Chapter 15 The Aztec and Inca Empires Section

Chapter 15  The Aztec and Inca Empires Section

Chapter 15 The Aztec and Inca Empires Section Notes Video The Aztec Empire Aztec Life and Society The Inca Empire Inca Life and Society

Mesoamerican Achievements i n Science and Math History Close-up Tenochtitln Machu Picchu Quick Facts People in Aztec Society

Chapter 15 Visual Summary Maps The Aztec Empire, 1519 The Inca Empire, 1530 Inca Roads Lake Texcoco Assessment Map

Images Linking to Today: Preservin g Food The Aztec Empire 7.7.1 7.7.3

The Big Idea The Aztecs built a great empire in central Mexico but were conquered by the Spanish in 1521. Main Ideas The Aztecs built an empire through warfare and trade and created an impressive capital city in Mesoamerica. Hernn Corts conquered the Aztec Empire.

Main Idea 1: The Aztecs built an empire through warfare and trade and created an impressive capital city in Mesoamerica. The first Aztecs were farmers, but when they arrived in Central America, all the good farmland was taken. To survive, they had to hire themselves out as warriors. The Aztecs Rise to Power

War was the key factor in the Aztecs rise to power. The Aztecs built alliances, or partnerships, to build their empire. The Aztecs made the people they conquered pay tribute, or give them cotton, gold, or food. The Aztecs controlled a huge trade network. Markets drew buyers and sellers from all over the Aztec Empire. By the early 1500s the Aztecs had the most powerful state in Mesoamerica.

Tenochtitln Tenochtitln was the capital of the Aztec Empire. It was built in the middle of a lake, on an island. The Aztecs built causeways, or raised roads across water or wet ground, so people could access the city. The Aztecs built stone canals to bring water to the city and floating gardens to raise food and flowers. The city had huge temples, a busy market, clean streets,

and magnificent palaces. It was the greatest city in the Americas during the time of the Aztecs. Main Idea 2: Hernn Corts conquered the Aztec Empire. In the late 1400s Spanish explorers and soldiers arrived in the Americas. The soldiers, or conquistadors, came to

explore new lands, search for gold, and spread the Catholic religion. Corts and Moctezuma A small group of conquistadors led by Corts reached Mexico in 1519. Moctezuma II, the Aztec leader, believed that Corts was a god. Moctezuma sent Corts gifts, including gold. Corts

wanted more gold, so he went to Moctezuma. Corts took Moctezuma prisoner. The other Aztecs attacked Corts and his men. The Spanish were driven out, but Moctezuma was killed. Corts returned with many Indian allies and in 1521 they defeated the Aztecs and ended their empire. Causes of the Defeat of the Aztecs Alliances The Spanish had made allies in the region who

gave them supplies, information, and warriors. Weapons The Spanish had better weapons than the Aztecs. They had cannons, armor, swords, and horses that the Aztecs did not have. Geography The Spanish were able to cut off the capital city. The people had no food or water, so many Aztecs died of starvation. Disease The Spanish had unknowingly brought deadly diseases such as smallpox to the Americas. These diseases killed the Aztecs, who had never been exposed to

such diseases. Aztec Life and Society 7.7.2 7.7.4 7.7.5 The Big Idea

The Aztecs developed complex social, religious, artistic, and scientific systems in their empire. Main Ideas Aztec society was divided by roles and by class. The Aztec religion required human sacrifice to keep the gods happy. The Aztecs had many achievements in science, art, and language.

Main Idea 1: Aztec society was divided by social roles and by class. People in Aztec society had clearly defined roles. These roles, along with social class, determined how Aztec men and women lived. They had four distinct social classes. Kings and nobles Priests and warriors Merchants and artisans

Farmers and slaves Classes of Aztec Society: Kings and Nobles The king was the most powerful person in Aztec society. The king was in charge of law, trade and tribute, and warfare. The king had nobles to help him manage the kingdom. The nobles were tax collectors and judges as well as other

jobs. They passed their titles down from father to son. Classes of Aztec Society: Warriors and Priests The priests had a great deal of influence over the lives of the Aztecs. The priests had many duties, including keeping calendars to decide when to plant crops and hold religious ceremonies.

Aztec warriors also had many duties. They fought to capture victims for religious sacrifices. They also brought great wealth to the empire. The warriors were very well respected by the Aztecs. Classes of Aztec Society: Merchants and Artisans Merchants gathered goods from all over the empire and sold them in the main market.

