mean to move from a key 1 sharp or 1 flat more of less in key signature. Periods Phrases group into periods consisting usually of two matching Q and A phrases Periods can repeat, repeat with

variation, or contrast Sections Sections consist of two or more periods Sections can consist of contrasting or similar periods Form Form delineates the material of a work

or movement of music Form is usually described by u.c. letters in alphabetical order ABA form (called ternary) indicates one musical idea (section A) followed by a contrasting musical idea (section B) followed by a return of section A Structure

Structure is NOT form Structure indicates relative importance of musical material (hierarchy) Structure deletes less important musica material in order to highlight the important musical material Example

QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. MIDI

Musical Instrument Digital Interface Watch it: MIDI interface is redundant Does not create sound Like a musical score Channels tell sequencers (Finale, Sibelius, etc.) when to turn on a channel, turn off a channel, etc.

Set the instrument in any channel you want MIDI and Music Notation Ontime: 0; Duration:500 = an eighth-note in music notation Ontime: 845; Duration:260 = gibberish in music notation Result: keep your cope-events in logical ontimes and logical durations

Triplets, etc. = 333, 333, 334 durations, etc. If you want good notation-be careful!!! MIDI types Performed MIDI files Must quantize to a given duration that often alters the music severely Non-performed MIDI files

Works best for analyzing music Remember Music notation is an algorithm Music notation is an algorithm created by other people Music notation is an algorithm created by other people that severely limits expression Ledger lines, rhythm, pitch, etc.

MIDI need not have such limitations Only if you wish to see your music represented Great music is music that:

Sells the most? Performed the most? Listened to the most? Talked about the most? Differing arrangements the most?

Quoted the most? Lasts the longest? If so The best restaurant would be Burger King The best film would be Titanic The best author would be Stephen King The best hotel would Best Western

The best music would be the Star Spangled Banner Then what is it? Best: music that does the most with the least Worst: music that does the least with the most Or

Best: music that gets better the more you listen to it Worst: music that you listen to once. Best music is like an onion Keep peeling off the layers and continue to discover something new. Personal taste

There is no such thing as good music. There is no such thing as bad music. There is only music you like or dont like. George Lewis (1952-) improvises via trombone with his Voyager hardware and software a portable computer, 'listens' via a

microphone to Lewis' trombone improvisations quickly generates musical responses that make appropriate melodic, harmonic, and rhythmic sense Andrei Andreyevich Markov 1856 - 1922 QuickTime and adecompressor

TIFF are (Uncompressed) needed to see this picture. Markov Chains Probability Typically measured between 0.0 and 1.0 For events following another event must

total 1.0 Important in statistics Be careful in establishing (e.g., the probability of heads up on a tossed coin is forever 0.5 no matter how many times the coin is tossed). Zero order Markov Chain Pseudo-random choices.

First order Markov Chain indicates that the current event will effect the choice of the following event. A B

C A 0 .5

.5 B .5 0 .5

C .5 .5 0

Second order Markov chain Two successive events will influence the next event A B C

AA 0 1.0 0

AB .3 .3 .4 AC

0 .2 .8 BA

0 .6 .4 BB .2

.5 .3 BC 0

1.0 0 CA .7 .2

.1 CB .1 .4

.5 CC .2 .8 0

Random Walk A B C

A 0 1.0 0 B

.5 0 .5 C

0 1.0 0 Example for Markov Markov Chains

Are a type of grammar (syntax) Many types of grammars (e.g., finite state, recursive, augmented transition, etc.) These are typically linear Robust grammars require hierarchy Hierarchy is non-linear Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) Markov works for representations (x) for

actual states (x) only as in QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Write code that will analyze first-order Markov info for

monophonic music. Define Lisp functions that: will transpose events any distance up or down. a predicate

determining whether or not its arg is a cope-event or not. changes the tempo of an eventlist. plays an eventlist backwards.

delays the beginning of an eventlist by any amount. makes canons from an eventlist.

Assignment: Create Markov code to analyze data representing pitches Send code to me via e-mail before next Thursday

Make sure the code works is well documented top down makes sense Your midi files play them and discuss

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