Cross Country Flight Planning 1 PTS Requirements Exhibits

Cross Country Flight Planning 1 PTS Requirements Exhibits

Cross Country Flight Planning 1 PTS Requirements Exhibits adequate knowledge of the elements by presenting and explaining a preplanned cross-country flight. It should be planned using actual weather reports/forecasts and conform to the regulatory requirements Exhibits adequate knowledge of the aircrafts performance capabilities by calculating the estimated time en route and total fuel requirement based upon factors, such as Power settings Operating altitude or flight level Wind Fuel reserve requirements

Weight and balance limitations 2 PTS Requirements Selects and correctly interprets the current and applicable en route charts, instrument departure procedures (DPs), RNAV, STAR, and Standard Instrument Approach Procedure Charts (IAP) Obtains and correctly interprets applicable NOTAM information Determines the calculated performance is within the aircrafts capability and operating limitations

Completes and is able to file a flight plan in a manner that accurately reflects the conditions of the proposed flight Demonstrates adequate knowledge of GPS and RAIM capability, when aircraft is so equipped Icing Demonstrates the ability to recognize wing contamination due to airframe icing Demonstrates adequate knowledge of the adverse effects of airframe icing during pre-takeoff, takeoff, cruise, and landing phases of flight and corrective actions Demonstrates familiarity with any icing procedures and/or information published by the aircraft manufacturer 3 Cross-Country Flight Planning Restricted

area Fort Irwin GPS jamming potential Terrain too high for aircraft climb performance MOA Lets plan a flight from KVGT to KLAX The first thing I do is look at the magic magenta line for a direct flight on a VFR

sectional chart to get an overview based on the IFR planning elements 4 Preflight Planning Elements 91.103 Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. This information must include For a flight under IFR Weather reports and forecasts Fuel requirements Alternatives available if the planned flight cannot be completed Any known traffic delays of which the pilot in command has been advised by ATC Determine whether traffic delays might require holding

5 Preflight Planning Elements 91.103 Each pilot in command shall, before beginning a flight, become familiar with all available information concerning that flight. This information must include Runway lengths at airports of intended use Runway length should be at least 150% of values shown in the POH/AFM, or at least 200% of the POH/AFM numbers for a wet, icy, or otherwise contaminated runway Consider whether LAHSO procedures are in use Takeoff and landing distance information from the POH under expected values of airport elevation and runway slope, aircraft gross weight, and wind and temperature 6

The Route Departure airport considerations Departure procedures Enroute considerations Arrival considerations Approach considerations Destination airport considerations 7 Departure Airport Considerations Frequencies

Clearance delivery process Taxi Hot spots Route Weather Ceiling can I get back to land? Visibility Winds vs runways and obstacles (obstacle clearance is based on groundspeed!) Runway choice Does it impact the departure procedure Length Delays 8 Departure / Destination Airport Considerations

Frequencies (be sure to listen to ATIS for weather and airport information) Taxiways Hot spots Airport diagram and Airport facility directory are good places to start Determine your location to understand your taxi route Runway data 9

Departure / Destination Airport Considerations AF/D 10 Departure Runway Planning Can we take off given the aircraft weight, pressure altitude and temperature? Runway required Airport elevation 2205 Metar = VGT 300553Z 32014KT 10SM OVC095 13/02 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP149 29.93 10 =-10 20 = 2195 PA 13 2000'

Ground810roll =870 3000' 2200 Wind adj per 9 knots 14 knot adj 890 950 826 886 844 -84.4 -130.82

Required Runway 713.18 Plenty of runway as shortest runway is 4203 per AF/D 11 Runway Planning Also consider runway slope impact, even if no factor is included in the take-off distance chart Rule of thumb Downslope takeoff distance is reduced about 5% per degree Upslope takeoff distance is increased about 7% per degree

