Social Organization: family clan band/tribe nation (semi-nomadic, or nomadic) village town city city/ state state nation/ state.
Civilization Organized human responses to change, seeking equilibrium or being civilized. Well bred and
complaisant. Highly developed social organization. Change may be gradual or catastrophic
A daptations to change A gents of change
Culture Beliefs Observations (receptivity)
Geographic Theo-philosophic Political
Economic Technologic Ideological
Technologic > war/ invasion Economic
History: History is the interpretation of the incomplete written record or oral tradition of the
experiences of humans through the contexts of time. While history demands many types of critique such as political, economic, technological, or social critique all are dependant on documents and their
interpretation. History, like language, is very plastic. Society: A society is an artificial construction of a collection of linked formal and informal institutions that govern group
Culture is the set of conscious and unconscious beliefs and assumptions about the way in which world works that governs individual behavior.
Diff usion: The movement or spread of one or more
elements of a society or culture from one place to another. Community:
Communities are formed from the interactions of culture and society. When individuals are united into groups by complimentary internal (cultural) and external (social) influences, the groups of people can be identified as communities.
Race: Biologically, there is only one race human. A ll other
categories of race are artificial social constructs of classification based on visual differences, cultural expressions, political necessity, and economic priority. What is commonly called race is really racism. The history of the concept of race parallels the development of the human identity.
Racism (also called ethnocentrism) When a labeled group is disadvantaged socially based on the artificial classifications of race by another group i n possession of the unearned
power and privilege to do so* . Ethnicity: Ethnicity refers to heritage or culture expressed over time. The cultural history of a group of people produces differences in
populations that give rise to ethnicity. Class: Class is the stratified level of economic opportunity within a culture or society. Class differences differences in opportunity and
access may be based on racism, ethnicity, gender, education, age, disability or a host of other recognized group classifications. Gender: For the purposes of this discussion, the term gender
will include gender orientations as in the case of gay men and lesbians. Nationality: Nationality is a political description of place of birth or naturalization.
A sibiya: Social glue (voluntary to coercive). What happened to the ancient and old civilizations?
A re all civilizations temporary? What about ours? Is there progress? Why do civilizations seem to rise and fall?
Determinism: Causation. Cause and effect models. Dialectic
x+ y = z. If you drop a ____, when it hits the ____, it makes_____. Theoretical orientation. Critique:
Identification of apparent conflicts and resolving those conflicts
Thesis A ntithesis
\ / \
/ \ /
Synthesis In addition there are some concepts that are useful in the discussion of
world civilization. Push Factor: Push factors cause individuals or groups to relocate from one place to another.
Pull Factor: Pull factors draw individuals or groups to a specific location.
Diaspora: Diaspora refers to the (often forced) dispersal of populations from a specific location to several locations throughout the world.
POLITICAL SYSTEMS Matriarchical societies and patriarchical societies. Families, bands, and tribes. Hunting and gathering.
Horticulture and settled agriculture. Pastoralism, nomadic and semi-nomadic societies. Agriculture and the rise of the state. Monarchy and theocracy.
Military organization and civilized life. The nation-state. Oligarchy and democracy. The republic & empire
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Altruism and egalitarian exchange. Agricultural surplus, division of labor, and
class divisions. Specialization of labor, labor organization, and production. The role of private property.
The concept of monetary capital and capitalism. Class and caste. Trade, mercantilism and economic
specializations. TECHNOLOGY Lithic technology and metallurgy.
Agriculture, astronomy, religion, and early scientific thought. Water technologies. Agricultural technologies.
Architecture. Military technologies. SOCIAL & CULTURAL SYSTEMS
Female and male gender roles. Feminist approaches to gender. Homosexualities, heterosexualities, intersexualities, and transgender issues.
Religion and religious diversity. Art and literature. Philosophy and reason. Migrations and population movement.
Urbanization and social consciousness SOCIAL & CULTURAL SYSTEMS Social justice, and civil rights
movements. Ethnic consciousness movements. Gender movements. Generational age cohort.
Disability, ability, and social identity. Disease and medicine. WORLD CIVILIZATION
IN THE TIME OF PRE-LITERACY 17,000 YEARS BPE Sophisticated hunter-gatherer cultures with diverse toolkits appropriate to
their environments and resources. Dogs have been domesticated. Art flourishes. 12,000 YEARS BP
AFRICA OCEANA AMERICAS
SAN hunter-gathers Tehuacanos Mammoth cave
Qadan horticulture (Mexico) (Egypt) Saharan cattle herders
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