Chapter 1 ANSYS Release 9.0 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

Chapter 1 ANSYS Release 9.0  2004 ANSYS, Inc.

Chapter 1 ANSYS Release 9.0 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Topics i. Structural Enhancements Solid Shell Element Rezoning 2D Mesh Independent Spotwelds Pre-Integrated Shell/Beams Sections Follower Forces Non-Linear Diagnostics and Contact Temperature Dependent Curve Fitting Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis

Complex Eigen Solver (QR Damp) ii. Miscellaneous Enhancements Local CYS for Function BCs Static Cyclic Symmetry Component Based Acceleration CMS Superelements iii. Thermal Radiation Enhancements ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-2 Solid Shell Element 190 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Shell Theory, Solid Shell Assembly and numerical locking in low-order elements Nonlinear MPCs or transitional elements are required for connecting shell and solid elements. Treatment of variable thickness is unclear. Definition of contact interaction needs special attention. Difficulties in the specialization of general three-dimensional material laws to plane-stress state. Complicated update of rotations in geometrically nonlinear analyses ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. The error in the kinematic approximation with linear 3D solid elements becomes apparent in

bending dominant problems. This error is magnified as the thickness decreases, which beyond a certain ratio may make the FE model excessively stiff. Current element technologies, such as the enhanced strain (or extra shapes), are not sufficient to remedy this numerical locking in linear 3D solid elements. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-4 SolidShell 190

Involves only displacement nodal DOFs and features an eight-node brick connectivity. Thus the connection problem between solid and shell elements can be eliminated. Performs well in simulating shell structures with a wide range of thickness (from extremely thin to moderate thick). Is compatible with 3D constitutive models and automatically accounts for thickness change. Performs well for both flat-plate and curved shells. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features r3

X3 r2 X2 r1 X1 x x x R1 1 , 2 , 3 r1 r1 r1 x x R2 1 , 2 r2 r2 x x R3 1 , 2 r3 r3 , x3 r2 , x3

r3 October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-5 Convergence relative to mesh refinement Normalized shell thickness ( t / L) : 0.001, linear static analysis Normalized Max. Deflection 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 Shell181 (enhanced strain) Solid185 (enhanced strain) 0.2

SolidShell 190 0 1 6 11 16 21 26 Number of Elements Per Edge ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-6 Modal Analysis of a Hemi-sphere Shell thickness = 0.001 me sh de nsity = 15 x 15 (Thin Shell)

Mode Shell181 Enh Solid185 Enh SolidShell 190 1 3.07759484 8.239738235 3.071760383 2 21.24648643 103.9636569 21.22872394 3 53.86043052 350.1158379 53.82984828 4 99.48796565 758.7461212 99.48163717 5 158.4547881 1303.958847 158.4723161 6 232.5992189 1927.192569 232.6698198

7 325.8971451 2484.333703 326.0458065 thickness = 0.1 mesh density = 15 x 15 (Thick She ll) Mode Shell181 Enh Solid185 Enh SolidShell 190 1 268.3336331 233.1024418 233.0809773 2 1401.119808 978.7538942 980.0141457 3 2400.852477 1761.461958 1763.326339 4 3284.527205 2224.35367 2225.628723 5 3590.50519

2403.006279 2402.639212 6 3670.531134 3157.10644 3155.306854 7 4179.724049 3418.795507 3420.088344 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-7 Car roof assembly under pressure load Linear Static Analysis Max. Deflection: SOLID186: 0.001521 SOLID190: 0.001575 SOLID185: 0.001290

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-8 Large Deformation Example Half-symmetry about the Y-Z plane is used to model a rigid target cylinder pushing upwards on a SOLSH190 tapered beam (cyan-colored elements) connected to SOLID185 columns (purple-colored elements). The SOLSH190 elements are stacked two through the thickness to allow 4 integration points in that direction. The SOLSH190 elements are joined to the SOLID185 elements by virtue of the same nodes used for each. The base of the column is fixed.

