De-escalation Techniques Strategies for preventing the escalation of
De-escalation Techniques Strategies for preventing the escalation of behavior in the school setting ww w.ksdetasn.org Acknowledgements Training Material Based on the Work of: Dr. Geoff Colvin, Behavior Associates Dr. George Sugai, University of Connecticut Dr. Kathleen Lane, University of Kansas Dr. Terry Scott, University of Louisville ww w.ksdetasn.org
OUTCOMES Understand why it is important to be able to effectively manage disruptive and noncompliant behaviors Understand problem behaviors occur within the acting-out cycle Identify proactive, preventative strategies that may decrease the occurrence of escalating behavior Identify the seven phases of escalating behavior and ways to intervene during each phase of the cycle and the importance of intervening early in an escalation ww w.ksdetasn.org Goal: To become FLUENT so you respond in a planned way that is automatic and smooth
when problem behaviors occur. Notes What will you stop doing? What will you start doing? What do you need to know more about? What support do you need from others? Schmitz, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org Key Message We know far more about effective prevention
strategies than we do about how to address challenging behavior once it occurs. ww w.ksdetasn.org A Shift in Thinking about Behavior Support Moving from Control and Exclusion Effective to Prevention &
Intervention the key to successful classroom management is to prevent problems before they start, not knowing how to deal with problems after they have begun. Brophy & Everston ww w.ksdetasn.org The Role of Adults Effective classroom managers are known, not by what they do when misbehavior occurs, but by what they do to set their classroom up for academic success and prevent problems from occurring. ww w.ksdetasn.org Quote #1
Educators who approach discipline as a process of establishing and maintaining effective learning environments tend to be more successful than educators who place more emphasis on their roles as authority figures or disciplinarians. Good & Brophy Quote #2 Unfortunately, most of the practical techniques used by teachers to respond to actingout children are only of limited effectiveness and some, such
as reprimands, arguing, and escalated hostile interactions, can actually strengthen the behaviors they are intended to suppress or terminate. - Hill Walker , 1995 How do these quotes align (or not) with the present thinking of your staff? What attitudes or beliefs do staff in your building have that reflect a ww w.ksdetasn.org traditional view of behavior management? When acting out behavior occurs, we often tend to only look at end incident. We must look earlier and focus on these critical components: Low achievement and
problem behaviors go hand 1. Prerequisite Academic Skills in hand ~Kauffman, 1997 p.247 2. Signs of Agitation 3. Presence of Escalating Behavior Chain 4. Presence of Successive Interactions ww w.ksdetasn.org Worksheet ww w.ksdetasn.org Student Staff
ww w.ksdetasn.org FUNDAMENTAL ASSUMPTIONS Behavior is learned (function). Behavior is lawful (function). Behavior is escalated through successive interactions (practice). Behavior can be changed through an instructional approach. ww w.ksdetasn.org Responding Personally to Problem Behavior Teachers may take student behaviors personally and react in a way that makes the student
behavior worse Teachers may abandon logical or best-practices responses (that they may use when calm) because they take behaviors personally (Diffusing Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom, p. 21) ww w.ksdetasn.org Responding Personally to Problem Behavior Why? 1) cultural/value based 2) authority in question 3) students know how to push buttons Need to address problem student behaviors in
effective ways and not escalate student behaviors (Diffusing Disruptive Behavior in the Classroom, p. 21) ww w.ksdetasn.org Two Essential Components for Managing Severe Acting-Out Behavior 1. Understand the Model Specific behaviors for each phase Know exactly where the student is in the cycle (placement in Model). 2. Develop strategies for each phase
Implement strategies based on student placement and needs ww w.ksdetasn.org The Model: Seven Phases of The Escalation or Acting-out Cycle Peak Covin & Sugai, 1989; Colvin, 2004 De-escalation Acceleration Agitation
Trigger Calm Whether the problem behavior is managed safely or not or is defused in large measure depends on YOUR INITIAL RESPONSE Recovery -Dr. Geoff Colvin www . k environment. sdetasn Students ability to cognitively process what is happening
in the .org The best time to intervene on problem behavior is when the behavior is not occurring (Carr et al., 2002, p.9) Behavior Consequence Antecedent ww w.ksdetasn.org The Model: Seven Phases of The Escalation or Acting-out Cycle Peak
Colvin & Sugai, 1989; Colvin, 2004 De-escalation Acceleration Agitation Recovery Trigger Calm www . k environment. sdetasn Students ability to cognitively process what is happening in the
.org Strategies for Responding to Each Phase of the Acting-Out Cycle ww w.ksdetasn.org Phase One - Calm Student is cooperative and behavior is acceptable. Accepts corrective feedback Follows directives Sets personal goals Ignores distractions Calm Accepts praise On-task What are other characteristics of students in
the calm phase? Schmitz, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org Strategies 1. Calm IfIf you you expect expect it it you you must must
TEACH TEACH it! it! Intervention is focused on proactive interventions. Focus on instruction and positive behavior support. Arrange for high rates of successful academic & social engagements Use positive reinforcement Teach social skills Communicate positive expectations ww w.ksdetasn.org Phase Two - Trigger Also called antecedents Conflicts/Failure
Demands Changes in routine Pressure Ineffective problem solving Facing correction procedures Non-school based triggers Trigger What are other triggers do you see? Schmitz, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org Strategies
2. Trigger Intervention is focused on prevention and redirection. Increase opportunities for success (e.g., pre-correction) Respond to students exhibiting expected behavior Reinforce the students first on task response Intermittently reinforce on-task behavior Pattern of behavior? Look at formal programs/services. Address non-school based triggers.
