Chapter 8 Thin-Layer Chromatography Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) TLC

Chapter 8 Thin-Layer Chromatography Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) TLC

Chapter 8 Thin-Layer Chromatography Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) TLC is a fast, simple, and inexpensive analytical technique used to determine or monitor: - The # of components in a mixture. - The identity of two substances. - The effectiveness of a purification.

- The appropriate conditions for a column chromatographic separation. - The progress of a reaction. - Column chromatography effectiveness. Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) TLC involves spotting a dilute solution (1%) of sample on one end of a small sheet that has been coated with silica gel (SiO2) or alumina (Al2O3), known as the stationary adsorbent phase.

The sheet is placed upright inside a jar in a small pool of solvent. As the solvent rises up the sheet by capillary action, the components travel at different rates based on competing interactions with the mobile (solvent) and adsorbent phases. SiO2 is used for separation of more polar compounds while Al2O3 is used in the separation of non-polar compounds. Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC)

A polar solvent will carry a polar compound farther while a non-polar solvent will carry a nonpolar compound farther. Rf value is the ratio of the distance the spot travels from the origin to the distance the solvent travels. Comments Do not let the plate sit in the solvent chamber after the solvent front reaches the top of the plate. Why?

When spotting, the solution typically adsorbs very quickly and the spot can easily get larger than desired (1 mm diameter). Make 3-4 lanes on each plate, marked with pencil and ruler and experiment with large and small spots to find which works best. Record the Rf values for each substance. Follow lab handout for all experimental procedures. Keep the layer of liquid with the most color.

Do not evaporate the dichloromethane solution Comments Solvents used are flammable, use caution Separation of components should be easy to distinguish. Answer questions: 2, 3 (p. 192)

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