Rigid Target Cylinder at Symmetry Plane Common Nodes SOLSH190s SOLID185s Base Fixed ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004

Inventory #002156 1-9 Large Deformation Results Stress Equivalent stress and equivalent plastic strain plots are shown to the right (top and bottom plots, respectively). Nice Transition Region Contact recognizes the outer surface of the SOLSH190s and the interface with the SOLID185 elements transfers the loads correctly. No Contact Penetration Plastic Strain

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-10 2D Rezoning 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Need for Rezoning Mesh distortion terminates analysis ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-12

Rezoning in ANSYS What is rezoning? Remesh base on the deformed domain at a selected substep Map the solved variables and achieve equilibrium based on the mapped variables Resume the solution based on the new mesh Long term goal: Fully automatic rezoning with different adaptive criteria to overcome mesh distortion and reduce discretization error ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-13 Current status

Manual rezoning for 2D Plane 182, B-Bar formulation with or without mixed u/P formulation All stress states, i.e. plane strain, plane stress, axisymmetric, generalized plane strain All hyperelastic materials (TB, Hyper) Analysis type: Static analysis with nlgeom, on ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. Loads and boundary conditions:

Displacements Forces Pressures Nodal temperature, applied by BF,TEMP Remesh Manual remeshing Select the elements to remesh Generate a area Create the new mesh by ANSYS meshing commands Based on multi-frame restart files 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-14 Rezoning Example ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-15 Rezoning Procedure The solution will stop at about 90% of the total load. During the solution, there may be errors generated about element distortion, where ANSYS will then automatically bisect. In the General Postprocessor, note the excessive element distortion at the bottom of the model. In the following steps, the solution from TIME=0.8 will be used as the starting point for manual rezoning. The rezoning will create a new mesh based on the deformed geometry at 80% of the load and map the results from the old mesh to the new one. The solution will then be restarted from this point. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-16 Specify the Start of Manual Rezoning Restart from the point of 80% of the load GUI: Main Menu > Solution > Manual Rezoning > Start In the GUI, select the second to the last result set, which corresponds to the loading of 81% (load step 1, substep 77). In the GUI, the deformed mesh at any selected point can be evaluated by selecting the View Deformed Geometry button. Command: REZONE,MANUAL,1,77 REMESH,START The rezoning points are based on the multiframe restart files (RESCONTROL command), not on what results are saved in the .rst result file. In this example, approximately ten evenly-spaced restart points were requested prior to the initial solution. In the GUI, there is also an option to create a .rst result file based on the selected multiframe restart point (ANTYPE,,RESTART,,,RSTCREATE

command). ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-17 Create Remesh Zone Select the elements for rezoning GUI: Main Menu > Solution > Manual Rezoning > Create Remesh Zone(s) > Select Rezone Elements A dialog box will appear describing what to do. Click on OK to continue Select all elements of Type ID #1 after prompted. In the widget, select Elements By Attributes based on Elem type num of 1, and click on OK Command: ESEL,S,TYPE,,1 Create rezone area GUI: Main Menu > Solution > Manual Rezoning > Create Remesh Zone(s) > Select Rezone Elements

Accept defaults and click on OK Command: AREMESH A new area will be generated based on the deformed mesh at TIME=0.8, as shown on the right (outline in red). ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-18 Remesh New Area Remesh the newly-created area GUI: Main Menu > Solution > Manual Rezoning > Create Remesh Zone(s) > MeshTool Under Size Controls > Global > Set, verify that the element edge length is set to 0.2 Click on the Mesh button and mesh area #2 Command: ESIZE, 0.2 AMESH,2 The remeshed area is shown on the right. Mesh

controls can be specified to enable the user to obtain any type of desired mesh. In this example, only a global element size was specified (same global element size as original model), which may result in a few triangular elements generated. Although the user can create a new mesh, please note that general Preprocessing functions, such as creating new geometric entities, are not available during the manual rezoning phase, as these preprocessing functions do not pertain to rezoning. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-19 Map Results from Old to New Mesh Regenerate loads, boundary conditions, and contact pairs on the new model GUI: Main Menu > Solution > Manual Rezoning > Create Remesh Zone(s) > Transfer Boundary Conditions Command: REMESH,FINISH Map results from the old to the new mesh

