Chapter 7: Project Cost Management Information Technology Project

Chapter 7: Project Cost Management Information Technology Project

Chapter 7: Project Cost Management Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Note: See the text itself for full citations. Learning Objectives Understand the importance of project cost management Explain basic project cost management principles, concepts, and terms Describe the process of planning cost management Discuss different types of cost estimates and methods for preparing them

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 2 Learning Objectives Understand the processes of determining a budget and preparing a cost estimate for an information technology (IT) project Understand the benefits of earned value management and project portfolio management to assist in cost control Describe how project management software can assist in project cost management

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 3 The Importance of Project Cost Management IT projects have a poor track record for meeting budget goals A cost overrun is the additional percentage or dollar amount by which actual costs exceed estimates A 2011 Harvard Business Review study reported an average cost overrun of 27 percent. The most important finding was the discovery of a large number of gigantic overages or black swans

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 4 What Went Wrong? The United Kingdoms National Health Service IT modernization program was called the greatest IT disaster in

history with an estimated $26 billion overrun The program had problems due to incompatible systems, resistance from physicians, and arguments among contractors about whos responsible for what It was finally scrapped in 2011 Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 5 What is Cost and Project Cost Management? Cost is a resource sacrificed or foregone to achieve a specific objective or something given up in exchange

Costs are usually measured in monetary units like dollars Project cost management includes the processes required to ensure that the project is completed within an approved budget Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 6 Project Cost Management Processes Planning cost management :determining the policies, procedures, and documentation that will be used for planning, executing, and controlling

project cost. Estimating costs: developing an approximation or estimate of the costs of the resources needed to complete a project Determining the budget: allocating the overall cost estimate to individual work items to establish a baseline for measuring performance Controlling costs: controlling changes to the project budget Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 7

Figure 7-1. Project Cost Management Summary Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 8 Basic Principles of Cost Management Most members of an executive board better understand and are more interested in financial terms than IT terms , so IT project managers must speak their language Profits are revenues minus expenditures

Profit margin is the ratio of revenues to profits Life cycle costing considers the total cost of ownership, or development plus support costs, for a project Cash flow analysis determines the estimated annual costs and benefits for a project and the resulting annual cash flow Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 9 Media Snapshot You cannot measure ROI unless you have a benefits measurement process in place A 2015 report by PMI found:

Only 20 percent of organizations report having a high level of benefits realization maturity 39 percent of high-performing organizations report high benefits realization maturity compared to 9 percent of low performers Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 10 What Went Right?

Investing in green IT and other initiatives has helped both the environment and companies bottom lines Michael Dell, CEO of Dell, reached his goal to make his company carbon neutral in 2008 As of March 2012, Dell had helped its customers save almost $7 billion in energy costs In 2014 Dell reported being on track toward reaching their goal of recovering 2 billion pounds of used electronics by 2020 Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition

Copyright 2016 11 Types of Costs and Benefits Tangible costs or benefits are those costs or benefits that an organization can easily measure in dollars Intangible costs or benefits are costs or benefits that are difficult to measure in monetary terms Direct costs are costs that can be directly related to producing the products and services of the project Indirect costs are costs that are not directly related to the products or services of the project, but are indirectly related to performing the project

Sunk cost is money that has been spent in the past; when deciding what projects to invest in or continue, you should not include sunk costs Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 12 More Basic Principles of Cost Management Learning curve theory states that when many items are produced repetitively, the unit cost of those items decreases in a regular pattern as more units are produced Reserves are dollars included in a cost estimate

to mitigate cost risk by allowing for future situations that are difficult to predict Contingency reserves allow for future situations that may be partially planned for (sometimes called known unknowns) and are included in the project cost baseline Management reserves allow for future situations that are unpredictable (sometimes called unknown unknowns Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 13

Planning Cost Management The project team uses expert judgment, analytical techniques, and meetings to develop the cost management plan A cost management plan includes: Level of accuracy and units of measure Organizational procedure links Control thresholds Rules of performance measurement Reporting formats Process descriptions Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016

14 Estimating Costs Project managers must take cost estimates seriously if they want to complete projects within budget constraints Its important to know the types of cost estimates, how to prepare cost estimates, and typical problems associated with IT cost estimates Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 15

Table 7-1. Types of Cost Estimates Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 16 More on Cost Estimates The number and type of cost estimates vary by application area. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering International identifies five types of cost estimates for construction projects: order of magnitude, conceptual, preliminary, definitive, and control Estimates are usually done at various stages of a

project and should become more accurate as time progresses A large percentage of total project costs are often labor costs Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 17 Table 7-2. Maximum FTE by Department by Year Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition

Copyright 2016 18 Cost Estimation Tools and Techniques Basic tools and techniques for cost estimates: Analogous or top-down estimates: use the actual cost of a previous, similar project as the basis for estimating the cost of the current project Bottom-up estimates: involve estimating individual work items or activities and summing them to get a project total Parametric modeling uses project characteristics (parameters) in a mathematical model to estimate project costs

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 19 Typical Problems with IT Cost Estimates Estimates are done too quickly People lack estimating experience Human beings are biased toward underestimation Management desires accuracy Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition

