Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly 12/02/2015 El Nio/Southern Melissa

Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly 12/02/2015 El Nio/Southern Melissa

Sea Surface Temperature Anomaly 12/02/2015 El Nio/Southern Melissa Oscillation (ENSO) Kazemi Rad El Nio/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere phenomenon in Tropical Pacific responsible for global fluctuations on 2-5 year scales: Sea-level pressure changes Sea-surface temperature changes Precipitation variations

Changes in winds El Nio: Ocean component Variations in the ocean circulation Southern Oscillation: atmospheric component Shifting of atmospheric pressure between central/easternwestern pacific Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) A measure of large-scale atmospheric changes in Southern Hemisphere = Sea level pressure in Tahiti (Central Pacific) Sea level pressure in Darwin (Northern Australia) Weakened Pressure Difference: Strengthened Pressure Difference: SOI>0

SOI<0 Normal Conditions in Pacific Air Pressure Low atmospheric pressure in warmer western and higher in the cooler central/eastern tropical Pacific Air moves from high pressure to low pressure Trade Winds (easterlies): From High-Pressure Center in Air Descending East over Cooler dry towards Low-Pressure Center in West Walker Circulation: East-West Atmospheric Circulation above Tropical

Pacific Air Rising above Western Warmer Regions Eastern Areas Easterlies bring warm moist air to Indonesian Region Normal Conditions in Pacific Ocean Temperatures Easterlies toward warm surface waters in the tropics Trade winds pile up water in Western Pacific Stagnates and becomes warmer

Upwelling in the Eastern Pacific Lower cold water rising up to replace shifted surface water Rich in nutrients El Nio Weakened or reversed trade winds Depending on their strength and duration, may trigger Equatorially Trapped Kelvin waves: Warm water eastward across the equatorial 1. Warmer Surface Water in Central/ Pacific Eastern Pacific

Flattens thermoclines 2. Lower Central/Eastern Pacific air pressure Warm Surface Water: 3. Weaker Pressure Gradients (SOI<0) & Weaker Trade Winds 4. Less Surface Water to West 5. Shifting of Walker Circulation to El Nio Effects Western Pacific Decreased rainfall Forest fires followed by air pollution in Indonesia Droughts in Northern Australia Eastern Pacific

Increased rainfall along the western coast of America leading to floods and landslides in Peru and California Deeper thermocline, warmer water, less nutrients Drastic effects on fishery, e.g. in Peru La Nia

Enhanced neutral conditions Intensified E/W pressure gradient generates strengthened easterlies Colder-than-normal water extends across the central/eastern equatorial Pacific Warmer water and increased precipitation in western pacific Trade winds continue to push water westward, once again increasing the sea level around Indonesia

Predicting ENSO Floods, droughts and other climate-related disasters more predictable during El Nio/La Nia years Better decision-making events in preparation for such Numerical prediction models use information from atmosphere-ocean system, e.g. wind speeds, ocean currents, sea level, and the depth

of the thermocline along the equator, and predict its evolution over the next few seasons or years References overlay=sea_surface_temp_anomaly/equirectangular=-142.75,-9.45,184 warm_impacts.shtml

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