GUI: Main Menu > Solution > Manual Rezoning > Create Remesh Zone(s) > Map Results Command: MAPSOLVE The first step outlined here remaps all boundary conditions (loads, displacement constraints, and contact pairs) from the old to new mesh. The second step then remaps the solution variables (displacements, stresses, strains) from the old to new mesh and ensures equilibrium is achieved. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-20 Continue New Solution Continue solution of new mesh

GUI: Main Menu > Finish GUI: Main Menu > Solution > Analysis Type > Restart Specify the last restart point, which should be load step 1 and substep 78. Click on OK GUI: Main Menu > Solution > Solve > Current LS Command: FINISH /SOLU ANTYPE,,REST SOLVE This time, the solution should complete to the end since the rezoning process generated betterquality elements from the restart point. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. Review results in the General Postprocessor GUI: Main Menu > General Postproc > Read Results > Last Set GUI: Main Menu > General Postproc > Plot Results > Contour Plot > Element Solution Select Element Solution > Stress > von

Mises Stress and click on OK Command: /POST1 SET,LAST PLESOL,S,EQV 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-21 Animate Results Animate Results GUI: Utility Menu > PlotCtrls > Animate > Over Results Command: ANDATA The animation of the deformed mesh is shown on the right. Although results are written to different files for rezoning operations, this is transparent to the user. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features

October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-22 Mesh Independent Spot Welds 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Mesh Independent Spot Weld In automotive and/or aerospace industries, many applications require modeling of spot welds between two or more thin parts The strength and fatigue properties of thin sheet components are considerably influenced by spot welds The traditional model of spot welds: Matching meshes of different parts at spot weld connection points. Effects of spot weld radius is not taken into account underestimates the strength of the spot weld connection October 1, 2004 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features Inventory #002156 1-24 Mesh Independent Spot Weld Parts can be meshed independently The spot weld can be located anywhere between multiple parts that are to be connected in a finite element model regardless of the mesh. A spot weld is defined by the surfaces to be connected and a spot weld node near the surfaces. The spot weld node determines the location of spot weld The location of the spot weld can be independent of the location of the nodes on the surface to be welded. The approach takes into account of effects of spot weld radius. ANSYS will generate RBE3 type MPC via a contact pair on each spot weld surface. The radius defines the range of force distribution. A beam element to link the two adjacent surfaces. The beam has physical radius. The spot weld can be either rigid or deformed ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-25 Create a New Spot Weld Set ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-26 Create a New Spot Weld Set

SWGEN, Ecomp, SWRD, NCM1, NCM2, SND1, SND2, SHRD, DIRX, DIRY, DIRZ, ITTY,I CTY ECOMP Spot weld set name. It is the element component and it is used to identify set of spot weld for list, output, and adding more surfaces. NCM1/NCM2: Spot weld surfaces Pre-defined node components (for select) Meshed areas (for pick) SND1: First spot weld node. It determines the location of spot weld. It can be one of node on surface NCM1 or an independent node near the surface. ANSYS will determine the actual location by projecting it onto surface NCM1. Original position of spot weld node 1 Original position of spot weld node 1 Spot weld node 1 After projection Spot weld surface 1 Spot weld node 1 After projection

Projection onto surface ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features Spot weld surface 1 Projection direction specified by user October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-27 Create a New Spot Weld Set SWRD Spot weld radius. Each spot weld has a circular projection onto the spot weld surface. By the definition of each contact pair, ANSYS will form RBE3 type constraint equations internally which distribute internal force of contact node (i.e. spot weld node) to the target nodes lying with in the region of spot weld radius. Nodes to be constrained Spot weld radius CONTA175

TARGE170 elements CONTA175 (spot weld node 1) Spot weld surface 1 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-28 Create a New Spot Weld Set Beam element connects two spot weld surfaces. Rigid Link is a default : MPC184 with KEYOPT(1)=1 Deformed Link : if current defined element type is BEAM188 with proper Material ID and section ID (solid circle) Example: MP,EX,3,200000000000. ! define spot weld material properties MP,NUXY,3,0.3 SECTYPE,3,beam,csolid ! define a cylinder beam

