The Third Grade Reading Law: How do we go from law to practice? Matthew Burns University of Missouri @burnsmk1 States with a Dyslexia Law School Psychologists as Researchers Consumers Synthesizers Conductors (Keith, 2008) Early Warning Signs - Myths Preschool May talk later than most children May have difficulty pronouncing words, i.e., busgetti for spaghetti, mawn lower for lawn mower May be unable to recall the right word
May have trouble interacting with peers May be unable to follow multi-step directions or routines Fine motor skills may develop more slowly than in other children Early Warning Signs - Myths Early Elementary Letter reversals d for b as in, dog for bog Word reversals tip for pit Inversions m and w, u and n Transpositions felt and left Substitutions house and home May transpose number sequences and confuse arithmetic signs (+ - x / =) May be impulsive and prone to accidents May have difficulty planning Often uses an awkward pencil grip (fist, thumb hooked over fingers, etc.) May have trouble learning to tell time May have poor fine motor coordination
Early Warning Signs May be slow to add new vocabulary words May have difficulty with rhyming May have trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, days of the week, colors, shapes, how to spell and write his or her name May have difficulty telling and/or retelling a story in the correct sequence Often has difficulty separating sounds in words and blending sounds to make words Seems to be unable to recognize letters in his/her own name Has difficulty decoding single words (reading single words in isolation) May be slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds A family history of reading and/or spelling difficulties The Federal Regs.
300.307 Specific learning disabilities. the criteria adopted by the State (1) May prohibit the use of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement for determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in 300.8; (2) May not require the use of a severe discrepancy between intellectual ability and achievement for determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in 300.8; (3) Must permit the use of a process that determines if the child responds to scientific, research-based intervention as part of the evaluation procedures described in 300.304; and 4) May permit the use of other alternative research-based procedures for determining whether a child has a specific learning disability as defined in 300.8. DSM 5 (APA) Specific Learning Disorder Reading, not dyslexia. a. Difficulty in at least one of the following areas that has persisted for at least 6 months despite the provision of extra help or targeted instruction (a) inaccurate and slow reading, (b) understanding meaning of what is read, (c) spelling, (d) written expression (grammar, punctuation or organization), (e) understanding number concepts, facts, or calculation, and (f) mathematical reasoning. b. The affected academic skills are substantially and quantifiably below those expected for age and
cause impairment in academic, occupational, or everyday activities c. Onset during the school-age years, although may not fully manifest until young adulthood in some individuals d. Intellectual Disabilities, uncorrected auditory or visual acuity problems, other mental or neurological disorders or adverse conditions (psychosocial adversity, lack of proficiency in the language of instruction, inadequate instruction) must be ruled out before a diagnosis of SLD can be confirmed. Third Grade Reading Law Whats Good? (ii) Periodically screens and monitors the progress of each pupils reading skills, at least 3 times per year. (iii) Provides evidence-based core reading instruction. (B) Provides intensive development in the 5 major reading components: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. (C) Is systematic, explicit, multisensory, and sequential. Term evidence-based appears 10 time!!!!!! Assessment
(a) Approve 3 or more valid and reliable screening, formative, and diagnostic reading assessment systems for selection and use by school districts and public school academies in accordance with the following: (i) Each approved assessment system shall provide a screening assessment, monitoring capabilities for monitoring progress toward a growth target, and a diagnostic assessment. Four Purposes of Assessment Program evaluation: How is the education system working for students overall? MAP Screening: Which of my students are not meeting grade level expectations given Universal Instruction? E.g., STAR, NWEA Diagnostic: What are the specific needs of students who struggle? E.g., measures of specific skills
