The Development of SelfDetermination and Autonomy-Supportive Interventions Michael

The Development of SelfDetermination and Autonomy-Supportive Interventions Michael

The Development of SelfDetermination and Autonomy-Supportive Interventions Michael L. Wehmeyer, Ph.D. Karrie A. Shogren, Ph.D. University of Kansas Human Agentic Theories Human agentic theories, including theories of self-determination, share the meta-theoretical assumption that organismic aspirations drive human behavior. Organismic aspirations can be understood as the drive to be active contributors to, or agents of, ones behavior. Human agentic theories assume that actions are volitional and that an agentic person uses self-regulated and goal-directed agentic actions. This ongoing process of navigating challenges and engaging in selfregulated, goal-directed actions gives rise to a sense of personal empowerment and action-control beliefs, or the sense that one knows and has what it takes to achieve goals, which contributes to the development of a sense of causal agency; that is, that the person acts with an eye toward causing an effect to accomplish a specific end or to cause or create change in his or her life. Repeated experiences of causal agency lead to enhanced self-determination. 2/3/20

Add Footer information here 2 Causal Agency Theory Causal Agency Theory is a theory that explains how people become selfdetermined; that is, how they define the actions and beliefs necessary to engage in self-caused, autonomous action (e.g., causal action) in response to basic psychological needs and autonomous motivation as well as contextual and environmental challenges. Within the context of Causal Agency Theory, we define self-determination as: A dispositional characteristic manifested as acting as the causal agent in ones life. Self-determined people (i.e., causal agents) act in service to freely chosen goals. Selfdetermined actions function to enable a person to be the causal agent is his or her life (Shogren et al., 2015). A dispositional characteristic is an enduring tendency used to characterize and describe differences between people. While the assumption is that self-determined people have a tendency to act or think in a particular way, there is also a presumption of contextual variance (i.e., environmental opportunities and threats). Causal agency implies that it is the individual who makes or causes things to happen in his or her life. Causal agency implies more, however, than just causing action; it implies that the individual acts with an eye toward causing an effect to accomplish a specific end or to cause or create change. Self-determined actions enable a person to act as a causal agent. 2/3/20 Add Footer information here

3 Development of Self-Determination Basic Psychological Needs Motivation Action-Control Beliefs Autonomy Competence Relatedness 2/3/20 Causal Action Autonomous Motivation

Volitional Action Causal Agency SELFDETERMINATION Agentic Action Add Footer information here 4 Autonomy-Supportive Interventions Research in SDT has validated the importance of autonomysupportive classrooms and described the characteristics of autonomy-supportive teaching practices, including: Communicating frequently to present expectations and acknowledge students feelings. Offering more choices and removing controlling events in learning. Allowing students to participate actively. Providing positive and informational feedback. Providing structured guidance. In our work promoting the self-determination of students with disabilities, we

have developed and validated a model of instruction that embodies these principles of autonomy-supportive teaching practices, and provides teachers an autonomy-supportive intervention and are finalizing the norming of selfand adult-report measures of self-determination based on Causal Agency Theory. The Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction The Self-Determination Inventory System 2/3/20 Add Footer information here 5 Intervention and Measurement The Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction A teaching model design to support teachers to teach students to self-regulate goal setting and attainment. Students are supported to learn to self-regulate problem solving to set relevant goals, create an action plan to achieve the goal, track their progress toward their goal, and adjust their action plan or goal as necessary. Strong evidence base with students with disabilities. The Self-Determination Inventory System Self-Determination Inventory: Self-Report Version Self-Determination Inventory: Adult-Report Version

Measures volitional action, causal action, action-control beliefs. 2/3/20 Add Footer information here 6 Five Year Longitudinal Study Purpose: Examine the effects of interventions to promote selfdetermination Randomized trial, placebo control group design study 50 school districts in six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma, and Texas) Students with diverse disability labels and their teachers participated Students school campuses were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group Participants 493 middle and high school students Age Range: 11-22 years Mean: 16 years (SD 2.2) Disability Learning Disability - 31%

Intellectual Disability - 27% Other Health Impairment 11% Emotional /Behavioral Disorder 9% Autism 5% Other 17% Gender Female 36% Males - 64% Race / Ethnicity Native American - 1% Asian - 2% African American - 19% White - 60% Hispanic 18% Other 1% Interventions The ChoiceMaker Curriculum (with The Self-Directed IEP materials) Martin, Marshall, Maxson, & Jerman, 1993 NEXT S.T.E.P. Curriculum Halpern, Herr, Doren, & Wolf, 2000