Spot weld node 2 SECDATA,2.75e-002 ! beam circular radius ET,3,188 ! define a deformed spot weld TYPE,3 MAT,3 SECNUM,3 Spot weld node 1 *SET,NODE1,9000 ! define a spot weld node N,NODE1,0.1,0.5,10.2 ! define location of spot weld SWGEN,SWELD1,2.75e-2,2,3,NODE1 ! Spot sweld name=SWELD1, ! RADIUS=2.75e-2, ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 9.0 New Features 2004 ANSYS, Inc. Spot weld surface 2 A beam element MPC184/BEAM188 Spot weld surface 1 October 1, 2004

Inventory #002156 1-29 Add more surfaces ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-30 Add more surfaces More surfaces Spot weld node 4 Spot weld surface 4 Beam3 Spot weld node 3 Spot weld radius Spot weld node 2

Spot weld surface 3 Beam2 Spot weld surface 2 Beam1 Spot weld node 1 Original position of spot weld node 1 Spot weld surface 1 SWADD, Ecomp, SHRD, NCM1, NCM2, NCM3, NCM4, NCM5, NCM6, NCM7, NCM8, NCM9 Ecomp - The name of an existing spot weld set which composes contact, target and beam elements for the spot weld definition. SHRD - Search radius. It defaults to 4 times of spot weld radius SWRD NCM1-NCM9 - Surfaces to be added the spot weld set. Each surface can input by a predefined node component or by a meshed area. - SWADD command can be repeated to add more surfaces

- Max. number of allowable surfaces (including two from basic set) = 11. Basic spot weld set ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-31 Mesh-Independent Spot Weld SWDEL, Ecomp Delete spot weld set - Ecomp - The name of an existing spot weld set. - If Ecomp = ALL (default) all the spot welds are deleted ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156

1-32 Mesh-Independent Spot Weld SWLIST, Ecomp List spot weld set - Ecomp - The name of an existing spot weld set. If Ecomp = ALL (default) all the spot welds are Listed - ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. In POST1 not only elements and contact pairs are listed but also output beam results. For deformed BEAM188 both forces/moments and

stresses are listed. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-33 Mesh-Independent Spot Weld Conta175 Beam188 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. Targ170 Output 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-34 Mesh-Independent Spot Weld Conta175

Beam188 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. Targ170 9.0 New Features Output October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-35 Pre-integrated shell/beam sections 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Preintegrated Shell Section N A M B T B I

D MT BT S1 E11 S E 2 21 E12 1 E22 2 A,B, D and E sub-matrices are symmetric Allow only bottom symmetric half to be defined MT, BT are generalized stresses caused by a fully constrained unit temperature rise is the current temperature, I is reference temperature

A,B,D,E,MT,BT can be defined at 6 temperatures independently Mass Density of shell/unit area may also be defined at 6 temperatures ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-37 Benefits/Limitations Benefits Limitations No output of stresses Section resultants (membrane forces and bending moments are available) Ability to specify initial stresses is lost Linear material behavior Birth and death is not supported (currently)

Not meaningful to use at finite strains Thickness is not updated Offset is not allowed Missing capability for 4 node shells in ANSYS Faster: no material point calculations or storage Third party software provide the section stiffness for layered, sandwich or other constructions Optimization with homogenized behavior ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-38 Nonlin. Beam General Sections

We define the section stiffness directly as a function of section strain and Temperature There is no material input necessary We also define mass density and thermal expansion coefficient One temp. input per node (no variation across section) ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. Bending Moment Ax( , t ) N F1 ( , t ) 0 M 1

1 F2 ( , t ) M2 2 T Q( , t ) SF1 ( , t ) S1 0 SF2 ( , t ) 1 S 2 2 9.0 New Features Curvature October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156

