95-733 Internet of Things Some notes from Enabling
95-733 Internet of Things Some notes from Enabling to Internet of Things by Want, Schilit, and Jenson To overcome scale and complexity, preferentially discover things nearby. Other IoT enablers include: - peer to peer connections (mesh networks) - low latency and real time interactions - the integration of devices that have little or no processing capabilities Physical web = web technology + IoT Things need to be identified: - From an IoT perspective, IPv6 supports 128-bit addresses - At a higher level URIs are composed of URNs and URLs URLs in conjunction with DNS route and connect to services URNs provide a name but not necessarily a location Any device, in practice, that connects directly to the internet requires a physical
Ethernet, Wi-Fi radio, or cellular modem. All of these increase cost and power consumption. It might be best to have one bridging device that supports Wi-Fi and enables simple peripheral IoT devices to talk to the bridge. Note that devices have a web presence Smart phone or browser client interaction with services Fitbit.com Proxy web service for poster Low level peer to Peer Bluetooth or wi-fi
Status and Control FitBit Identification data URI Figure 1 NFC Tag on Poster Bluetooth LE Tag Passive devices are not suitable for direct wired or wireless connections to the internet. For these devices, we need perhaps a tag, a smartphone and a proxy web service. See the NFC tag on movie poster. A photon microcontroller provides Wi-fi and is, therefore, not passive. Three popular approaches to passive tagging
(1) UHF RFID < 10 ft not successful NFC is a form of RFID with potential (Apple pay) (2) Optical tags (Quick Response Codes) Requires a camera and an application Yields text, number or URI (3) Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) All modern smart phones support Advertise a packet, perhaps a URL, every second One year on one small battery BLE is used by iBeacon (Apple) and Eddystone (Google) RFID vs. NFC RFID is the process by which items are uniquely identified using radio waves. NFC is a subset of RFID but with other capabilities. At a minimum, an RFID system comprises three things: a tag, reader and an antenna. The reader requests the antenna to signal the tag. The tag responds with its unique
identifier. The tag may be active or passive. Active tags have their own power source and may broadcast with a range of up to 100 M. Passive tags have no power of their own. They leverage the power provided by the reader. The range of passive tags is up to 25 M. RFID uses three frequency ranges: LF, HF, and UHF. NFC uses the same frequency as HF RFID readers and tags: 13.56 MHz NFC capable devices may act as both readers and tags. P2P capable. NFC devices must be in close proximity (usually no more than a few centimeters) NFC found in hundreds of millions of devices. Notes from Atlas RFID solutions RFID vs. NFC The bottom line: NFC builds on the standards of HF RFID and turns the limitations of near field HF RFID into a feature. An NFC device may have the following capabilities: - Act as a reader and tag
- Provide peer to peer capability - Typically included in smart phones for payments - May read passive RFID or NFC tags - Data on a tag may include commands for the device to execute (open an app) - Along with HF RFID Tags, may be found on posters, advertisements, and signs. - An NFC tag may contain a URL to a configured web site, blog, how-to video, or coupon. - As opposed to QR codes, NFC does not require that the user open an application and focus a camera. Notes from Atlas RFID Solutions NFC vs. BLE A nice summary from Mobile Payements Today: The wireless coverage of a cell tower is measured in miles. The wireless coverage of Wi-Fi is measured in yards. BLE wireless coverage is measured feet. Available 1 to many. NFC wireless coverage is measure in centimeters. Forces 1 to 1 interaction.
NFC requires user attention and engagement. BLE does not. BLE Beacons continually transmit a discovery signal to be received by a BLE enabled device (Smartphone) NFC Tags communicate only when close to an NFC enabled device (smartphone) BLE beacons have been around since 2006 NFC is based on RFID and RFID has been around since the 1940s. NFC vs. BLE A nice summary from Mobile Payements Today: Location awareness: - BLE user device knows if it is close, near, or far from the beacon. With an ID from the beacon, you know where you are. - NFC location may be determined if the tag is in a fixed location and the reader picks up its unique ID. Energy: - BLE typically uses a battery that will need replacing.
- NFC Tags leverage the power of the reader no battery replacement. Price: - BLE price measured in a few 10s of dollars. - NFC beacons measured in 10s of cents. The Physical Web associates People, Places, and Things with web pages or services. Searching the Physical Web will likely be based on proximity. HTML provides fine support for human to machine interaction. Schema.org approaches work well for machine to machine interactions. The Physical Web has beacons attached to objects. The Eddystone Lighthouse is on the dangerous Eddystone Rocks, 9 statute miles (14 km) south of Rame Head, England, United Kingdom. An Eddystone Beacon
RadBeacon Dot for The Physical Web Simply include the PhysicalWebURL you will like your beacon configured for, and we will get the beacon configured prior to shipping. To place an order for beacons with different URLs, please follow the steps below: From the article: It seems like a good idea for the IoT architecture to register every device with cloud service and communicate with that service alone. Users or other computers would then interact with this service to determine the devices status or control its behavior. This approach provides economics of scale, automatic backup of data, and security provided by providers on the cloud. This is the default behavior of the Photon device. In the case of Photon, updates to the firmware are done over the air. Generally, two options: 1) Simple device and powerful cloud service. (a centralized model)
2) Complex device on its own (perhaps involved in a mesh network) Tradeoffs Latency Security Privacy Cost Management Autonomy Complex Device Low Low High High High High
Proximity sharing - Important - One nearby device has a capability needed by another (need a big screen?) - Companies may not adopt standards so they can lock you in and dominate. - European banking PSD2 regulates APIs in order to increase competition. - Not easy. For proximity sharing we need: Discovery, Trust, Connection through standard data formats and protocols. Edge computing - An innovative solution to latency problems (using the cloud) is edge computing. - Cloudlets (from CMU) are an example: A cloudlet is dynamically provisioned with software and services. Is nearby and holds only soft state. Is more powerful than local devices.
- Another example is IBMs Apache Edgent. Apache Edgent is a lightweight embedded streaming analytics runtime that analyze events locally, on the edge of your system, sending only relevant events downstream. (From Apache Edgent) It does not scale to have a single application for each of thousands of devices. Better to have broadcast URLs be the basis for service discovery. Challenges and Opportunities: Security Privacy Context sensing may create very smart devices Remote control and remote data availability
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