Planning Together to Improve Outcomes for All Students
Planning Together to Improve Outcomes for All Students U.S. Department of Education Office of Elementary & Secondary Education (OESE) Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS) Implementation and Support Unit (ISU) College and Career Readiness and English Learners Kenji Hakuta (Stanford University) Diane August (American Institutes for Research) July 2014 Humans are information integration machines
The Two Cyclops Problem Implementing the Common Core State Standards for ELLs Diane August American Institutes for Research Not to be used without prior permission 2013 Center for English Language Learners American Institutes for Research 2013 Language Learning Matters, LLC Key Shifts in Instruction SHIF T
BIG IDEA EXPLANATION 1 Balancing Informational & Literary Text Students read a true balance of informational and literary texts 2 Knowledge in the Disciplines
Students build knowledge about the world (domains/ content areas) through TEXT Staircase of Complexity Students read the central, grade appropriate text around which instruction is centered. Teachers are patient, create more time and space and support in the curriculum for close reading. Reading Text Closely Students engage in rich and rigorous evidence based conversations about text.
5 Academic Vocabulary Students constantly build the transferable vocabulary they need to access grade level complex texts. This can be done effectively by spiraling like content in increasingly complex texts. 6 Writing from Sources Writing emphasizes use of evidence from sources
to inform or make an argument. 3 4 The Secret Garden by Frances H. Burnett The Secret Garden book cover (1911), Project Gutenberg Archives Text: The Secret Garden When Mary Lennox was sent to Misselthwaite Manor to live with her uncle everybody said she was the most disagreeable-looking child ever seen. It was true, too. She had a little thin face and a little
thin body, thin light hair and a sour expression. Her hair was yellow, and her face was yellow because she had been born in India and had always been ill in one way or another. Her father had held a position under the English Government and had always been busy and ill himself, and her mother had been a great beauty who cared only to go to parties and amuse herself with gay people. She had not wanted a little girl at all, and when Mary was born she handed her over to the care of an Ayah, Reading Texts Closely It is through reading closely that students develop language and content area knowledge* Make reading text(s) closely, examining textual evidence, and discerning deep meaning a central
focus of instruction. On-going questions about the text and discussion related to these questions (instructional conversations) are an effective method for helping students comprehend text.** Facilitate rigorous evidence-based discussions through a sequence of specific, thought-provoking, and text-dependent questions. *Source: McKeown, M. G., Beck, I. L., & Blake, R. G. K. (2009). Rethinking comprehension instruction: Comparing strategies and content instructional approaches. Reading Research Quarterly, 44(3), 218-253. **Source: Saunders, W., & Goldenberg, C. (1999). The effects of instructional conversations and literature logs on limited- and fluent-English proficient students' story comprehension and thematic understanding. The Elementary School Journal, 99 (4), 277-301. Reading Texts Closely: All
Students Text-Dependent Questions Requires the reader to go back to the text to find evidence. Cannot be answered solely on personal opinion, background information, and/or imaginative speculation. Non-Text-Dependent Text-Dependent Questions Questions What is a time that you felt disagreeable? What words in the first paragraph describe Marys appearance?
What qualities make good parents? What does the reader learn about Marys parents? Why did British people have native servants in India? Who was Marys Ayah, and what role did she play in Marys life? Source: Pook, D. (2012). Implementing the CCSS: What teachers need to know and do. Manuscript. Reading Texts Closely: ELLs Ask a guiding question for every portion of text that
introduces a main idea. Align the questions with CCSS standards Cluster Standard Main Idea The Secret Garden Key Ideas and Details The narrator describes Mary
and her parents. [paragraph 1] What does the reader learn about Marys parents? . Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a
characters thoughts, words, or actions). (RL.4.3) Reading Texts Closely: ELLs Supplementary Questions ELLs may need additional, supplementary questions to help them answer guiding questions. Supplementary questions can inquire about word meanings as well as larger sections of text. Sequence supplementary questions to support ELLs understanding of the main idea. Make it easier for ELLs to answer supplementary questions by Defining key words prior to asking the question Restating phrases or sentences that will help ELLs answer the question
Note that supplementary questions are text dependent! Reading Texts Closely: ELLs Supplementary Questions ort understanding pendent Guiding question: What does the reader learn about Marys parents? Inquire about word meanings
What does it mean that Marys father held a position with the English government? Restate phrases or sentences Marys mother was a great beauty. What did Marys mother like to do? Inquire about larger sequences of text Did Marys mother want Mary? How do you know?