1-39 Benefits/Limitations Why? Allows nonlinear relationships (elastic and elasto-plastic) in terms of generalized stresses and generalized strains Very efficient Allows results from experiments or another slice analysis as input Limitations No coupling between Axial and Bending behaviors Allows nonlinear elastic and plastic behavior 20 points of stress-strain supported Stress-Strain curve may be supplied at 6 temperatures Not applicable for Warping Key-option Only SMISC quantities are supported

PRSSOL is meaningless Beam188/ Beam184 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-40 Follower Forces 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Follower load example P P P/100 Nodal loads

Follower loads ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-42 FOLLW201 element Real constants 6 values Must be used with nodes that First three n1,n2,n3 are attached to shells & beams entrees are direction (uses 6 d.o.f per node) cosines of the force vector Next three m1,m2,m3 No material, section, esys entrees are direction attributes necessary cosines of the moment Contributes to stiffness only vector

for NLGEOM,ON The vectors defined by real NROPT,UNSYM preferred constants will evolve with Follower stiffness symmetrized deformation (follow the for NROPT,FULL displacements) A one node element ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-43 Follower loads Follower loads are nonconservative Introduce unsymmetric load stiffness contributions SFE command is used to specify load

magnitude FACE 1 force FACE 2 moment Introduce stability issues; flutter, dynamic stability Often counter intuitive and non-predictable A simple cantilever with follower load has flutter instabilities ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. sfe,nel+1,1,pres,1,-load 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-44 Nonlinear Diagnostics & Contact

2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Diagnostic Tool Visualization and adjustment tools for initial contact status CNCHECK, DETAIL: evaluate Contact Pair specifications CNCHECK, ADJUST: move contact nodes to target to close gap or reduce penetration CNCHECK, POST: view contact initial status before solving CNCHECK, RESET: reset contact default settings ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-46 Diagnostic Tool NLDIAG,CONTACT,on File Jobname.cnd is written during

iteration/substep/loadsetp Lists on a pair-based items. Identify when and how contact occurs. When divergence occurs, it determines the regions where contact is unstable. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-47 Temperature Dependent Curve Fitting 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Purpose and Experimental Data

The purpose of the project is to generate coefficients from temperature dependent experimental data. This is applicable to all HyperElastic, ViscoElastic(Prony Series) and Implicit Creep models. This is an extension of the existing curve fitting capabilities for all the above mentioned material models. Add data at various temperatures and as many as you like in the following format. This is applicable to all experimental data types. (uniaxial, biaxial, volumetric, creep,) Example; /temp,100 0.0 1 0.1 2 0.2 3 Only one temperature per file. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004

Inventory #002156 1-49 New Functionality A new option is added to enable temperature dependent curve fitting. With the temperature dependent option on, The solver filters experimental data depending on the temperature and generates separate sets of coefficients at corresponding temperatures. There are two solution procedures Set a temperature and solve. Repeat this for all other temperatures, verify/view the results and save the coefficient to ansys material database. Set the temperature to all and solve. This will solve for all temperatures at once. Verify/view the results and save to database. The plot page plots the curves at all temperatures. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-50 Step by step procedure Import Experimental Data One temperature per file Pick an appropriate material model. Enable temperature dependent curve fitting (tbft,set,categ,func,opt,tdep,1) Solution Set the temperature (tbft,set,categ,func,opt,tref,temp1) Solve Set the temperature (tbft,set,categ,func,opt,tref,temp2) Solve Or Set the temperature (tbft,set,categ,func,opt,tref,all) Solve command solves for coefficients at all temperatures. Verify the results using plots for all temperatures. Save the data to Ansys database. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features