Copyright 2016 20 Sample Cost Estimate See the text for a detailed example of creating a cost estimate for the Surveyor Pro project described in the opening case Before creating an estimate, know what it will be used for, gather as much information as possible, and clarify the ground rules and assumptions for the estimate If possible, estimate costs by major WBS categories Create a cost model to make it easy to make changes to and document the estimate

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 21 Figure 7-2. Surveyor Pro Project Cost Estimate Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 22 Figure 7-3. Surveyor Pro Software Development Estimate

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 23 Best Practice Alvin Alexander wrote a book called Cost Estimating in an Agile Development Environment in 2015 Function points are a means of measuring software size in terms that are meaningful to end users User stories are a common way to describe requirements in a simple, concise way Developers can analyze user stories to estimate

function points and person-hours Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 24 Determining the Budget Cost budgeting involves allocating the project cost estimate to individual work items over time The WBS is a required input to the cost budgeting process since it defines the work items Important goal is to produce a cost baseline

a time-phased budget that project managers use to measure and monitor cost performance Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 25 Figure 7-4. Surveyor Pro Project Cost Baseline Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016

26 Controlling Costs Project cost control includes Monitoring cost performance Ensuring that only appropriate project changes are included in a revised cost baseline Informing project stakeholders of authorized changes to the project that will affect costs Many organizations around the globe have problems with cost control Information Technology Project

Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 27 Earned Value Management (EVM) EVM is a project performance measurement technique that integrates scope, time, and cost data Given a baseline (original plan plus approved changes), you can determine how well the project is meeting its goals You must enter actual information periodically to use EVM More and more organizations around the world are using EVM to help control project costs

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 28 Earned Value Management Terms The planned value (PV), formerly called the budgeted cost of work scheduled (BCWS), also called the budget,

is that portion of the approved total cost estimate planned to be spent on an activity during a given period Actual cost (AC), formerly called actual cost of work performed (ACWP), is the total of direct and indirect costs incurred in accomplishing work on an activity during a given period The earned value (EV), formerly called the budgeted cost of work performed (BCWP), is an estimate of the value of the physical work actually completed EV is based on the original planned costs for the project or activity and the rate at which the team is completing work on the project or activity to date Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016

29 Rate of Performance Rate of performance (RP) is the ratio of actual work completed to the percentage of work planned to have been completed at any given time during the life of the project or activity Brenda Taylor, Senior Project Manager in South Africa, suggests this term and approach for estimating earned value For example, suppose the server installation was halfway completed by the end of week 1. The rate of performance would be 50% because by the end of week 1, the planned schedule reflects that the task should be 100 percent complete and only 50 percent of that work has been completed

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 30 Table 7-3. Earned Value Calculations for One Activity After Week One Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 31 Table 7-4. Earned Value Formulas

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 32 Rules of Thumb for Earned Value Numbers Negative numbers for cost and schedule variance indicate problems in those areas CPI and SPI less than 100% indicate problems Problems mean the project is costing more than planned (over budget) or taking longer than planned (behind schedule) The CPI can be used to calculate the estimate at completion (EAC)an estimate of what it will

cost to complete the project based on performance to date. The budget at completion (BAC) is the original total budget for the project Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 33 Figure 7-5. Earned Value Chart for Project after Five Months Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition

Copyright 2016 34 Global Issues EVM is used worldwide, and it is particularly popular in the Middle East, South Asia, Canada, and Europe Most countries require EVM for large defense or government projects, as shown in Figure 7-6 EVM is also used in such private-industry sectors as IT, construction, energy, and manufacturing. However, most private companies have not yet applied EVM to their projects because management does not require it, feeling it is too complex and not cost effective

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 35 Figure 7-6. Earned Value Usage Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 36 Project Portfolio Management Many organizations collect and control an entire

suite of projects or investments as one set of interrelated activities in a portfolio Five levels for project portfolio management 1. Put all your projects in one database 2. Prioritize the projects in your database 3. Divide your projects into two or three budgets based on type of investment 4. Automate the repository 5. Apply modern portfolio theory, including risk-return tools that map project risk on a curve Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016

37 Benefits of Portfolio Management Schlumberger saved $3 million in one year by organizing 120 information technology projects into a portfolio Reduced redundant projects and coordinated those with overlap IT projects can be huge investments, so it makes sense to view them as portfolios and track their progress as a whole Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016

38 Using Software to Assist in Cost Management Spreadsheets are a common tool for resource planning, cost estimating, cost budgeting, and cost control Many companies use more sophisticated and centralized financial applications software for cost information Project management software has many costrelated features, especially enterprise PM software Portfolio management software can help reduce costs Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition

Copyright 2016 39 Recent Studies on PPM Software 2014 Gartner report says the market continues to grow, with annual sales over $1.65 billion in 2014 report. The pace of change is driving the demand for enterprise software to help manage projects Forrester estimates ROIs of 250 percent from PPM tools Pfizer and Ford use PPM software to improve transparency of the many projects they manage Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition

Copyright 2016 40 Chapter Summary Project cost management is a traditionally weak area of IT projects, and project managers must work to improve their ability to deliver projects within approved budgets Main processes include Plan cost management Estimate costs Determine the budget Control costs

Information Technology Project Management, Eighth Edition Copyright 2016 41

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