ww w.ksdetasn.org Pre-Correction (Colvin, Sugai, & Patching, 1993) Anticipating problem behavior and intervening before hand. Pre-correction statements should be provided prior to the students involvement in particularly problematic behavior or prior to unstructured activities. This will help facilitate the development of selfregulation skills. ww w.ksdetasn.org Phase Three - Agitation Overall behavior is unfocused and distracted often due to an inability to handle the trigger(s).
Off-task Questioning/Arguing Out of seat and Agitation other movement Bothering others Social withdrawal What are other characteristics of students who are agitated? Schmitz, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org Strategies 3. Agitation Intervention is focused on reducing anxiety. Implement before onset of escalation
1. Avoid escalation responses (use empathy) 2. If not addressed student may escalate or remain distracted making instruction difficult 3. Provide reasonable options & choices 4. Involve in successful engagement (behavior momentum) ww w.ksdetasn.org Defusing Off-Task Behavior 1. Assess the situation: determine cant do or wont do (Is it an emergency situation? If so, follow crisis procedures. If not, follow off-task defusing steps) 2. Maintain the flow of instruction. 3. Recognize on-task students, making no response to off-task students. 4. Redirect (focus on task, brief language/gestures,
prompt student of procedures for asking for help). 5. Praise compliance. ww w.ksdetasn.org Keys to Addressing Provocative Behavior (profanity, vulgarity, inappropriate actions/attire) Teach what is and is not acceptable
Have a standard consequence and teach it Provide warning and correction first Speak privately to student Identify as a problem for the student Ask the student to take care of the problem Present options and ask the student to select one Acknowledge cooperation Follow through with bottom line consequence Scott, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org Keys to Addressing Disruptive Behavior Recognize and respond quickly to student agitation Redirect Clearly state the expected task Communicate concern
Present options Allow space do not hover Assist student to begin work Attend to other students and prepare for the worst Acknowledge compliance or institute standard consequence in neutral manner Scott, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org Phase Four - Acceleration Overall behavior is staff-engaging- leading to further negative interactions. Questioning/Arguing/Threats Acceleration Noncompliance and defiance
Provocation of others Rule violations What are other characteristics of accelerated behavior? Schmitz, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org Other Signs of Escalating Behavior
Non-compliance/defiance Verbal abuse Disruption Destruction of property Whining/crying Limit testing Threats and intimidation Escape/avoidance ww w.ksdetasn.org Keys to Addressing Non-Compliance and Defiance Teach what student is to do and be clear about what student is to do Provide reminders especially at times where non-compliance is
predictable Have a standard consequence (or sequence) and teach it Acknowledge the students who are on task/complying Speak to student quietly rather than in front of entire group Provide a single specific direction Stay with the direction broken record Acknowledge student cooperation or follow through with consequence Continue to acknowledge other on-task students Scott, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org Strategies 4. Acceleration Last Opportunity to
Avoid Peak Behavior!!! Intervention is focused on safety. Remove all triggering factors Avoid escalating prompts Maintain calmness, respect and detachment Approach the student in a nonthreatening manner Utilize non-confrontational limit-setting procedures ww w.ksdetasn.org Techniques that BACKFIRE Holding a grudge Raising your voice- yelling Nagging Drawing unrelated persons
into the conflict Preaching Using sarcasm Making assumptions Bringing up unrelated events Making comparisons with siblings or other students Insisting you are right Insisting on having the last word Attacking the students character What are other responses you have used or seen used that have or have the potential to backfire?
