Day 2: Planning and preparing high-quality Spanish lessons
Day 2: Planning and preparing high-quality Spanish lessons Teacher Specialist Subject Training Language Group 2 Espaol Day 2: Planning and preparing high-quality Spanish lessons Task 1: Unpacking the jargon Acronym SEN MAT ASD ADHD EAL DfE NC (PoS) SOW KS2 / KS3 / KS4 / KS5 GCSE GCE SATs CATs AfL
ICT BYOD MFL TL STEM VAK TA SENCo IEP Stands for Task 2: Defining the content of the languages curriculum What do we teach when we teach a foreign language? Write a definition in English of each content element youve listed above: Task 3: What are the main errors and misconceptions of beginner English learners of Spanish? Task 4: How can you develop your ability to explain / present new grammar to learners? Ideas from group discussion: Common errors and misconceptions 1. TENER not to be In English we use the verb to be when talking about age: I am 25 years old. But in Spanish the verb tener (to have) is used with age. To say that you are 25 years old, you
would say Tengo 25 aos (I am 25). This translates literally to I have 25 years, hence the common mistake by both English and Spanish speakers in their respective second language. There are a quite a few other Spanish phrases that use the verb to have(tener) while their English counterparts use to be. Here are ten of these phrases with which you should tener cuidado (be careful) when using: tener calor (to be hot) tener cuidado (to be careful) tener fro (to be cold) tener hambre (to be hungry) tener miedo de/a (to be afraid of) tener prisa (to be in a hurry) tener razn (to be right) tener sed (to be thirsty) tener sueo (to be sleepy) tener suerte (to be lucky) 2. SER or ESTAR Useful ways to help students remember when to use ESTAR: How you feel and where you are, that is when you use estar. Location, location, location = estar State how you are now = estar 3. Capitalization rules Words that are capitalized in both Spanish and English: Names of people (Cristiano Ronaldo) Names of places (Madrid, Espaa) Names of newspapers and magazines (El Pas) The first word of titles (movies, books, articles, plays) Words that are not capitalized in Spanish but are in English:
Days of the week (lunes, martes, mircoles Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday) Months of the year (enero, febrero, marzo January, February, March) Words in titles, except the first (Cien aos de soledad 100 Years of Solitude) Languages (Estudio espaol. I study Spanish.) Religions (Mis padres son catlicos. My parents are Catholic.) Nationality (Soy estadounidense. Im American.) 4. Adjectival position The fact that Spanish adjectives often come after the noun is a challenge for learners new to Spanish. http://www.elearnspanishlanguage.com/vocabulary/falsosamigos.html 5. Gender The fact that each noun is either masculine or feminine and must be learnt with its word for a / the is difficult for many learners. Its not hard to understand it, its just hard to remember to learn and use the correct gender word with every new noun. It helps to have the pattern that most nouns that end in a are feminine, and most that end in o are masculine, (and e ending nouns are more often masculine but could be either). Its then helpful to know the main exceptions: Masculine nouns ending in a: el problema, el programa, el sistema, el poema, el idioma, el tema, el clima, el telegram, el mapa, el planeta, el da, el sof Feminine nouns ending in o: la radio, la mano 6. Use and omission of articles. Spanish and English differ in their use / omission of articles in several ways. Here are some of the key differences: i. SER + professions
Soy professor. = I am a teacher. ii. Abstract nouns La paz es muy importante. = Peace is very important. iii. GUSTAR + nouns Me gustan las pelculas de terror. = I like horror films. 7. Collective nouns In English, many collective nouns can be used with either a singular or plural verb. E.g. family, government, team, audience. However, there are a few, notably police and people, which must be used with a plural verb. In Spanish, collective nouns are almost always used with a singular verb. 8. GUSTAR (and other similar verbs) A more accurate translation of gustar might be "to be pleasing to, because it better explains why the indirect object pronouns me, te, le, nos, os, and les are used in conjunction with it, and why it needs either 3rd person singular or plural endings. 9. Pronouns (and their omission) Pupils learn the subject pronouns only to need to be told that they dont often need to use them, unless for emphasis. Remembering that voy = I go, particularly when translating from English into Spanish is not straightforward. 10. Double negatives In English, these are incorrect. In Spanish, they are necessary: No tengo nada = I dont have anything. Rule: In Spanish, negative sentences need negative words. Dont mix negative and positive. Barrons 1001 Pitfalls in Spanish Holt & Dueber 4th edition (2010) https://www.amazon.co.uk/1001-Pitfalls-Spanish-Marion-Holt/dp/0764143476/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_enco ding=UTF8&qid=1477326875&sr=8-2 Planning: What do you need to know first? Programme of study / Scheme of work
