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- Review Homework - 2-6 - 2-7 - 2-8

- 2-9 In a modified boxplot, which is provided by many software packages, the suspected outliers are identified in the boxplot with a special plotting symbol such as an asterisk (*). Comparing Figure 2.2 with Figure 2.1, we see that the largest

observation from New York is flagged as an outlier. The line beginning at the third quartile no longer extends to the maximum but now ends at 65, which is the largest observation from New York that is not identified as an outlier. Figure 2.2 also displays the modified boxplots horizontally rather than vertically, an option available in some software packages which does not change the interpretation of the plot. Finally, the 1.5 IQR rule is not a replacement for looking at the data. It is

most useful when large volumes of data are processed automatically. In practice, use software or your

calculator to obtain the standard deviation from keyed-in data. Doing an example step-bystep will help you

understand how the variance and standard deviation work, however.

Notice that the average in the variance s2 divides the sum by one fewer than the number of observations, that is, n 1 rather than n. The reason is that the deviations

xi x always sum to exactly 0, so that knowing n 1 of them determines the last one. Only n 1 of the squared deviations can vary freely, and we average by dividing the total by n 1. The number n 1 is called the degrees of

freedom of the variance or standard deviation. Some calculators offer a choice between dividing by n and dividing by n 1, so be sure to use n 1.

Most of our examples and exercises have aimed to help you learn basic tools (graphs and calculations) for describing and comparing distributions. You have also learned principles that guide use of these tools, such as start with a graph and look for the overall pattern and striking deviations from the

pattern. The data you work with are not just numbersthey describe specific settings such as water depth in the Everglades or travel time to work. Because data come from a specific setting, the final step in examining data is a conclusion for that setting. Water depth in the Everglades has a yearly cycle that reflects Floridas wet and dry seasons. Travel times to work are generally

longer in New York than in North Carolina. Lets return to the on-time high school graduation rates discussed in Example 1.4, page 21. We know from the example that the on-time graduation rates

vary from 59% in the District of Columbia to 88% in Iowa, with a median of 80%. State graduation rates are related to many factors, and in a statistical problem we often try to explain the differences or variation in a variable such as

graduation rate by some of these factors. For example, do states with lower household incomes tend to have lower high school graduation rates? Or, do the states in some regions of the country tend to have lower high school graduation rates than in other regions?

As you learn more statistical tools and principles, you will face more complex statistical problems. Although no framework accommodates all the varied issues that arise in applying statistics to real settings, we find

the following four-step thought process gives useful guidance. In particular, the first and last steps emphasize that statistical problems are tied to specific real-world settings and therefore involve more than doing calculations and making graphs.

To help you master the basics, many exercises will continue to tell you what to domake a histogram, find the five-number summary, and so on. Real statistical problems dont come with detailed instructions. From now on, especially in the later chapters of the book, you will meet some

exercises that are more realistic. Use the four-step process as a guide to solving and reporting these problems. They are marked with the fourstep icon, as the following example illustrates. PRACTICE

PROBLEMS 2.10 x and s by Hand. Radon is a naturally occurring gas and is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States.9 It comes

from the natural breakdown of uranium in the soil and enters buildings through cracks and other holes in the foundations. Found throughout the United States, levels vary considerably from state to state. Several methods can reduce the levels of radon in your home, and the Environmental Protection Agency recommends using one of these if the measured level in your home is above 4 picocuries per liter. Four readings from Franklin County,

Ohio, where the county average is 8.4 picocuries per liter, were 6.2, 12.8, 7.6, and 15.4. (a)Find the mean step-by-step. That is, find the sum of the four observations and divide by 4. (b)Find the standard deviation step-by-step. That is, find the deviation of each observation from the mean,

square the deviations, then obtain the variance and the standard deviation. Example 2.7 shows the method. (c)Now enter the data into your calculator and use the mean and standard deviation buttons to obtain and s. Do the results agree with your hand calculations?

2.11 x and s Are Not Enough. The mean and standard deviation s measure center and variability but are not a complete description of a distribution. Data sets with different shapes can have the same mean and standard deviation. To demonstrate this fact, use your calculator to find x and s for these two small data sets. Then make a stemplot

of each and comment on the shape of each distribution. 2.12 Choose a Summary. The shape of a distribution is a rough guide to whether the mean and standard deviation are a helpful

summary of center and variability. For which of the following distributions would and s be useful? In each case, give a reason for your decision. (a)Percents of high school graduates in the states taking the SAT, Figure 1.8 (page 27)

(b)Iowa Tests scores, Figure 1.7 (page 27) (c)New York travel times, Figure 2.1 (page 54)

2.13 Logging in the Rain Forest. DATA SET

Conservationists have despaired over destruction of tropical rain forest by logging, clearing, and burning. These words begin a report on a statistical study of the effects of logging in Borneo. Charles Cannon of Duke University and his co-workers compared forest plots that had never been logged (Group 1) with similar plots nearby that had been logged

one year earlier (Group 2) and eight years earlier (Group 3). All plots were 0.1 hectare in area. Here are the counts of trees for plots in each group: To what extent has logging affected the count of trees? Follow the four-step process in reporting your work.

2.14 Diplomatic Scofflaws. DATA SET

Until Congress allowed some enforcement in 2002, the thousands of foreign diplomats in New York City could freely violate parking laws. Two economists looked at the number of unpaid parking tickets per diplomat over a five-year period ending when enforcement reduced the

problem.11 They concluded that large numbers of unpaid tickets indicated a culture of corruption in a country and lined up well with more elaborate measures of corruption. The data set for 145 countries is too large to print here, but look at the data file on the text website. The first 32 countries in the list (Australia to Trinidad and Tobago) are classified by the World

Bank as developed. The remaining countries (Albania to Zimbabwe) are developing. The World Bank classification is based only on national income and does not take into account measures of social development. Give a full description of the distribution of unpaid tickets for both groups of countries and

identify any high outliers. Compare the two groups. Does national income alone do a good job of distinguishing countries whose diplomats do and do not obey parking laws?