Define key words prior to asking the question An Ayah is a maid who takes care of children. What did Marys mother want the Ayah to do? Reading Texts Closely: ELLs Scaffold Questions at Different Levels of Proficiency ELLs with lower levels of proficiency may need sentence starters, sentence frames, or word banks to help them answer all questions. Omitted words in sentence frames are words that carry
most meaning in the sentence. The level of scaffolding can and should be adjusted depending on ELLs level of English proficiency. Emergent level proficiency: Sentence frames and word banks Intermediate level proficiency: Sentence starters Advanced level proficiency: Word banks Reading Texts Closely: ELLs Emergent amuse out of sight
take care of gave parties worked 1. What does it mean that Marys father held a position with the English government? worked It means that Marys father _______ for the English government. 2. Marys mother wasparties a great beauty. amuse What did Marys mother like to do? Marys mother liked to go to ________ and ________ herself.
3. Did Marys motherdid want not Mary? How do you know?gave Marys mother (did/did not)_________ want Mary. We know this because she take care of ______ Mary to an Ayah to ____________ her. 4. An Ayah is a maid who takes out care of children. What did Marys mother of sight want the Ayah to do? Marys mother wanted the Ayah to keep Mary ____________ . Reading Texts Closely: ELLs
Intermediate 1. What does it mean that Marys father held a position with the English government? It means that Marys father ___________________________________________________. 2. Marys mother was a great beauty. What did Marys mother like to do? Marys mother liked to ______________________________________________________. 3. Did Marys mother want Mary? How do you know? Marys mother ________________________________. We know this because ______________________________________________________. 4. An Ayah is a maid who takes care of children. What did Marys mother want the Ayah to do?
Reading Texts Closely: ELLs Advanced amuse out of sight take care of gave parties worked 1. What does it mean that Marys father held a position with
the English government? ___________________________________________________________________. 2. Marys mother was a great beauty. What did Marys mother like to do? ___________________________________________________________________. 3. Did Marys mother want Mary? How do you know? ___________________________________________________________________. 4. An Ayah is a maid who takes care of children. What did Marys mother want the Ayah to do? ___________________________________________________________________. Academic Vocabulary Vocabulary is a key determinant of reading comprehension. Recent research indicates that ELLs typically exhibit vocabulary growth rates
that are similar to or surpass those of native English speakers. However, ELLs are often 2-3 years behind their English-speaking peers at any particular point in time, so a large vocabulary gap remains. August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Academic Vocabulary Selection: All Students Frequency Use tools like the First 4000 Words List, Word Sift or the Academic Word List Highlighter to select frequently encountered English words.
Importance to Text Select words that will be critical for answering textdependent questions. Conceptual Complexity Select words to pre-teach that are not easily imageable, abstract, and/or have a high degree of relatedness. Academic Vocabulary Selection: All Students Conceptual Complexity Words that are conceptually complex are more difficult to acquire. Conceptually complex words may require more intensive instruction.
Conceptual complexity Imageability: A word is easily imageable if little effort is required to form an image of it in your mind Concreteness: A word is concrete (tangible) if its referent can be easily perceived through the senses. Relatedness: The degree to which understanding the word requires an understanding of related concepts is relatedness. Academic Vocabulary Selection: ELLs First 4000 Words List 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
Quartile Quartile Quartile The child stared at him, butQuartile she stared most at her mother. She always did this when she had a chance to see her, because the Mem Sahib -- Mary used to call her that oftener than anything else -- was such a tall, slim, pretty person and wore such lovely clothes. Her hair was like curly silk and she had a delicate little nose which seemed to be disdaining things, and she had large laughing eyes. All her clothes were thin and floating, and Mary said they were full of lace. They looked fuller of lace than
ever this morning, but her eyes were not laughing at all. They were large and scared and lifted imploringly to the fair boy officer's face. Seward Reading Resources: http://www.sewardreadingresources.com/img/fourkw/4KW_Teaching_List.pdf Academic Vocabulary Selection: ELLs First 4000 Words Text Analyzer http://vocabularytool.airprojects.org/ Academic Vocabulary Selection: ELLs irst 4000 Words Text Analyzer: Results
ELLs Importance to Text To be successful readers, ELLs need to know words that are frequent across multiple texts. ELLs also need to know the meanings of words and phrases that are crucial to understanding the text at hand (as indexed by the text-dependent questions). Text When Mary Lennox was sent to Misselthwaite Manor to live with her uncle everybody said she was the most disagreeable-looking child ever seen. It was true, too. She had a little thin face and a little thin body, thin light hair and a sour expression. Her hair was yellow,
and her face was yellow because she had been born in India and had always been ill in one way or another. TextDependent Questions Key Vocabulary What do we learn disagreeable in the first paragraph about thin Marys sour appearance?