Listed in airports runway information in AFD, on taxi diagrams and on approach plate runway diagrams If the runway distance is close to operational limits of the aircraft, be sure to compute the 50 obstacle clearance distance to be sure take-off is viable 12 Runway Planning Be sure to check Notams Runway closures / limits Taxiway closures / limits Lighting outages Examples 13

Clearance Delivery Towered airport Ground control / tower Clearance delivery May be able to receive a pre-taxi clearance - can get clearance up to 10 minutes prior to beginning taxi Non-towered airport FSS by Phone FSS by Radio

May have remote communications outlet (RCO) Ground Communication Outlet (GCO) - VHF radio to telephone connection to FSS usually four key clicks on the radio to contact ATC and six key clicks to contact the FSS ATC by radio Depart the airport VFR if conditions permit and contact ATC for your clearance in the air Void time - Must depart before the clearance void time; if you fail to depart, you must contact ATC by a specified notification time, which is within 30 minutes of the original void time 14 Obtaining the Clearance INITIAL RADIO CONTACT In your initial radio communication with the

clearance facility state: Aircraft identification Location on the airport Type of operation planned (ifr) Point of first intended landing and requested action (taxi/clearance on request/etc) IFR Clearance Items Clearance will be issued prior to take-off and will include the following items as appropriate, in the order listed:

Aircraft identification Clearance limit Departure procedure or SID Route of flight Altitude data in the order flown Holding instructions Any special information Frequency and beacon information Readback clearance items Weight and Balance Planning Compute a weight and balance for the take-off

weight through the landing weight to be sure you are within CG for the entire flight and not overweight at take off or landing Can do with a computer program or by hand from the aircrafts weight and balance Landing zero fuel Take off 17 Airport Environment Avoiding Runway Incursion

Stop bars - Row of red unidirectional, in-pavement lights installed along the holding position marking. When extinguished by the controller, they confirm clearance for the pilot or vehicle operator to enter the runway Taxiway centerline lights - Work in conjunction with stop bars, are green in-pavement lights that guide ground traffic under low visibility conditions and during darkness Runway guard lights - Elevated or in-pavement alternately flashing yellow lights, used to denote both the presence of an active runway and identify the location of a runway holding position marking 18 Airport Environment Avoiding Runway Incursion Clearance bars - Three yellow in-pavement lights that mark holding positions for aircraft. When used for hold points, they are colocated with geographic position markings Geographic position markings - Used as hold points or for position reporting. They are pink spots outlined with a black and white

circle and designated with a number, a letter, or both Runway entrance lights - String of lights in center of taxiways/runway crossings illuminated red when there is high-speed traffic on or approaching the runway 19 Instrument Departure Procedures (DPs) Departure procedures (DPs) are preplanned routes that provide a way to depart the airport and transition safely to the en route structure Two types Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODPs) which are printed either textually or graphically

Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) which are always printed graphically Higher than standard climb gradients are specified by a note on the departure procedure chart for graphic DPs, or in the Take-Off Minimums and (Obstacle) Departure Procedures section of the TERPS AIM 5-2-8(e) provides that a pilot, prior to departing an airport on an IFR flight should: Consider the type of terrain and other obstacles on or in the vicinity of the departure airport; Determine whether an ODP is available; Determine if obstacle avoidance can be maintained visually or if the ODP should be flown; and Consider the effect of degraded climb performance and the actions to take in the event of an engine loss during the departure. Pilots should notify ATC as soon as possible of reduced climb capability in that circumstance 20 Obstacle Departure Procedure ODPs are printed either textually or graphically Graphic ODPs will have (OBSTACLE) printed in the procedure title

ODPs provide obstruction clearance via the least onerous route from the terminal area to the appropriate en route structure ODPs are only used for obstruction clearance An ODP may drastically affect the initial part of the flight plan. You may have to depart at a higher than normal climb rate, or depart in a direction opposite the intended heading and maintain that for a period of time, any of which would require an alteration in the flight plan and fuel planning 21 Obstacle Departure Procedure ODPs may be flown without ATC clearance, unless an alternate departure procedure (SID or radar vector) has been specifically assigned by ATC As a general rule, ATC will only assign an ODP from a non-towered airport when necessary for aircraft to aircraft separation

