CHAPTER 1 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP: MANAGING THE STRATEGYMAKING PROCESS

CHAPTER 1 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP: MANAGING THE STRATEGYMAKING PROCESS

CHAPTER 1 STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP: MANAGING THE STRATEGYMAKING PROCESS FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Explain what is meant by competitive advantage Discuss the strategic role of managers at different levels within the organization Identify the primary steps in a strategic planning process Discuss some common pitfalls of planning and how those pitfalls can be avoided 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES Some tools to improve strategic decision making

Discuss the role strategy leaders play in the strategy-making process 3 STRATEGY Set of related actions that managers take to increase their companys performance Strategic leadership: Creating competitive advantage through effective management of the strategy-making process Strategy formulation: Selecting strategies based on analysis of an organizations external and internal environment Strategy implementation: Putting strategies into action

4 DETERMINANTS OF SHAREHOLDER VALUE 5 COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE AND BUSINESS MODEL Competitive advantage Occurs when a companys profitability is greater than the average profitability of firms in its industry Sustained competitive advantage A companys strategies enable it to maintain aboveaverage profitability for a number of years Business model Conception of how strategies should work together as

a whole to enable the company to achieve competitive advantage 6 BUSINESS MODEL Select, acquire, and retain customers

Define and differentiate its product offerings Create value for customers Produce and deliver goods or services Lower cost Organize activities within the firm Configure its resources Achieve and sustain a high level of profitability Grow business over time 7 BUSINESS MODEL EXAMPLE 8 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT General managers

Bear responsibility for a companys overall performance or for one of its major self-contained subunits or divisions Functional managers Responsible for supervising a particular function, task, activity, or operation Multidivisional company Competes in several different businesses and has a separate self-contained division to manage each 9 LEVELS OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT 10 STEPS IN A FORMAL STRATEGIC

PLANNING PROCESS Select the corporate mission and goals Analyze the organizations external competitive environment and internal operating environment Select strategies that: Build on the organizations strengths and correct its weaknesses Are consistent with the organizations mission and goals Are congruent and constitute a viable business model Implement the strategies 11 EXTERNAL AND INTERNAL ANALYSIS External analysis - Identifies strategic opportunities and threats that will affect how an

organization pursues its mission Involves examination of the: Industry environment in which the company operates Country or national environment Macroenvironment Internal analysis - Focuses on reviewing the resources, capabilities, and competencies of a company Goal - Identify the companys strengths and weaknesses 12 MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESS Feedback

Existing Business Model External Analysis: Opportunities and Threats Mission, Vision, Values, and Goals SWOT Strategic Choice Internal

Analysis: Strengths and Weaknesses Strategic Formulation Strategies: Functional, Business, Global, and CorporateLevel Designing Organization Structure Governance

and Ethics Designing Organization Culture Designing Organization Controls Strategic Implementation 13 AAComprehensive ComprehensiveStrategic StrategicManagement ManagementModel

Model EXISTING BUSINESS MODEL CONTINOUS MONITORING, FEEDBACK, AND CORRECTIVE ACTION MISSION, VISION, VALUES, AND GOALS Internal Analysis: Strengths and Weaknesses SWOT: STRATEGIC CHOICES FUNCTIONAL LEVEL STRATEGIES

External Analysis: Opportunities and Threats BUSINESS LEVEL STRATEGIES GLOBAL STRATEGIES CORPORATE LEVEL STRATEGIES GOVERNANCE AND ETHICS ORG. STRUCTURE ORG. CULTURE MEASURE AND EVALUATE PERFORMANCE ORG. CONTROL

1-14 COMPONENTS OF A MISSION STATEMENT Mission Purpose of the company, or a statement of what the company strives to do Vision Articulation of a companys desired achievements or future state Values Statement of how employees should conduct themselves and their business to help achieve the company mission Goals Precise and measurable desired future state that a company attempts to realize

15 STRATEGY STRATEGYPLANNING PLANNINGPROCESS PROCESS MISSION MISSIONAND ANDVISION VISIONEXAMPLES EXAMPLES Organization Mission

Vision North South University produce competent graduates in their selected disciplines who will have productive careers or choose to engage in advanced studies. will be and remain a center of excellence in higher education. It will gain recognition, nationally and globally and will attract

students, faculty, and staff from all parts of the world. Microsoft At Microsoft, we work to help people and businesses throughout the world realize their full potential. This is our mission. Everything we do reflects this mission and the values that make it possible. Create experiences that combine the magic of

software with the power of Internet services across a world of devices. MISSION MISSIONAND ANDVISION VISIONEXAMPLES EXAMPLES Organization Mission Vision Chevron

Our Company's foundation is built on our Values, which distinguish us and guide our actions. We conduct our business in a socially responsible and ethical manner. We respect the law, support universal human rights, protect the environment, and benefit the communities where we work." At the heart of The

Chevron Way is our Vision to be the global energy company most admired for its people, partnership and performance. STRATEGIES Functional-level strategies Directed at improving the effectiveness of operations within a company Business-level strategies Encompass the businesss overall competitive theme Global strategies Address how to expand operations outside the home country Corporate-level strategies Determine:

The businesses a company should be in to maximize profitability and profit growth How to gain a competitive edge 19 STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION AND FEEDBACK LOOP Strategy implementation Taking action at the functional, business, and corporate levels to execute a strategic plan Designing the best organization structure, culture, and control systems to put a chosen strategy into action Feedback loop - Provide information to the corporate level on the: Strategic goals that are being achieved

Degree of competitive advantage being created and sustained 20 WELL CONSTRUCTED GOALS Precise and measurable. Address crucial issues. Challenging but realistic. Specify a time period for completion. Well constructed goals also provide a means by which the performance of managers can be

evaluated 21 EMERGENT AND DELIBERATE STRATEGIES 22 SCENARIO PLANNING 23 SCENARIO PLANNING Formulating plans that are based on what-if scenarios about the future

Encourages managers to: Think outside the box and be more flexible Anticipate probable scenarios Ivory tower planning - Recognizes that successful strategic planning encompasses managers at all levels of the corporation 24 COGNITIVE BIASES AND STRATEGIC DECISION MAKING Cognitive biases Systematic errors in human decision making Arise from the way people process information Prior hypothesis bias

Decisions are made based on prior beliefs, even when evidence proves that those beliefs are wrong Escalating commitment Decision makers, having committed significant resources to a project, commit even more, despite receiving feedback that the project is failing Reasoning analogy Use of simple analogies to make sense out of a complex problem 25 TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING DECISION MAKING Devils advocacy A member of a decision-making team identifies all the considerations that might make a proposal unacceptable Possible perils of recommended courses of action are brought into light

Dialectic inquiry Generation of a plan and a counter-plan that reflect plausible but conflicting courses of action Promotes strategic thinking 26 CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD STRATEGIC LEADERS

Vision, eloquence, and consistency Articulation of a business model Commitment Being well informed Willingness to delegate and empower Astute use of power Emotional intelligence Self-awareness, self-regulation, and motivation Empathy and social skills 27

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