Section 4 The High Middle Ages Religious Crises

Section 4 The High Middle Ages Religious Crises

Section 4 The High Middle Ages Religious Crises In 1346, Europe faced challenges to its religious, political and social order. Since Christianity tied most Europeans together, religious crises were a grave threat to all society. Heresy Heresy, beliefs that opposed official teachings of church Heretical beliefs began increasing in Europe, 1100s Spread throughout medieval society Alarm Most people remained faithful Cases of heresy increased, church officials alarmed

Heretics deemphasized role of clergy, sacraments Order Heresy threatened social order in church Heretical beliefs frightened religious officials Determined to stop spread of heresy The High Middle Ages Section 4 Fighting heresy Inquisitions primary method of fighting heresy Legal procedures supervised by special judges who tried suspected heretics Accused came before court, local authorities punished guilty parties Other means Francis of Assisi, Dominic of Osma, created new religious orders

Members of orders, friars, spread Christian teachings among people War also used to fight heresy Pope Innocent III called for crusade against heretics in southern France, 1208; spent 20 years trying to eliminate heretics there Section 4 The High Middle Ages Wars and Conflict Wars were also being fought so political leaders could gain power for themselves. The two most violent involved the kings of England. Hundred Years War French king died without son, 1328 King Edward III of England, nearest living relative Also had first cousin, regent English wanted Edward to rule both countries French did not want English king, favored regent King Philip VI

Regent crowned as King Philip VI of France, decision did not please English Edward invaded France, 1337, began Hundred Years War English won many victories Used better weapons Moved deeper into France Under Henry V, advanced to gates of Paris Section 4 The High Middle Ages Hundred Years War War Changed Course Young peasant girl, Joan of Arc, changed course of war, 1429 Claimed saints told her to lead French into battle Joan, army defeated English at Orlans Led French to several more

victories before being captured, executed by British King Charles VII After Joans death, French King Charles VII rallied army French steadily took back land lost to English Drove English almost completely out of country, 1453 War finally ended after more than 100 years The High Middle Ages Section 4 The High Middle Ages Section 4 Wars of the Roses No end of fighting Shortly after peace with France, two families began war over English throne Lancasters, used red rose as emblem; Yorks, used white rose as emblem

Conflict became known as Wars of the Roses Yorkist victories Yorkists successful early; Edward IV took throne, 1461 Won significant victories over Lancastrians Trouble began after Edwards death Richard III Edwards sons disappeared after his death; brother, Richard III, crowned king Richard faced number of uprisings; killed in battle of Bosworth Field, 1485 Tudor Henry VII claimed throne, neither York nor Lancaster; new era began Section 4 The High Middle Ages Summarize How did fights over the thrones of England and France lead to conflict in medieval Europe? Answer(s): heirs unclear; dispute over French throne led to Hundred Years' War; dispute over English throne led to Wars of the Roses Section 4

The High Middle Ages Black Death Another crisis Different theories Hundred Years War took toll on English, French armies Historians unsure what disease was, or if single disease At same time another crisis struck, between 1347 and 1351 One theory, combination of two different plagues Black Death, deadly plague Bubonic, pneumonic Origins

Spread quickly Brought to Europe by merchant sailors from Genoa Plague traveled with merchants Plague contracted in Asia Spread quickly, struck coastal regions first, moved inland Flea-infected rats moved from Genoa to European ports Almost all of Europe touched by Black Death by 1351

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