Monitoring Progress: What does the students growth look like? E.g., CBM (Aimsweb & Dibels) Approved Initial Assessments (DESE) Aimsweb DIBELS EasyCBM FastBridge Degrees of Reading Power Iowa Assessments I-Ready
NWEA MAP STAR Predictive Assessments of Reading 95 Percent Groups Phonological Awareness Screener for Intervention Reading Inventory (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt) https://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/17-18_Initial_Assessment_List_560866_7.pdf Screener Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) ORF < Benchmark Goal ORF > Benchmark Goal Total Informal Reading Inventory
(RI) RI < Benchmark Goal RI > Benchmark Goal Total MAP < 25th %ile MAP > 25th %ile 276 a 46 c 322 145 b 501 d 646
90 a 200 c 290 189 b 367 d 556 Total 421 547 968 279 567
846 Sensitivity = a / (a + c) .86 for CBMF .31 for F&P Specificity = d / (b + d) .78 for ORF .66 for F&P, Correct Classification = (a + d) / N .80 for ORF .54 for F&P The Phonological Awareness Screener for Intervention (PASI) An easy-to-administer informal diagnostic assessment Information from the PASI eliminates guessing and leads directly to Tier 2 and 3 focused intervention instruction. The PASI is a valuable tool to place students in proper skill groups: Identify mastered and deficit skills in phonological awareness skills Exit student from group and regroup for next skills
Screening Process Screen with PA for kindergarten Screen with decoding for first grade Screen with CBM-R for 2nd 5th Low accuracy (93% 1st 3rd, 95% 4th and 5th) = low decoding Assess NWF or WA for kids who score low Screen with comprehension for MS and HS (use CBM-R or decoding if low) What About Spelling Spelling = decoding Terrible screener Kids with low decoding are poor spellers, BUT Bunch of kids who are poor spellers who decode fine Good diagnostic WTW (already have it then use it) Step 2 Consider Classroom
The hallmark of dyslexia is not poor reading performance It is poor reading performance in the face of effective reading instruction. Most children who struggle to learn to read do not have dyslexia Poor reading performance should signal the need for screening. Procedure Partner Reading 1. Stronger reader reads aloud for 5 minutes 2. The weaker reader reads aloud the SAME text for 5 minutes Paragraph Shrinking
1. 2. For 5 minutes the stronger read continues reading new text in the story, stopping after each paragraph to summarize For 5 minutes the weaker reader continues with the new text, stopping after each paragraph to summarize Partner Reading Partnerships Timeline Collect Data: Pre-test (fluency and comprehension) Day 1: Train Students on Set Up Procedures and Partner Reading, Practice Reading for 10 minutes, Error Correction Day 2: Train Students on Paragraph Shrinking, Practice Reading for 10 minutes
Day 3-10: Partner Reading, Paragraph Shrinking 15 minutes every day Collect Data: Post-test (fluency and comprehension) Partner Reading First Reader reads for 5 minutes. Second Reader reads the same text for 5 minutes. RULES Talk only to your partner and only talk about Partner Reading Keep your voice low Help your partner Second Reader retells for 1 minute.
Try your best! Paragraph Shrinking Name the most important who or what. Tell the most important thing about the who or what. Say the main idea in 10 words or less. STOP. That word is______________ What word? ______________________ Correction Procedures Good Job! Go back and read that line again. What we found: 3rd grade Partner Reading data Third Grade Third Grade
Benchmark Class 1 Class 2 91 Words Read Correctly (WRC) Pre Post Slope (WRC) Intervention Intervention Class Median Class Median (WRC) (WRC) 81 104 11.5 87 115
14 What we found: 3rd grade Partner Reading data Third Grade Class 1 Third Grade Class 2 Students Below Benchmark Pre Intervention Students Below Benchmark Post Intervention Total Students in Class 10
5 20 13 5 23 Growth from Winter to Spring Class-Wide Interventions 10 Classrooms K-3 30 20 10 0 Actual Growth Winter to Spring Targeted Growth
(one yr of growth) Winter To Spring 30 Growth from Winter To Spring NO Class-Wide Interventions 11 Classrooms K-3 25 Actual Growth Fall To Winter 20 15 Targeted Growth (one year growth) Fall To Winter 10
5 0 Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade (LSF) (ORF) (ORF) (ORF) Third Grade Class-wide Interventions Implemented in 10 of the 21 Classes Below Winter Benchmark: 9 of the 10 Above Spring Benchmark 10 9 8 7 6
5 4 3 2 1 0 Above Spring Benchmark Below Spring Benchmark Class-wide Interventions NO Class-wide Intervention Implemented in 11 Classes Below Winter Benchmark 2 of the 11 Above Spring Benchmark 10 9 8
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Above Spring Benchmark Below Spring Benchmark No Class-wide Intervention Science Project