ATC, however, assumes that you will use a published ODP when departing from a non-towered airport ATC must be notified if you do not have ODPs available by noting "no DP" in the flight plan or by advising ATC Can enter will depart (airport) (runway) via textual ODP in remarks section of flight plan A graphic ODP may also be filed in an instrument flight plan by using the computer code included in the procedure title ODP procedures are listed in the front of the approach chart booklets under the heading Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures. Each procedure is listed in alphabetical order by city and state

Graphical procedures are included with the airport information in the TERPS 22 Obstacle Departure Procedure When should you fly an ODP? In most cases, but especially at night, in IMC and in marginal VMC When departing without an ODP or SID, how can you ensure terrain/obstacle clearance until reaching a published MEA? Obstacle clearance for all departures, including diverse, is based on the pilot crossing the departure end of the runway at least 35 feet above the departure end of runway elevation, climbing to 400 feet above the departure end of runway elevation before making the initial turn, and maintaining a minimum climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile (FPNM), unless required to level off by a crossing restriction, until the minimum IFR altitude

Back cover of Terps has a climb rate table 90 knots = 300 ft/min for 200 NM 120 knots = 400 ft/minfor 200 NM Computed as: Ground speed / 60 = NM/min NM/min X required climb gradient = Required feet per min rate 23 Obstacle Departure Procedure Graphical Climb rates required Graphical procedure shows

the route graphically and includes a textual description as well Obstacle notes Route description 24 Obstacle Departure Procedure Textual Textual ODPs are described in the front of the TERPS booklet in the Takeoff Minimums section

Textual ODP Cross reference to KVGTs graphical ODP 25 Obstacle Departure Procedure Indication To determine if an airport has alternate take off minimums or an ODP look for a triangle T in the approach plates or in the Take-Off Minimums and (Obstacle)

Departure Procedures section of the TERPS 26 Standard Instrument Departure Procedure SIDs are air traffic control (ATC) procedures printed in graphic form to provide obstruction clearance and a transition from the terminal area to the appropriate en-route structure SIDs are primarily designed for system enhancement and to reduce pilot/controller workload, but consider obstacle clearance Unlike an ODP, ATC clearance must be received prior to flying a SID If you do not have SIDs or do not want to fly them place the statement NO SIDs in the remarks section of your flight plan You are not required to depart using a SID 27 Standard Instrument Departure Procedure

Climb rates SIDs are included in the TERPS immediately after the applicable airports approach plates SID charts depict the departure route, navigational fixes, transition routes, and required altitudes Limits / notes Review vector SID charts prior to use because they often include nonstandard lost communication procedures

Obstacle notes Route description 28 Standard Instrument Departure Procedure Typically, transition routes fan out in various directions from the end of the basic SID to allow pilots to choose the transition route that takes them in the correct direction A transition route includes a course, a minimum altitude, and distances between fixes on the route To file a SID in your route include the code from the bottom of the plate eg. NOTWN3.LAS in the route described in the flight plan When filing a SID for a specific transition route, include the transition in the flight plan, using the correct departure and transition code clearance from ATC will include both the departure name and transition e.g., Joe Pool Nine Departure, College Station Transition 29

Departure Procedure Nomenclature Based upon equipment required Non-RNAV DP - Established for aircraft equipped with conventional avionics using ground-based NAVAIDs RNAV DP - Established for aircraft equipped with RNAV avionics; e.g., GPS, VOR/DME, DME/DME, RNP, etc. Radar DP - Radar may be used for navigation guidance for SID design. Radar SIDs are established when ATC has a need to vector aircraft on departure to a particular ATS Route, NAVAID, or Fix Based on Nav Responsibility PILOT NAV

