Genetic Variation for Maize Grain Yield in the

Genetic Variation for Maize Grain Yield in the

Genetic Variation for Maize Grain Yield in the North American Commercial Germplasm Pool Jode Edwards, USDA ARS Dustin Mclean, University of Guleph Yunfei Jiang, University of Guelph Elizabeth, Lee, University of Guelph Mark Mikel, University of Illinois Martin Bohn, University of Illinois Modern U.S. Maize Germplasm Romay et al., 2013 Romay et al., 2013 How Does Performance Relate to Genetics? Much is known about Genetic changes in germplasm from marker data and from pedigree data (PVP pedigrees) However, less information is available about performance Specifically Does genetic narrowing of maize germplasm correspond directly to reduction in variation in performance? What are the best PVP line testers for G2F experiments

G2F Design II Experiment Experiment Early Intermediate Late SS 6 6 5 NSS 16 16 17 2016 locations 8 13 9 2017 lcoations 13

12 6 SS = Stiff Stalk heterotic group (females), NSS = non-Stiff Stalk (males) Analyzed with mixed linear model SS, NSS, SS x NSS fit as random effects along with environmental interactions Analysis of PVP Pedigrees Assembled pedigree database of PVP registered lines (Mark Mikel, University of Illinois) Lines subdivided into bins by decade The percent genetic contribution by heterotic group and by decade computed from pedigrees for different sets of lines SS Heterotic group founders NSS Heterotic group founders G2F males (NSS) Percent genetic contribution of a set of lines may not sum to 100 because of overlap of generations Genetic Contribution of SS Lines by Decade Percent Genetic Contribution

Percentages do not sum to 100 B73 B37 B14 PHG39 I294213 90DJD28 Genetic Contribution of NSS Lines by Decade Percentages do not sum to 100 Percent Genetic Contribution PH207 PHI3737 01INL1 Oh43 PH595

Mo17 Genetic Contributions of NSS Lines by Decade Percent Genetic Contribution Percentages do not sum to 100 PHG29 LH123 3IIH6 PHG47 PHR03 PHN82 LH38 LH82 Variances for Grain Yield by Experiment Effect SS NSS

SS*NSS year*loc*SS year*loc*NSS year*loc*SS*NSS Residual Early 171 233 44 50 82 29 497 Int 10 135 94 80 110 42 476

Late 6 114 28 66 74 94 321 Variance Ratios by Experiment Effect SS % of hybrid NSS % of hybrid SCA % of hybrid Early 38 71 10 Int 4 44 39

D2L 4 55 19 SS % of GxE NSS % of GxE SCA % of GxE 31 51 18 35 47 18 28 32 40 GxE % of total G

34 69 68 0.40 0.55 0.25 0.50 0.21 0.54 main-effect R 2 within loc R 2 Early SS GCA -16.1

4.0 -11.6 17.7 -3.3 9.2 NSS Genetic Contributions 2010 - Present 13.9 2.4 6.2 18.2 2.9 11.8 1.2 0.0 1.7 3.1

8.8 0.0 0.0 2.0 NSS Early GCA Effects (bu/A) LSD (<0 or >0) = 10 -0.6 -35.3 9.9 -11.9 21.5 10.1 -11.7 -19.5 3.8 -3.0 5.9

-3.2 10.7 14.1 -7.4 16.7 NSS Intermediate GCA Effects (bu/A) LSD (<0 or >0) = 10 9.0 -10.5 -1.6 -28.2 12.6 1.2 -3.1 -4.2

-2.1 12.0 7.6 -0.9 -0.8 -10.9 6.2 13.7 NSS Late GCA Effects (bu/A) LSD (<0 or >0) = 8 5.8 -3.0 -23.1 2.4 5.9 8.4

-8.9 13.6 -4.6 1.8 1.9 -14.1 -7.7 14.5 0.3 -4.7 11.4 Best NSS testers line PHG29 3IIH6

PHG47 PHR03 PHN82 PHK56 LH185 NK787 LH210 PHR55 PHW30 % GC 18.2 13.9 11.8 8.8 6.2 1.7 <1 <1 <1 early 10.1 9.9

5.9 21.5 14.1 16.7 int -1.6 late -4.2 9.0 7.6 13.7 12.0 12.6 11.4 5.8 -4.7 13.6 8.4 14.5

5.9 Conclusions PVP Pedigrees support rapid narrowing of germplasm base in both SS and NSS germplasm Phenotypic data suggested almost no variation in GCA in SS germplasm There is environmentally dependent variation in GCA More SCA in intermediate maturity than early and late Subset of very closely related NSS materials still has high variation in GCA

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