Approximately 140 4th and 5th graders Science content Readworks.org Grade level ORF and science MAZE 2 weeks 12 MAZE Growth 4th Grade 10 8 6 4 2
0 Fourth A Fourth B Fourth C MAZE Growth 5th Grade 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
Fifth A Fifth B Fifth C 160 160 140 140 120 120 100 100
80 80 60 60 40 40 20 20 0 ORF
Accuracy Science Control Group Social Studies 0 ORF Accuracy Science Partner Reading Social Studies 160
120 140 100 120 80 100 80 60 60 40 40 20
20 0 ORF Accuracy Science Social Studies Control Group 0 ORF Accuracy Science
Partner Reading ELL Social Studies Agreement Pre CBM-R score and MAP-R score = 69.6% Post CBM-R score and MAP-R score = 91.3% Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11
185 205 189 145 87 113 190 Personalized Learning (b) For any pupil in grades K to 3 who exhibits a reading deficiency at any time, based upon the reading assessment system selected and used under
subdivision (a), provide an individual reading improvement plan for the pupil within 30 days after the identification of the reading deficiency. The individual reading improvement plan shall describe the reading intervention services the pupil will receive to remedy the reading deficiency. A school district or public school academy shall provide intensive reading intervention for the pupil in accordance with the individual reading improvement plan until the pupil no longer has a reading deficiency. DESE Website Personalized Learning Models https://www.michigan.gov/mde/0,4615,7-140-28753_65799-351442--,00.html Teaching in a Flipped Classroom - This vignette shows different ways to develop lessons outside of class as well as a variety of activities and ways to use the in-class face-to-face time so that each student has his/her needs met. Engaging Students in Meaningful Learning Project Based Learning - An inside look at the daily doings and big picture of Kent Innovation High School, a project-based learning school in Grand Rapids, MI. Friday Night Lights - In the Classroom - In this webinar, you'll get specific examples of how he creates meaning for his students by giving them real audiences. It works for students in football and theatre and band. Why can't it work in the classroom? Creating a Genius in Every Hour -
Special Education Presidents Commission on Excellence in Special Education Reduce paperwork and increase flexibility Identify and intervene early Service first and assessment later Those that get counted, count. Use special education staff more effectively Interventions for Children with LD Reading comprehension Direct instruction Psycholinguistic training Modality instruction Diet Perceptual training Kavale & Forness, 2000 1.13 .84 .39
.15 .12 .08 Leveled Literacy Intervention Effect Sizes Kindergarten = .26 First Grade = .36 Second Grade = -.09 Ransford-Kaldon, C. R., Flynt, E. S., Ross, C. L., Franceschini, L. A., Zoblotsky, T. A., Huang, Y., & Gallagher, B. (2010). Implementation of effective intervention: An empirical study to evaluate the efficacy of Fountas & Pinnells Leveled Literacy Intervention Program (LLI) for 2009-2010. Memphis, TN: The University of Memphis, Center for Research in Educational Policy. What the Research Says 24 studies of K-8 small-group reading interventions Hall and Burns, 2016 26 effects Targeted
13 effects, g = .65 Comprehensive 13 effects g = .26 National Reading Panel Is phonemic awareness instruction effective in helping children learn to read? Reviewed 52 studies of PA instruction. Three general outcomes were explored PA tasks such as phoneme manipulation, spelling, and reading tasks such as word reading, pseudoword reading, reading comprehension, oral text reading, reading speed, time to reach a criterion of learning, and miscues National Reading Panel Results PA instruction demonstrated better efficacy over alternative instruction models or no instruction Improved PA measures (strong), reading (d = .53) and spelling skills
Teaching one or two PA skills was preferable to teaching three or more PA instruction benefited reading comprehension (Ehri et al.). Means and Ranges of Effect Sizes by Reading Outcome Measure N Mean ES SD Minimum Maximu m Pseudoword s
24 .84 .80 -.19 3.60 Words in Isolation 48 .92 .89 -.05
Phonics Nonsense word fluency (WJ Pseudoword) Fluency CBM-R (TOSCRF) Vocabulary/Comprehension Measures of Academic Progress or STAR Reading PRESS http://www.cehd.umn.edu/reading/PRESS/default.html Category of Problem MN HS 9-12 with approximately 1600 students