Allows you to provide your own navigation with minimal radio communication May include initial radar vectors to help you join the procedure, but the majority of the navigation will remain the pilots responsibility VECTOR SIDS Usually requires ATC to provide radar vectors from just after takeoff until reaching the assigned route or a fix depicted on the SID chart Procedure does not include departure routes or transition routes because independent pilot navigation is not involved 30

Departure Procedure Vector Sid Example Pilot Nav Sid 31 Takeoff Minimums FAA establishes takeoff minimums for every airport that has published standard instrument approaches Used by commercially operated aircraft - Part 121 and 135 - 1 statute mile visibility for single and twin engine aircraft Smart to use for Part 91 operations, but not required NACO charts list takeoff minimums only for runways with non-standard minimums Listed by airport in alphabetical order in the front of the TERPS Airport with non-standard takeoff minimums, has a triangle T or trouble T in the notes section of the instrument

procedure chart 32 Departure Procedures are Important On November 8, 2007, a Cessna T182T, on a route similar to our direct magenta line, was destroyed after impacting Potosi Mountain during climb to cruise, about 13 miles southwest of Las Vegas after departing KVGT on a SW heading. Both ATP rated pilots were killed. Had they On January 16, 1942, 15 minutes after takeoff followed the departure from Las Vegas Airport (now Nellis Air Force procedure, the mountain could Base) the TWA aircraft slammed into Potosi Mountain, at an elevation of 7,770 ft, and was

have been avoided. destroyed 33 Whats Our Departure Plan Consider the departure paths in the SIDs and determine if you can use a DP ODP - Possible Rightturn doesnt serve runways 30L/R so not good for us Northtown - Possible Be sure to check notes on the procedure can you meet the requirements Can you meet the climb gradient to specified altitude

Metar = VGT 300553Z 32014KT 10SM OVC095 13/02 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP149 34 Departure Notams Check Notams for new / temporary obstacles, unlit obstacles or other dangers that may affect your departure Changes to departure procedures 35 Climb Performance

Climb rate for 13 is 986/min To get climb per NM 85kts*/60 min = 1.41 NM minute Climb performance per NM 986/1.41=699 per NM * Assumes ground speed is the same as indicated but must adjust airspeed by wind factor for actual ground speed Assuming we use Northtown Three course of 313, ground speed will be computed by converting IAS to TAS = 88.2kts; Ground speed with wind = 74.3/kts yielding climb of 796 per NM We can use any DP because our rate is more than 425 (highest required rate) From Performance

section of POH Metar = VGT 300553Z 32014KT 10SM OVC095 13/02 A2993 RMK AO2 SLP149 36 En-Route Charts IFR en-route low altitude charts used for IFR below 18,000 feet MSL Charts are revised every 56 days Low en-route chart symbols are described in the Aeronautical Chart Users Guide

Available at http:// /Chart_Users_Guide_11thEd.pdf Charts show: (i) Air Traffic Services; (ii) Airports that have an Instrument Approach Procedure or a minimum 3000' hard surface runway; (iii) Airways/Route Data; (iv) Cruising Altitudes; (v) fixes/ATC Reporting Points; (vi) Limits of controlled airspace; (vii) Military Training Routes; (viii) Off Route Obstruction Clearance Altitudes (OROCA); (ix) Radio aids to navigation; (x) RNAV Routes; (xi) Special Use Airspace Areas; (xii) Tabulations (MTRs, SUAs, MOAs, Airport data) 37 En-Route Charts Additional information on en route phase is contained in the PowerPoint on this

webpage entitled Airways What you always wanted to know http:// /7/6/9/3/7693240/ats_route s.pptx 38 En-Route Airways and Route Systems First look for preferred routes between your city pair (may not be best for you, however) Available online at http:// base.jsp There are none between Las Vegas and Los Angeles Sample preferred routing from NY to DC

39 En-Route Airways and Route Systems Next I look at the magic magenta line on the IFR chart to see: What airways head the right way Navaid to navaid routes are possible RNAV options Can also use a flight planning program such as DUATS to propose an initial route for consideration