expression ill Academic Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs Teacher-directed instruction More intensive instruction for abstract words Provide the definition in context. Provide the home language definition and cognate status. Illustrate the word. Invite students to talk about the word. Less intensive instruction (i.e., English for Speakers of Other Languages [ESOL] techniques) for concrete words
Define the word in situ. Use gestures to demonstrate the word. Show the word in illustrations from the text. Student-directed learning Glossaries Academic Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs Word Cards for More Complex Vocabulary Students see:
The teacher says: Lets talk about disturb. Look at the picture of the two girls. The girl on the phone is talking loudly. She is disturbing or bothering the girl who is trying to do her homework. Disturb means to bother someone. In the story, Marys mother does not want to be bothered or disturbed by Marys crying. Disturb in Spanish is molestar. Partner talk. Tell your partner about a time that someone
disturbed you. Lets spell disturb. Academic Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs SOL Techniques for Less Complex Vocabu Word ESOL Technique sour define in situ In this sentence, sour means unhappy or in a bad mood. Do you know what else it can mean?
expression demonstration or gesture (e.g., make a happy or sad face) governess show a picture from the text* *Governess picture not in this version of the text; shown as an example. Academic Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs Encourage Student-Directed Learning Teach students word learning strategies.
Cognates, context clues, morphology, etc. Dictionaries and digital resources Online: English: wordsmyth.net Spanish.dictionary.com Smartphone apps: English: SnaPanda (Android) English: Dictionary! (Android & iPhone) Free Spanish-English Dictionary + (iPhone) English-Spanish dictionary (Android) Glossary use Academic Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs Word Learning Strategies
Word Strategy manor context clues sent to live disagreeable cognate desagradable expression cognate
expresin fretful context clues sickly, baby Academic Vocabulary Instruction: ELLs Glossary Writing to Sources: All Students Writing Types Type Example
Argument Make a claim about the worth or meaning of a text Analyze evidence from multiple sources to support a claim Informationa Describe how a scientific process works Describe a historical event l/ Explanatory Narrative Elementary: 30% argument, 35% informative/explanatory, 35% narrative Middle School: 35% argument, 35% informative/explanatory, 30% narrative
High School: 40% argument, 40% informative/explanatory, 20% narrative Writing to Sources: ELLs Scaffolding for ELLs Students respond to a mainstream lesson essay prompt re-written to make the writing assignment easier to understand. Partner talk and a graphic organizer help ELLs put together the information they need to write Paragraph frames and graphic organizers help ELLs write to different genres. Paragraph frames should align with the text type requirement of the prompt: argument, informative/explanatory, or narrative text.
Writing to Sources: ELLs Mainstream essay prompt: What can the reader infer from the text about how to avoid falling ill from cholera? Related essay prompt: Cholera is a terrible disease. In the story, Marys Ayah and many other people die from cholera. Based on what people in the story do and say, what can we infer, or understand, about how you can avoid or not get cholera? Writing to Sources: ELLs Graphic Organizer Reread conversation between Marys mother and the soldier? What does the soldier say they should do?
Reread the last paragraph. What did the servants do? Say what you would do to keep from getting cholera: Say why you would do this: Writing to Sources: ELLs Paragraph Frame What can the reader infer from the text about how to avoid falling ill from cholera? Marys mother and the __________ talk about cholera. The __________ tells Marys mother she should have ____________________________________________________________. Then later, it says that all of the servants were gone. They had _________________________________________________________________________.
From these two examples, the reader learns that the best way to avoid falling ill from cholera is to _____________________________________________________________________. If I were there, I would ________________________________________________________ because___________________________________________________________________. The Center for English Language Learners CCRS Center Technical Assistance Hub Task Areas Coordination and Collaboration Regional Comprehensive and Content Centers Federal CCRS Technical Assistance Providers
External CCRS Stakeholders and Resources Knowledge Development and Application New CCRS Center Products and Tools CCRS Knowledge Database Webinars and Symposia CCRS Center Website and Social Media Responsive and Proactive Technical Assistance Networked Communities The College and Career Readiness Success Center Website
#PredictSuccess ccrscenter.org Sample Resources Available from the CCRS Center Website
The College and Career Readiness and Success Organizer Predictors of Postsecondary Success Improving College and Career Readiness by Incorporating Social and Emotional Learning Improving College and Career Readiness for Students with Disabilities How Career and Technical Education Can Help Students be College and Career Ready Understanding Accelerated Learning Across Secondary and Postsecondary Education College and Career Readiness and Success: Inventory of Policies, Programs, and Initiatives College and Career Readiness and Success Interactive State Map The District Role in Supporting College and Career Readiness for Students Considerations for Collaborations to Support College and Career Readiness: A Facilitators Guide Definitions of College and Career Readiness: An Analysis by State Questions
MOOCs from Understanding Language Effective teachers facilitate rich student academic discourse that is supported by the tools of reading, writing, and visualization. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), supported by the new English Language Proficiency Standards, have created a context for reform whose signature instructional moments include these uses of language.
