Black Holes Chapter Twenty-Four Guiding Questions 1. What

Black Holes Chapter Twenty-Four Guiding Questions 1. What

Black Holes Chapter Twenty-Four Guiding Questions 1. What are the two central ideas behind Einsteins special theory of relativity? 2. How do astronomers search for black holes? 3. What are super massive black holes, and where are

they found? 4. In what sense is a black hole black? 5. In what way are black holes actually simpler than any other objects in astronomy? 6. What happens to an object that falls into a black hole? 7. Why do some pulsars emit fantastic amounts of X rays? 8. Do black holes last forever?

The special theory of relativity changes our conceptions of space and time This theory, published by Einstein in 1905, is based on the notion that there is no such thing as absolute space or time Space and time are not wholly independent of each other, but are aspects of a single entity called spacetime

An observer will note a slowing of clocks and a shortening of rulers that are moving with respect to the observer This effect becomes significant only if the clock or ruler is moving at a substantial fraction of the speed of light The speed of light is the same to all observers, no

matter how fast they are moving The general theory of relativity is our most accurate description of gravitation

Published by Einstein in 1915, this is a theory of gravity A massive object causes space to curve and time to slow down These effects manifest themselves as a gravitational force These distortions of space and time are most noticeable in the vicinity of large masses or compact objects

The theory of relativity predicts a number of phenomena, including the bending of light by gravity and the gravitational redshift, whose existence has been confirmed by

observation and experiment The general theory of relativity also predicts the existence of gravitational waves, which are ripples in the overall geometry of space and time produced by moving masses Gravitational waves have been detected

indirectly, and specialized antennas are under construction to make direct measurement of the gravitational waves from cosmic cataclysms The general theory of relativity predicts black holes If a stellar corpse has a mass greater than about 2 to 3 M, gravitational compression will overwhelm any and all forms of internal

pressure The stellar corpse will collapse to such a high density that its escape speed exceeds the speed of light Certain binary star systems probably contain black holes Black holes have been detected using

indirect methods Some binary star systems contain a black hole In such a system, gases captured from the companion star by the black hole emit

detectable X rays Supermassive black holes exist at the centers of most galaxies These are detected by observing the motions of material around the black hole

A nonrotating black hole has only a center and a surface The entire mass of a black hole is concentrated in an infinitely dense singularity The singularity is surrounded by a surface

called the event horizon, where the escape speed equals the speed of light Nothingnot even light can escape from inside the event horizon Just three numbers completely describe

the structure of a black hole A black hole has only three physical properties: mass, electric charge, and angular momentum A rotating black hole (one with angular momentum) has an ergoregion around

the outside of the event horizon In the ergoregion, space and time themselves are dragged along with the rotation of the black hole Falling into a black hole is an infinite voyage

Could a black hole somehow be connected to another part of spacetime, or even some other universe? General relativity predicts that such connections, called wormholes, can exist for rotating black holes Black holes evaporate

Key Words

black hole black hole evaporation equivalence principle ergoregion

event horizon general theory of relativity gravitational radiation gravitational waves gravitational redshift Heisenberg uncertainty principle law of cosmic censorship

length contraction Lorentz transformations

mid-mass black hole no-hair theorem primordial black hole proper length (proper distance) proper time Schwarzschild radius (RSch)

singularity spacetime special theory of relativity stellar-mass black hole supermassive black hole time dilation virtual pairs wormhole

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