Many merchants were very wealthy and used their money to build large houses and send their sons to private schools. Artisans were also rich and important to the Aztecs. They made gold jewelry and elaborate headdresses. Classes of Aztec Society: Farmers and Slaves Farmers and slaves made up the lowest class of Aztec

society. Most of the people who lived in the empire were farmers who grew maize, beans, and a few other crops. Farmers were very poor and did not own their own land. Slaves were people who had been captured in battle or who could not pay their debts. They were laborers, and if they did not obey, they were sacrificed to the gods. Main Idea 2:

Aztec religion required human sacrifice for keeping the gods happy. The Aztecs believed that they had to feed the gods. Most sacrifices were enemy warriors. Aztec Sacrifices The Aztecs believed that keeping the gods happy meant that their lives would be blessed. The greatest number of sacrifices were made to the war

god Huitzilopochtli and the rain god Tlaloc. Priests led the sacrificial rituals, which took place on top of the temples that had been built. Humans were sacrificed because it was believed that the human hearts and blood would feed the gods and keep them strong. Aztec priests sacrificed as many as 10,000 victims a year in religious sacrifices.

Main Idea 3: The Aztecs had many achievements in science, art, and language. The Aztecs valued learning and art. Aztec scientific achievements, artistic traditions, and language contributed to their culture. Scientific Achievements The Aztecs studied astronomy and created a calendar much like the Mayan calendar.

The Aztecs also knew many different uses for plants. They knew of 100 different plants that could be used for medicine. Writing and Literature The Aztecs had a complex writing system and kept extensive written records. The Aztecs also had a very strong oral tradition. They considered fine speeches very important and also

enjoyed riddles. Stories about ancestors and gods were also a part of the oral tradition. The Aztecs told these stories to their children and passed them down from generation to generation. After the Spanish conquered the Aztecs, many of these stories were written down. The Inca Empire

7.7.1 7.7.3 The Big Idea The Incas built a huge empire in South America, but they were conquered by the Spanish. Main Ideas The rise of the Inca Empire was due to conquest and the

achievements of the Inca people. Pizarro conquered the Incas and took control of the region. Main Idea 1: The rise of the Inca Empire was due to conquest and the achievements of the Inca people. In South America, another great empire arose. That empire belonged to the Inca.

Foundations for the Incan Empire Pre-Inca civilization began to develop in what is now Peru. Four major cultures developed and built some of South Americas first cities. The early Incas began as a small tribe in the Andes mountains. A ruler named Pachacuti led the Incas to expand their territory through agreements with, or conquests of, other tribes.

Later Inca rulers continued to expand their territory. By the 1500s the Incan Empire was huge and had 12 million people. The Incan Government As the Incas conquered more people, they had to devise a way to control them. They made the conquered leaders move out of their villages and

move in with leaders who were loyal to the Inca government. The Inca made the children of the conquered leaders come to the Incan capital to learn about Incan ways. The Incas established an official language, Quechua. They controlled the economy by having the Inca pay a tax with their labor. There were no markets or merchants. Instead, the government would distribute goods. Leftover goods were stored in the capital for emergencies.

Main Idea 2: Pizarro conquered the Incas and took control of the region. A civil war began in the Inca Empire between the two sons of the king, Atahualpa and Huscar. Atahualpa eventually won the war and ruled the empire. The Fall of the Incas

Although Atahualpa had won the war, the infighting had weakened the empire. A group of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro arrived in the empire. They demanded that Atahualpa convert to Christianity. When Atahualpa refused to convert, the conquistadors attacked the Inca, and thousands were killed. The Incas tried to free Atahualpa with a roomful of gold and silver, but the Spanish killed him anyway. The Spanish defeated the last of the Inca, and the empire fell in

1537. The Spanish had superior weapons and horses. They brought diseases that weakened the native peoples. Inca Life and Society 7.7.2 7.7.4

The Big Idea Many kinds of people make up Inca society in an empire know for grand architecture and complex oral literature. Main Ideas For the Inca, position in society affected daily life. The Incas made great achievements in building, art, and oral literature. Main Idea 1: For the Incas, position in society affected

daily life. Inca society had two main social classesan upper and a lower class. The Incas from Cuzco, the capital, made up the upper class. Society and Daily Life Upper Class Lower Class

Kings, priests, and government officials made up the Inca upper class. The lower class was made up of farmers, artisans, and servants. There were no slaves in Inca society.

Men worked for the government, and women had household duties. Sons went to school. Upper-class families had many privileges, such as private schools, stone houses, and the best

clothes. They worked on government farms, served in the army, worked in mines, or built roads. Most children did not go to school, but instead learned to farm.

Religion in the Inca Empire The Inca Empire had an official religion. When they conquered new regions, they taught this religion to the conquered people. They allowed the conquered people to worship their own gods as well. The god of the sun was the most important god to the Incas. They believed their kings were related to the sun

god. The Incas rarely sacrificed humans. Instead, they sacrificed llamas, cloth, or food. Main Idea 2: The Inca made great achievements in building, art, and oral literature. The Incas had strong traditions of building, art, and storytelling. Many of their creations still exist today.

Inca Contributions to Culture The Inca were known for their massive buildings and forts made of huge stone blocks. Blocks were cut so precisely that even today it is nearly impossible to fit a knife blade between the stones. The Inca also built a system of roads that connected all parts of the empire. The Inca artisans made jewelry of silver and gold.

Oral literature was made up of storytelling and songs. The Inca also passed down their songs, dances, and religious practices. Click window above to start playing.

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