Three Legs of the Language Stool Learning through discourse. Transacting with text and images. Writing about evidence, reasoning and argument. Continuum of MOOCs c-MOOCs c is for connectivity, collaborative, constructivist, creative, collective Applied as take a SCOOP of language and analyze, reflect, share,
collaborate c-MOOCs c is for connectivity, collaborative, constructivist, creative, collective Applied as take a SCOOP of language and analyze, reflect, share, collaborate It is more like Citizen Science than it is a MOOC. Learning from a Pilot MOOC https://novoed.com/common-core(through support from OELA/NPD) INSTRUCTORS
8,000 Addressed enrolled, how plus to facilitate 1,000 auditors classroom discoursese asjoined required 2,000 active participants 519 by the of
new and NGSS teams 1-8CCSS per team Targeted of first English 1,560 fullyeducators completed Language Learners assignment Required participants to listen completion
rate*: 26.2% closely, analyze, reflect, and act on student-to-student interactions Kenji Hakuta Jeff Zwiers *with respect to those who turned in the 1st assignment Sara Rutherford-Quach MOOC as a Vehicle for Collaboration IHEs Stanford (Kenji Hakuta, Jeff Zwiers, Sara Rutherford)
Stanford (Jonathan Osborne, Bryan Brown, Helen Quinn, Guadalupe Valdes) Stanford (Sam Wineburg) Stanford (David Brazer) Stanford (Rachel Lotan) Oregon State (Karen Thompson) UCSC (George Bunch, Judit Moschkovich) UC Davis (Susan OHara, Harold Levine) UCLA (Margaret Heritage), Alison Bailey CSU Sacramento (Sue Baker, Adele Arellano, Stephanie Biagetti, Pia Wong) U Virginia (Amanda Kibler) U Wisconsin (Tim Boals, Margo Gottlieb, Gary Cook) U Maryland (Melinda Beltran) East Carolina University (Rob Lucas) UNC Chapel Hill (Marta Civil)
New Mexico State University (Anita Hernandez) University of New Mexico (Rebecca Blum Martinez) UC Berkeley (David Pearson) Seattle University (Robert Hughes) States and Districts North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (Nadja Trez) Topic: CCSS Implementation ELA Middle School and Math Elementary Oregon Department of Education (Timothy Blackburn and Martha Martinez) Topic: ELPA21 Standards SFUSD (Angie Estonina), LAUSD (Hilda Maldonado) and OUSD (Nicole Knight) Topic: Student Discourse
Seattle Public Schools (Veronica Gallardo) Topic: Student Discourse New York City Schools (in process) New York State Education Department (in process) Understanding Language | Online MOOCs The Database Understanding Language | Online MOOCs All MOOCs will be focused on SCOOPS of student work that display evidence from (1) discourse, (2) transaction with text, (3) writing about evidence, reasoning and argument that contributes to the
Database. MOOCs will be specialized by different content areas, grade levels, student subgroups, geographical region. The MOOC COOP will be comprised of primarily faculty and LEAs, where the IHE will package and offer the MOOC, and the LEA will collaborate in capturing examples of student work and instruction that can become model content for the MOOC. Members of the MOOC COOP will be part of an IP agreement that will allow reciprocal borrowing/lending of MOOC content with agreed-upon allowances and restrictions. MOOC COOP membership will allow special access to the Database. Understanding Language | Online The Database The Database will consist of MOOC SCOOPS , including all information about the SCOOPS gathered from the MOOC
(description of setting, self-evaluations, peer evaluations, etc.) and will be searchable. The main uses of the Database are: Evaluation and improvement of MOOCs To support Formative Assessment Online, a service to allow users to enter new samples of student language (new SCOOPS) and to use the database as a reference point for formative assessment practice by finding similar and informative examples. Basic research, such as mapping learning progressions for the language used around specific content topics. Other activities to move the field, such as sponsoring Natural Language Processing contests to model expertise in evaluating student language. The Vision University Collaborati
ons District Collaboratio ns C OO a i c M os M Traffic patter ns Metada
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