40 RNAV Area navigation or random navigation (RNAV) allows pilots to choose any course within a network of navaids, rather than navigating directly to and from navaids Provides a shorter flight distance, reduces congestion, and allow flights into airports without beacons Published RNAV routes - Q-Routes and T-Routes Can be used by aircraft with RNAV capability, subject to any limitations or requirements noted on en route charts, in applicable Advisory Circulars, or by NOTAM RNAV routes are depicted in blue on aeronautical charts and are identified by the letter "Q" or "T" followed by the airway number (e.g., Q-13, T-205) T-routes are available for RNAV aircraft from 1,200 feet above the surface (or in some instances higher) up to but not including 18,000 feet MSL. T-routes MRB

are shown on Enroute Low Altitude Charts as a blue line. Q-routes are available between 18,000 feet MSL and FL 450 inclusive. Qroutes are depicted on Enroute High Altitude Charts. 41 RNAV Unpublished RNAV route Direct routes between waypoints defined in terms of latitude/longitude coordinates, degree-distance fixes, or offsets from established routes/airways at a specified distance and direction Radar monitoring is required What is the Magnetic Reference Bearing (MRB), and what are the limitations on its use? Magnetic Reference Bearing (MRB) is the published bearing between two waypoints on an RNAV/GPS/GNSS route. The MRB is calculated by applying

magnetic variation at the waypoint to the calculated true course between two waypoints The MRB enhances situational awareness by indicating a reference bearing (no-wind heading) that a pilot should see on the compass/HSI/RMI etc., when turning prior to/over a waypoint en route to another waypoint Pilots should use this bearing as a reference only, because their RNAV/GPS/GNSS navigation system will fly the true course between the waypoints 42 RNAV AIM 5-1-8 d. RNAV route requirements: File airport-to-airport flight plans Plan the RNAV portion of the flight plan to begin and end over appropriate arrival and departure transition fixes or appropriate navaids. Use of preferred departure and arrival routes (DP/STAR), preferred, where established File route structure transitions to and from the random route portion of the flight

Define the random route by waypoints using degree-distance fixes based on navaids File a minimum of one route description waypoint for each ARTCC through whose area the random route will be flown. Waypoints must be located within 200 NM of the preceding center's boundary. File an additional route description waypoint for each turnpoint Plan additional route description waypoints as required to ensure accurate navigation via the filed route of flight. Navigation is the pilot's responsibility, unless ATC assistance is requested. Plan the route of flight so as to avoid Prohibited and Restricted Airspace by 3 NM unless permission has been obtained to operate in that airspace and the appropriate ATC facilities are advised 43 En-Route Airways and Route Systems Once the initial route is selected consider whether there is a better route based upon:

Aircraft performance MEA / MOCA / MORA (Minimum Off Route Altitudes) Notams Weather Distance 44 Know the Aircrafts Performance Calculate the estimated time en route and total fuel requirement based upon factors, such as Power settings Operating altitude or flight level Wind Fuel reserve requirements Weight and balance limitations Determine whether the route is within the

aircrafts capability and operating limitations 45 Aircrafts Performance Sufficient for the Route Look at MEA, MOCA and MORA along the entire route MEA GPS MEA MOCA Is the aircrafts performance sufficient / service ceiling higher than MEA Can you meet climb /

crossing requirements 46 Aircrafts Performance at the Route Altitude Altitude selection is generally based on MEA, winds impact on performance and climb performance 12,000 is MEA and practical limit of the aircraft so we will use 12,000 Remember you can climb for higher segments and then descend for lower MEA segments 47 Aircrafts Performance Climb to the Route

Altitude Take departure pressure altitude and subtract from route altitude 2,000 Departure to 12,000 cruise Result Time 23 minutes Fuel used 7.8 gal. + 2 gal. for takeoff/taxi Distance 41 NM Adjust for wind and temperature per notes Note: climb performance drops to less than 500 fpm; will need to notify ATC - AIM 5-3-3 a.(1)(c) Consider whether another route with lower altitudes will be better 48