Self-Advocacy Strategy Van Reusen, Bos, Schumaker, & Deshler, 2002 Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction Wehmeyer, Palmer, Agran, Mithaug, & Martin, 2000 Steps to Self-Determination (2nd Ed.) Hoffman & Field, 2005 Whose Future is it Anyway? (2nd Ed.) Wehmeyer, Lawrence, Kelchner, Palmer, Garner, & Soukup, 2004 Findings: The Arcs Self-Determination Scale (Wehmeyer, Palmer, Shogren, Williams-Diehm, & Soukup, 2013) Follow-Along Study: Self-Determination and Adult Outcomes Estimate Community Access 1 Year Post* Community Access 2 Years Post Employment 1 Year Post*

S.E P-value 1.078 0.293 < .001 0.948 0.363 < .001 0.504 0.215 .01 0.238 0.208

.25 -0.449 0.214 Employment 2 Years Post Financial Independence 2 Years Post .04 Two Year Study of SDLMI Two Year Longitudinal Study of the impact of the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction Randomized trial, modified placebo control group design study 20 school districts participated in three states (Kansas, Missouri, and Texas) Students with intellectual disability and learning disabilities and their teachers participated Students school campuses were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction

Set A Goal Take Action Adjust Goal or Plan Key Findings: Impact on SelfDetermination Time 1 M ( 95% C.I. ) AIR Self-Determination Scale Intervention .00 ( .00 .00 ) Group Control Group .16 (-.10 .42) Latent d -.20 Time 2

Time 3 M ( 95% C.I. ) M (95% C.I.) Latent d .07 ( -.17 .31) .30 (.08 .52)* .31 .11 (-.15 .37) .17 (-.10 .44) .01 -.05 .14 The Arcs Self-Determination Scale

Intervention .00 ( .00 .00) -.06 (-.21 .10) Group Control Group -.01 (-.27 .25) -.06 (-.32 .21) Latent d .01 .00 .24 ( .06 .42)* .24 .03 (-.26 .33) .05 .23 Key Findings: Goal Attainment Least Square Means for Disability*Treatment Groups for Academic and Transition GAS Scores

Academic GAS Scores Transition GAS Scores Mean SE Mean SE Learning Disability - Control 44.78 1.79 45.03 1.87 Learning Disability Treatment 50.51* 1.63

46.15 1.65 Intellectual Disability - Control 48.07 0.98 40.98 1.12 Intellectual Disability Treatment 48.30 1.15 50.44** 1.24 Key Findings: Access

Estimates for Access Score Intercept and Slopes for the Disability and Treatment Groups Access Score at the Beginning of the Year (SE) Access Score at the End of the Year (SE) Intellectual Disability 2.2 (.44) 3.3 (.49) Learning Disability 3.3 (.24)* 3.4 (.26) Intellectual Disability 2.5 (.51)

4.6 (.52) Learning Disability 3.6 (.35)* 5.1 (.37)* Group Control Treatment (Shogren et al., 2012) Key Findings: Teacher Perceptions Time by treatment interaction on capacity (left) and opportunity (right) on the AIR Self-Determination Scale - Educator 25.50 64.00 25.00

62.00 24.50 60.00 58.00 24.00 56.00 23.50 54.00 23.00 52.00 Time 1 22.50 Time 1 Time 2 Time 2 Intervention

Control Intervention Control (Shogren et al., 2015) The Self-Determined Career Development Model (SDCDM) Developed to enhance the capacity of state and community vocational rehabilitation service providers to enable persons with disabilities to get the careers and jobs they want. Expanded to implement with community support providers Offers people with disabilities a way to develop skills and supports that will enhance their ability to achieve goals, satisfy their personal needs, and focus on individual preferences through a self-regulated problem solving process. Modification of the Self-Determined Learning Model of Instruction (SDLMI). Missouri Implementation SDS Autonomy 2

1.5 Deviation from mean 1 0.5 0 Baseline -0.5 -1 -1.5 -2 Follow-up 1 Follow-up 2 Griffin Hammis Kansas Partnership

Combining SDCDM and Customized Employment and Discovery Process Worked to combine personal supports and organizational and community change Local Capacity Enhancement Resource Amalgamation Active Employer Council Griffin Hammis Kansas Partnership Trained 88 support providers Represented diverse sectors (DD systems, VR systems, workforce centers, community members, family members) Targeted 25 people with IDD 8 had jobs after one year Built active AECs that provided support to the application/employment process Include local workplace development centers, business leaders, chambers of commerce Leveraged quick-start resources to address transportation and develop PASS plans Implementation In Rhode Island

Training School Adult Service System Data Collection Self-Determination Goal Attainment Employment Outcomes Documenting Impacts IES Grant 22

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