ww w.ksdetasn.org Phase Five - Peak Overall behavior is out of control creating safety concerns. Peak Physical aggression Severe tantrums Property destruction Self-injury Running, screaming Others? Schmitz, 2014 ww w.ksdetasn.org
Strategies 5. Peak Intervention is focused on safety only! Focus is on crisis management Behavioral Emergency Room Clear example Safe strategies - emergency safety intervention if there is a reasonable and immediate danger of physical harm to the student or others with the present ability to effect such physical harm. (If emergency safety intervention is used, document the incident and notify parents, as required by law.) Learn from it(Functional Behavior Assessment, Behavior Intervention Plan, Mental Health Assessment, etc.) ww w.ksdetasn.org
Keys to Addressing Fighting and Aggressive Behavior Recognize conditions under which fights are likely and attempt to avoid Assign seats Space, options, preferred activities Teacher proximity stay between as long as there is no physicality Independent activities
Relaxation activities If altercation becomes verbal - intervene verbally Provide specific and concrete directions Redirect get attention off of altercation Separate as much as possible without placing hands on students If altercation becomes physical - initiate crisis procedures Call office or send runner Provide clear, loud, and concrete directions to both students Clear other students away to keep safe Wait for assistance
ww w.ksdetasn.org Responses to AVOID o o o o o o o o o o Agitated behavior from staff (shouting) Cornering the student Engaging in power struggles
Moving into the students space Touching or grabbing the student Sudden or very quick responses Making derogatory statements about the student Arguing/becoming defensive Body language that communicates anger or frustration Do not communicate urgency to gain control ww w.ksdetasn.org What can I do instead?
Speak calmly Speak privately Minimize body language Keep a reasonable distance; Move slowly and deliberately toward the problem situation Speak respectfully and privately Establish eye level position Be brief Stay with agenda Avoid power struggles Give student space
ww w.ksdetasn.org Phase Six - De-escalation Overall behavior shows confusion and lack of focus. Confusion Withdrawalsleep, head down De-escalation Denial Blaming others May respond to concrete directions May apologize and try to make up Others? ww w.ksdetasn.org Strategies
6. De-escalation Intervention is focused on monitoring for re-escalation of behavior Monitor for health/safety of all involved Avoid blaming- provide opportunity for nonjudgmental discussion Allow cool-down time and space Engage in independent work- provide easy/concrete tasks ww w.ksdetasn.org
Debrief and Problem Solve After student is calm Conduct this activity following consequences - separate from consequences Use a problem solving format: 1. What did you do? (name the behavior) 2. Why did you do it? (capture students need) 3. What else could you have done that would a. Meet your need and b. Be acceptable? Rep lace Beh ment avio r
ww w.ksdetasn.org Debriefing Session Facilitates transition back to task/activity not further negative consequence. Goal is to increase appropriate behavior Focus on problem solving Pinpoint events that contributed to the incident
Teach replacement behaviors Debriefing activities and forms ww w.ksdetasn.org Phase Seven - Recovery Overall behavior shows an eagerness for busy work and a reluctance to interact. Eagerness for independent work Subdued behavior Sleep Recovery Others? ww w.ksdetasn.org
Strategies 7. Recovery Intervention focuses on returning to normal activities. Follow through with consequences-but do not disrupt flow of instruction. Positively reinforce any displays of appropriate behavior Debrief/rehearse problem solving routine Review and revise plan as needed
ww w.ksdetasn.org Four Key Strategies 1. Teach and reinforce expected behavior skills. 2. Identify how to intervene early in the escalation sequence. 3. Identify environmental factors that can be manipulated. 4. Identify replacement behaviors that can be taught. ww w.ksdetasn.org Student Staff
ww w.ksdetasn.org Activity Describe an event in which the students behavior escalates. Be sure to describe all seven phases of the acting-out cycle.
How can you prevent acting-out behavior? How can you tell when a students behavior is escalating? What do you do when a student is acting out? How do you deal with a student who is fully escalated? Identify strategies to increase appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate behavior. Complete the escalation cycle worksheet for this student. ww w.ksdetasn.org Proactive Strategies
Have a school-wide positive behavior support system in place Emphasize quality instruction and engagement leading to increased academic achievement Emphasize teaching and prevention techniques ww w.ksdetasn.org Goal: To become FLUENT so you respond in a planned way that is automatic and smooth when problem behaviors occur. Time to Action Plan!
What will you stop doing? What will you start doing? What will you take back to your school/ classroom and do differently tomorrow? What do you need to know more about? What support do you need from others? ww w.ksdetasn.org Resources Addressing Disruptive and Noncompliant Behaviors: Understanding the Acting-Out Cycle with Dr. Kathleen Lane: http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/bi1/ Midwest Symposium for Leadership in Behavior Disorders:
www.mslbd.org Association for Positive Behavior Support: www.apbs.org Dr. Geoff Colvins Behavior Associates: http://www.behaviorassociates.org/ KSDE TASN: www.ksdetasn.org Building and Sustaining Student Engagement Project: (strategy briefs) http://k12engagement.unl.edu/ ww w.ksdetasn.org Contact Information For more information: Laura Jurgensen at [email protected] or 785-296-5522 or Julie Ehler at [email protected] or 785-2961944 This and other resources can be found on the
KSDE TASN website at www.ksdetasn.org ww w.ksdetasn.org
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