Prior learning Priming strategies (or creating the climate) Promoting participation Planning a high quality Spanish lesson What do you need to know first? 1. The scheme of work and the materials supporting the course 2. Where the pupils are on the SOW 3. What the pupils have already covered in their learning (back to beginning) 4. What the pupils know and can do (and how well) 5. What NC level pupils are working at in each skill and overall 6. What the range of ability is within the class and how many pupils are at those different levels 7. How the class usually operates (seating arrangements, use of TL, ranges of activities, groupings etc..) 8. SEN & MAT How do you now plan, teach and then evaluate a good MFL lesson? 1. Determine your learning objectives for the lesson (differentiate your learning objectives as appropriate to accommodate the range of ability within your group) Always ask the question (and keep coming back to it) What will they be able to do at the end of this lesson (and sequence of lessons)? 2. Decide on the best methods/activities to meet those learning objectives, considering the following priorities: a) a range of different activities for variety of experience (refer to NC PoS) b) a balance and integration of skills (but this does not necessarily mean all 4 in 50 minutes!) c) a variety of groupings
d) optimum progression of learning within the lesson e) stimulating resources (but realistic management within one lesson) f) pace and timing g) structure of lesson (beginning, main teaching & learning, ending, homework) h) setting up activities and managing the flow of the lesson questions of TL/L1 usage 3. Check your plan has met the criteria outlined in 2) and that the timings, activities, aims of the lesson are realistic. Avoid the temptation to over pack a lesson and allow more time than you think you will need for each activity. For your own reassurance, have an extra end of lesson activity, which you can use if you have more time than you need. 4. Assemble all the resources you will need and know them well (practise particularly OHT presentation techniques in advance and address issues such as font size, picture size & clarity, manageability) 5. Talk through your plan out loud (including exact wording to be used in explanations in either TL or L1). 6. Teach the lesson! 7. Try to reflect immediately on the lesson afterwards. What did you feel went well? What was more problematic? Were the learning objectives met? How do you know that? 8. Finally, lesson planning is part of a cycle and there is always a next step. After planning, teaching, evaluating comes planning, teaching, evaluating! Each evaluation informs the next steps with that class so now start thinking about planning the next lesson, while the evaluation is still fresh in your mind. Considerations for classroom management 1. How you seat the pupils 2. Rules of engagement for pupil contributions (hands up, choral response etc.) and how you communicate those rules to pupils during the lesson 3. Scanning the class try to consciously see all the pupils you teach once every two minutes you are looking for signals that they are involved in the lesson, listening and understanding!
4. If this is NOT your class/you are on interview try to make sure that you have heard from each pupil at least once what are your strategies for pupils that dont volunteer? If this is your class have a more holistic strategy for knowing how they are doing? Rather than concentrate on hearing one answer from every child each lesson, use a seating plan to ensure you engage each child over a longer period but not each lesson. See if you can have conversations with 4-5 exchanges with one student and log these on seating plan, plus incidental TL they use. 5. What are your strategies for addressing off-task behaviour? How might the strategy differ depending on the nature of this off-task behaviour? 6. Using your voice why and how should your vary your voice both in terms of volume and pace? Considerations for assessment 1. Within one lesson, how do you know if pupils are making progress? Is this related to planning? How do the following aspects apply here? a. questioning b. tests c. pair work d. pupil contributions/lack of contributions e. marking f. listening Considering all of the above, which two aspects do you see as most important to target in your own professional development at the moment?
SUSAN SINGER (Chair), Carleton College. ROBERT BEICHNER, North Carolina State University. STACEY LOWERY BRETZ, Miami University. MELANIE COOPER, Clemson University. SEAN DECATUR, Oberlin College. JAMES FAIRWEATHER, Michigan State University. KENNETH HELLER, University of Minnesota. KIM KASTENS, Columbia University. MICHAEL MARTINEZ
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