October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-51 Sample Script /prep7 ! Define Material tbft,fadd,1,hyper,moon,2 ! Define Uniaxial Data tbft,eadd,1,unia,unia-100.exp tbft,eadd,1,unia,unia-200.exp tbft,eadd,1,unia,unia-300.exp tbft,eadd,1,unia,unia-400.exp ! Define Volumetric Data tbft,eadd,1,volu,volu-100.exp tbft,eadd,1,volu,volu-200.exp tbft,eadd,1,volu,volu-300.exp tbft,eadd,1,volu,volu-400.exp Contd .. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tdep,1 tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tref,100 tbft,solve,1,hyper,moon,2,0

tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tref,200 tbft,solve,1,hyper,moon,2,0 tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tref,300 tbft,solve,1,hyper,moon,2,0 tbft,set,1,hyper,moon,2,tref,400 tbft,solve,1,hyper,moon,2,0a tbft,list,1 tbft,fset,1,hyper,moon,2 tblis,all,all fini 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-52 Temperature Dependent Uniaxial Experimental Data ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156

1-53 Solver Page ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-54 HyperElastic Polynomial Uniaxial Data Fit at four temperatures ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-55 Saved Coefficients in Ansys Material GUI

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-56 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Objectives Frequency and temperature dependent elastic properties Frequency and temperature dependent damping coefficient Calculate damping matrix from elements Support full harmonic response analysis

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-58 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Equation of motion M u C u K u F [M] mass matrix [C] damping matrix [K] stiffness matrix K K e (E(), ()) C Ce Ce s() K e s structure damping coefficient ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features

October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-59 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Elasticity TB,ELASTIC Command Isotropic elasticity (Ex, NUxy) Orthotropic elasticity (Ex,Ey,Ez,Gxy,Gxz,Gyz,Nuxy,Nuxz,Nuyz) Use TBFIELD to define frequency and temperature dependent elastic properties Damping coefficient TB,SDAMP (SDAMP - stand for structure damping) Use TBFIELD to define Frequency and temperature dependent damping coefficient Element supports 182, 183, 185, 186, 187 for all stress states ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features

October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-60 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Elasticity The Command TB,ELASTIC,MAT,NTEMP,NPTS,TBOPT MAT Material number NTEMP Number of temperature NPTS Number of data point 2 for isotropic elasticity 9 for orthotropic elasticity

TBOPT : elastic data table option IEL - isotropic elasticity behavior, the default OELN - orthotropic elasticity behavior with minor Poisson ratio ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-61 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Procedure Use ANSYS full harmonic analysis procedure ANTYP,HARM Parallel to other ANSYS full harmonic analysis with damping effect through commands such as ALPHA and BETA; MP,DAMP; DMPR; The DAMPING matrix from TB,SDAMP is additive to

other damping matrix, and therefore the damping effect is add on TB,ELASTIC can be used with TB,SDAMP and also MP,DAMP;ALPHA and BETA; DMPR. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-62 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Example Define an elastic data table with frequency dependence TB,ELASTIC,1, ,2 ! Elastic data table TBFIELD , FREQ,25 ! First frequency value TBFIELD , TEMP,25 ! First temperature value TBDATA,1,2.50e11,0.3 ! E and TBFIELD ,FREQ,50

! Second frequency value TBDATA,1,2.0e11,0.3 TBFIELD ,TEMP,50 ! Second temperature value TBFIELD ,FREQ,75 ! Third frequency value TBDATA,1,1.5e11,0.3 TBFIELD ,FREQ,100 ! Forth frequency value TBDATA,1,1.0e11,0.3 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-63 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Example Define a damping coefficient data table with frequency dependence TB,SDAMP,1, ,1 ! damping data table TBFIELD , FREQ,25

! First frequency value TBFIELD , TEMP,25 ! First temperature value TBDATA,1, 0.2 ! Damping co. TBFIELD ,FREQ,50 ! Second frequency value TBDATA,1, 0.19 TBFIELD ,TEMP,50 ! Second temperature value TBFIELD ,FREQ,75 ! Third frequency value TBDATA,1, 0.18 TBFIELD ,FREQ,100 ! Forth frequency value TBDATA,1, 0.17 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-64 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis

SOLUTION procedure ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. /SOLUTION ANTYPE,HARMIC HROPT,FULL HROUT,OFF HARFRQ,25,400 NSUB,16,,16 ! Harmonic response analysis ! Full harmonic response ! Turn off printout ! Frequency range 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156