Aircrafts Performance at the Route Altitude Temp at altitude 13 @2000 - 20 = -7 Select performance based on mission Speed 150kts MP=18/2400 RPM/11.3 gph Economy 130 kts MP=15/2300 RPM / 8.5 gph Compromise 142 kts 2300/17/10.1 gph 49 Oxygen Planning 91.211 Above 12,500 up to and including 14,000 for that part of the flight at those altitudes that is

of more than 30 minutes duration Above 14,000 must use oxygen at all times Passengers Above 15,000 must be provided with oxygen Suggested night use above 5,000 No oxygen required on our flight because it remains below 12,500 50 En-route Notams TFRs Quick map view - http:// dex.html Navaids Out of service Limitations on use

GPS notams Dangers e.g. laser light show MOA activity Unmanned aircraft ATC communication outages 51 RAIM Prediction Can do from GPS receiver read the manual for the specific unit procedure Online See e.g.,

52 Traffic Delays Air Traffic Control System Command Center website provides general delay information for airports Advisories are normally issued for: (a) ground stops and (b) ground delay programs Best source of known delay information is a briefer 53 Descent Planning Planning the descent is important in order to properly dissipate altitude and airspeed to arrive at the approach gate properly configured The approach gate is an imaginary point used by ATC to vector aircraft to the final approach course

54 Descent Planning Types of descent Authorizations Descend and maintain XX Thousand feet -Descend at the optimum rate for your aircraft until 1,000 feet above the assigned altitude, then descend at a rate between 500 and 1,500 feet per minute (FPM) to the assigned altitude Descend at pilots discretion. You may begin the descent whenever you choose and at any rate you choose You also are authorized to level off, temporarily, at any intermediate altitude during the descent. However, once you leave an altitude, you may not return to it You may request this type of clearance so that you can operate more efficiently e.g. to remain above the clouds for as long as possible, to conserve fuel or to avoid prolonged flight in icing conditions 55

Descent Planning Inappropriate descent planning and execution during arrivals has been a contributing factor to many fatal aircraft accidents CFIT Know the terrain Know your vertical position and horizontal position 56 Standard Terminal Arrival Route Procedures A STAR is an IFR arrival route for aircraft destined to certain airports RNAV STAR/FMSP are used by aircraft equipped with FMS or GPS Pilots navigating on STAR/RNAV STAR/FMSP procedures must maintain last assigned altitude until receiving authorization to descend

Purpose of STARs is to simplify clearance delivery procedures and facilitate transition between en route and instrument approach procedures STARs start at the en route structure but dont make it down to the pavement; they end at a fix or NAVAID designated by ATC (typically an approach gate, outer fix, instrument approach fix, or arrival waypoint in the terminal area), where radar vectors commonly take over STAR and approach procedure should connect to one another in such a way as to maintain the overall descent and deceleration profiles STAR officially begins at the common NAVAID, intersection, or fix where all the various transitions to the arrival come together Usually named according to the point at which the procedure begins

Many STARs contain specific lost communication procedures 57 Standard Terminal Arrival Route Procedures A STAR may have mandatory speeds and/or crossing altitudes published Published speed restrictions are independent of altitude restrictions and are mandatory unless modified by ATC A STAR is simply a published routing; it does not have the force of a clearance until issued specifically by ATC For example, MEAs on STARs are not valid unless stated within an ATC clearance or in cases of lost communication

Descent authority will be by specific instruction or descend via the procedure (may also contain exceptions) Descend via the Reedr3 arrival. Descend via the Reeder3 arrival, except, cross DOWNE at or above six thousand May also contain planning information depicted to inform pilots what clearances or restrictions to expect Expect altitudes/speeds are not considered authorized unless verbally issued by ATC Not to be used communications are lost unless ATC specifically advised the pilot to expect these altitudes/speeds as part of a further clearance 58


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