69.2% pass reading 9th-10th grade 28% low on MAP (~225) 45% Low on TOSCRF (~100) 64% low on phonics (~65) 36% acceptable phonics (~36) Groups Randomly assigned to two groups Read 180 Targeted (phonics REWARDS, fluency Read Naturally, comprehension Read 180 Wait list control group 20 minutes each day for 13 weeks in addition to reading and study skills Targeted Interventions Control
Waitlist Control Variable Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Fluency Pretest 90.17 7.65
89.88 9.73 na na Fluency Posttest 98.33 7.27 94.32 8.77 na
Na MAP Fall 206.00 9.25 211.00 10.11 210.37 6.56 Map Winter 217.21 7.56
212.40 8.06 212.78 6.04 ANCOVA for fluency F (1, 42) = 4.98, p < .05, d = .50 ANCOVA for MAP F (2, 74) = 5.84, p < .05, partial eta squared = .14. Student 2 36 33 34 10 27 7 11
Fluency intervention Grade Phonemic Phonics Fluency Awareness Kindergarten EIR K EIR K NA First Grade
Road to the Code Road to the ` Vocabulary Comprehension Text Talk NA NA Text Talk NA
Corrective Six Minute Building Vocabulary Comprehension Language Reading Solution Skills Plus Fast Forward Corrective
Six Minute Building Vocabulary Comprehension Language Reading Solution Skills Plus NA REWARDS
Six Minute Building Vocabulary Comprehension Solution Skills Plus Six Minute Building Vocabulary Comprehension Solution Skills
Plus Code Second Grade Fast Forward Third Grade Fourth Grade Fifth Grade NA REWARDS Websites www.intensiveintervention.org/chart/instructional-interve ntion-tools www.ebi.Missouri.edu www.gosbr.net
http://www.cehd.umn.edu/reading/PRESS/about.html The Really Bad News! (i) That, based on standardized testing, this state has determined that the pupil may be required to be retained in grade 3 as provided under state law The pupil may still be allowed to enroll in grade 4 if he or she demonstrates a grade 3 reading level through performance on an alternative standardized reading assessment or through a pupil portfolio. (ii) That the parent or legal guardian has the right to request a good cause exemption that will allow the pupil to enroll in grade 4 in the next school year. Research (Hattie, 2009) Effect on Dropout National Center for Educational
Statistics, 2006 High School Completion Rate 100.00% 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% Rank = 35 th (lowes t in Midw est)
Rank = 41 st Parents as Partners Discuss long-term effects Link with community resources Show progress monitoring data Keep well informed Intensify the Intervention Merge Neuropsych and RTI (Feifer, 2008) We should assess cognitive constructs such as verbal IQ, executive functioning, working memory, attention, and reading fluency. Specifying the underlying linguistic and cognitive
factors associated with poor reading comprehension skills may be helpful toward developing more effective intervention strategies to assist children (p. 824), especially for those receiving a Tier 3 intervention. Working Memory Melby-Lervag & Hulme, 2012 Verbal Ability .13 Comprehension and problem solving Children (-.05) and young children (.03) Word Decoding Arithmetic .13 .07
There was no convincing evidence of the generalization of working memory training to other skills. Executive Functioning (EF) Jacob and Parkinson (2015) - 67 Studies Most of studies occurred in 2010 or later EF and academic skills are correlated (equal for reading and math) Changing skills in EF did not lead to increased skills in reading and math No evidence for causal link between EF and reading or math Skill-By-Treatment Interaction Burns, Codding, Boice, & Lukito, 2008 Interventions selected based on student functioning in the specific skill Systematically identify and manipulate environmental conditions that are directly related to a problem
Isolate target skill deficits Instructional Hierarchy: Stages of Learning Acquisition Proficiency Generalization Adaption Learning Hierarchy Slow and Accurate but Can apply to
Can use information inaccurate slow novel setting to solve problems Instructional Hierarchy Modeling Explicit Novel Discrimination Problem solving
Simulations instruction Immediate corrective feedback practice opportunities Independent practice Timings Immediate feedback training Differentiation training Haring, N. G., & Eaton, M. D. (1978). Systematic instructional procedures: An instructional
hierarchy. In N. G. Haring, T. C. Lovitt, M. D. Eaton, & C. L. Hansen (Eds.) The fourth R: Research in the classroom (pp. 23-40). Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill. Results Learning Process Acquire Havent had enough help Maintain Generalize Havent had enough practice
Havent had to do it that way before (ii) Differentiate and intensify professional development for teachers based on data gathered by monitoring teacher progress in improving pupil proficiency rates among their pupils. @burnsmk1 [email protected]
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