1-65 Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Material Properties Cantilever beam subject to uniform pressure Young's modulus as function of frequency 3.0E+11 2.5E+11 2.0E+11 1.5E+11 1.0E+11 5.0E+10 0.0E+00 0 100 200 300 400

Damping coefficient as function of frequency 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features 100 200 300 400 October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-66

Frequency Dependent Harmonic Analysis Comparison of displacement 1.2E-06 Results from FDM 1.0E-06 Expected results 8.0E-07 di 6.0E-07 4.0E-07 2.0E-07 0.0E+00 0 100 200 300 400

500 Note Reference solution is obtained by defining material properties with the corresponding frequency at every load step ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-67 QR Damp Eigensolver 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary QR Damp Eigensolver In CAE applications where structural dynamic response of nonconservative systems need evaluated we encounter a structural stiffness matrix that may be non-symmetric. Example: Non-symmetric stiffness contributions resulting from friction forces between contact surfaces. Suited for Brake Friction models and other applications such as

rotor-dynamic stability investigations, et al. The QR damp mode extraction method has been extended to account for non-symmetric stiffness matrices in Modal Analysis. MODOPT, QRDAMP, n ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-75 QR Damp Eigensolver: Procedure Initially, any element contributing non-symmetric [K] is symmetrized and a Block Lanczos eigensolution performed Then, in a second pass, non-symmetric element stiffness contribution is projected onto the modal subspace. Finally, the reduced non-symmetric quadratic eigenproblem is solved in the modal subspace. Much faster and requires lesser computational resources than the existing DAMP or UNSYM eigensolvers Designed to handle a globally non-symmetric [K] where the unsymmetry is a result of only a few non-symmetric elements in the model

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-76 QR Damp Eigensolver When complex eigenvalues are present the eigenvectors will be complex QR damp mode extraction method now extracts complex eigenvectors when requested. QR damp solver is supported in partial solutions module (PSOLVE ) to account for non-linear pre-stress (NLGEOM, ON and PSTRES, ON) effects Useful in applications such as brake friction modeling with contact elements, CONTA178, for example. To retain the non-symmetric [K] in PSOLVE modal analysis set NROPT, UNSYM in the preceding static pre-stress analysis part MODOPT, QRDAMP, n, , , cpxmode cpxmode = YES -> extract complex modes PSOLVE, EIGQRDA ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-77 Simple Brake Model /SOL antype,static time,1 outres,nsol,all autots,-1 nsubst,1,10,1 ematwr,yes allsel PSTR,ON NLGEOM,ON NROP,UNSYM cnvtol,u,,0.001 SOLVE FINISH /solu antype,modal modopt,qrda,10,,, on mxpand,10 pstr,on psolve,eigqrda

psolve,eigexp fini ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-78 Brake Model *** UNDAMPED FREQUENCIES FROM BLOCK LANCZOS ITERATION *** MODE ***** DAMPED FREQUENCIES FROM REDUCED DAMPED EIGENSOLVER ***** FREQUENCY (HERTZ) 1 0.2010123605524 2

0.2359842118663 3 0.2473789086098 4 0.2649397833890 5 0.2834619725598 6 0.2908635371466 7 0.3179868238312 8 0.3591154172295 9

0.3667578353825 10 0.5055839775250 *** WARNING *** TIME= 00:00:00 MODE 1 2 3 4 5 CP = 0.000 0.23599942

j 0.0000000 0.0000000 -0.23599942 j 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.26950444 j 0.0000000 0.0000000 -0.26950444 j 0.0000000

0.0000000 0.30163581 j 0.0000000 0.0000000 -0.30163581 j 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.34132210 j 0.0000000 0.0000000

-0.34132210 j 0.0000000 0.0000000 0.58554351 j 0.0000000 0.0000000 -0.58554351 j 0.0000000 7

9.0 New Features MODAL DAMP RATIO 0.0000000 6 Eigenfrequencies from Block Lanczos eigensolution have been obtained by symmetrizing non-symmetric stiffness matrix coefficients. In the downstream QR damp eigensolution full non-symmetric stiffness matrix will be used. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. CPX FREQ (HERTZ) Brake Model Freqs. October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-79 Brake Model

Brake Model PSOLVE, QRDAMP solution Mode shape 5 (real part) ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-80 Brake Model Brake Model PSOLVE, QRDAMP solution Mode shape 5 (imag. part) ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-81 Local CYS for function BCs 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Function loads in local coordinate system ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-83 Post1 Surface Calculations

Post1 surface calculations- New Cylinder surface. Creates a cylindrical cut through the model of user specified radius and orientation. Map results on to the cylindrical surface to perform calculations ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-84 Component based Acceleration 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Component Based Acceleration Apply apply inertia forces on different element components, based on the accelerations on the different parts of the structure. CMACEL, CM_NAME, CMACELX, CMACELY, CMACELZ CM_NAME The name of the element component

CMACELX, CMACELY, CMACELZ Linear acceleration of the element component CM_NAME in the global Cartesian X, Y, and Z axis directions, respectively. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-89 Example /prep7 nsel,s,loc,z,0,-72 esln,,1 cm,roof1,elem nsel,s,loc,z,-75,-140 esln cm,roof2,elem nsel,s,loc,z,-150,-220 esln,,1 cm,roof3,elem nsel,s,loc,z,-225,-300

esln cm,roof4,elem esel,all nsel,al Fini ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. /solu antype,static cmacel,roof1,,0.36 cmacel,roof2,,0.37 cmacel,roof3,,0.38 cmacel,roof4,,0.39 solve fini 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-90 CMS - Superelements 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary Expansion in transformed location Expand the substructure results in transformed location if SETRAN or SESYMM command is applied in USE pass. SEEXP, Sename, Usefil, Imagky, Expopt Expopt: Key to specify whether the superelement expansion pass RSTOFF, Lab, OFFSET Offsets node or element IDs in the FE geometry record. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-92 Example !left wing is from right wing in USE pass /prep7

et,1,50 se,RightWing sesymm, LeftWing, X, 100, se2, sub se,se2 cp,... fini ! expansion Pass /assign,rst,rightwing,rst /solution expass,on seexp,rightwing,use, ,on rstoff, node, nof2 rstoff, elem, eof2 numexp,all solve finish ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-93 CMSFILE command enhancement Handle the CMS result file, but also other types of

result file. So, the user can keep FEM parts in CMS analysis and postprocess the substructure expanded result files and FEM result files together. CMSFILE, Option, Fname, Ext, CmsKey CmsKey Valid only when adding a results file (Option = ADD or ALL), this key specifies whether or not to check the specified .rst file to determine if it was created via a CMS expansion pass: ON Check (default). OFF Do not check. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-94 Thermal Radiation Enhancements 2004 ANSYS, Inc. ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

Radiosity Solution Enhancements Post Process radiation data via SURF251/252 element types Efficient solution for fine surface meshes via decimation/agglomeration Efficient solution for models with symmetry planes Features Decimation of thermal mesh Planar Symmetry Cyclic Symmetry ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-96 Radiosity Solution Enhancements The following new commands allow generation of SURF251/252 elements: RDEC : This specifies decimation parameters for coarsening RSYM: allows user to define symmetry parameters RSURF: action command to generate the surface elements Use the NMISC records of SURF251/252 Elements

to print /display the following: ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. area of each surface element temperature of surface element emissivity of surface element enclosure # of surface element net radiation heat flux leaving surface element 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-97 Decimation Concept Thermal via PLANE55 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc.

Radiation via coarse SURF251 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-98 Planer and Cyclic Symmetry POS(plane of symmetry) specified by user via CS command 1 reflection only 2 repetitions original original COR(center of rotation) specified by user via CS command Reflection is NOT the same as Repetition !!! ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary

2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-99 Planer Symmetry PLANE55 SURF251 2 Planes of symmetry ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-100 Cyclic Symmetry PLANE55

Cyclic Symmetric Plane Center of rotation SURF251 ANSYS, Inc. Proprietary 2004 ANSYS, Inc. 9.0 New Features October 1, 2004 Inventory #002156 1-101

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