PowerPoint-Präsentation

PowerPoint-Präsentation

Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies Pierre Ibisch 2014 Phase III Comprehensive evaluation, prioritization and strategy formulation Step 18 Credits and conditions of use Centre for Econics and Ecosystem Management, 2014 The Centre for Econics and Ecosystem Management strongly recommends that this presentation is given by experts familiar with the adaptive management process in general (especially as designed as the Conservation Measures Partnerships Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation) as well as the MARISCO Method itself. You are free to share this presentation and adapt it for your use under the following conditions: You must attribute the work in the manner specified by the authors (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work). You may not use this work for commercial purposes. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you must remove the Centre for Econics and Ecosystem Management logo, and you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar conditions to this one. This material was created under the leadership and responsibility of Prof. Dr. Pierre Ibisch and Dr. Peter Hobson, codirectors of the Centre for Econics and Ecosystem Management, which was jointly established by Eberswalde University for Sustainable Development and Writtle College. Compare: Ibisch, P.L. & P.R. Hobson (eds.) (2014): The MARISCO

method: Adaptive MAnagement of vulnerability and RISk at COnservation sites. A guidebook for risk-robust, adaptive, and ecosystem-based conservation of biodiversity. Centre for Econics and Ecosystem Management, Eberswalde (ISBN 978-3-00-043244-6). 195 pp. - The Powerpoint Presentation was conceived by Jamie Call, Christina Lehmann and Pierre Ibisch. Authors of graphs and photographs are indicated on the corresponding slides. Supported by the Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH on behalf of the Bundesministerium fr wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ). 2 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies 3 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies Learning objectives 4 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies Outline What is the assessment and prioritization of existing strategies?

? Why do we assess and prioritize existing strategies? How do we assess and prioritize existing strategies? 1) The process of assessing and prioritising existing strategies 2) The evaluation of feasibility of existing strategies 3) The evaluation of impact of existing strategies Practical Tips 5 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies What is the assessment and prioritisation of existing strategies? ? 6

Detailed critical evaluation of existing strategies that may have been implemented already, or not Conducted through a peer-review process Carried out either with the planning team, external reviewers or a combination of both 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies Why are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ?

7 Often strategies are carried out without any follow-up assessment of their feasibility or potential impacts Helps to adjust the strategy design Portfolio of existing strategies from Step 17 can be prioritized to improve their effectiveness and robustness It also promotes reflection, which can decrease or avert the negative effects caused by implementation of a strategy Merit in self-reflection by analyzing strategies the team established already However, external teams can offer a more balanced and objective perspective may be better able to identify risks and mistakes associated with the strategies 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? Existing strategies are classified by two criteria: I.

? 8 Feasibility Degree to which a strategy is likely to be implemented under prevailing conditions in the management area It is related to available resources but also to risks, restrictions and conflicts II. Impact Effects and changes both within and outside the designated management area that can be attributed to the strategic action, and that directly or indirectly generate consequences for the conservation objects 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? These criteria are further subdivided: I.

? 9 Feasibility a) b) c) d) e) Necessary resources Level of acceptance from relevant stakeholders Probability of benefitting from external factors Probability of harmful risks Adaptability to change 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? II.

? 10 Impact a) Causation of social, political e institutional conflicts b) Causation of new risks that increase the vulnerability of conservation objects c) Synergies with other strategies d) Conflicts with other strategies e) Threat abatement effectiveness f) Direct increases in biodiversity functionality g) Level of potential regret 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ? 1) The process of assessing and

prioritising existing strategies 11 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? 1. Line the wall approximately 3m high x 3 m wide with brown packing paper taped around the edges ? 12 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ?

2. Along the top, hang cards with the ranking categories evenly spaced and sideways Leave space after 3rd, 4th, and 7th categories for write-ins (=Which?) Draw vertical lines for a grid in-between each category From left to right, the cards read I. Necessary resources II. Level of acceptance from relevant stakeholders III. Probability of benefitting from external factors i.Which? (Factors it can benefit from should be filled in here) IV. Probability of harmful risks i.Which? (Likely risks should be filled in here) V. Adaptability to change VI. Causation of social, political and institutional conflicts

I. Causation of new risks that increase the vulnerability of conservation objects i.Which? (Likely risks should be filled in here) II. Synergies with other strategies III. Conflicts with other strategies IV. Threat abatement effectiveness V. Level of potential regret Pierre Ibisch 2014

13 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ? 3. Along the left side, write or insert cards with the strategies which should be analyzed Underneath each strategy, complement the grid with horizontal lines in-between the strategies Existing and complementary strategies (Step 21) may be analyzed in two separate steps, or together (as pictured here) Remember that darker yellow hexagons represent existing strategies while lighter yellow hexagons represent complementary strategies

Christina Lehmann 2015 14 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ? 15 4. Begin critical discussion among the participants To analyze the impact, begin by asking what could cause the strategies to generate impacts different than those desired Apply principles of Murphys Law: Assume that everything which can go wrong, will go wrong 5. Develop worst-case scenarios of undesired consequences within the management area

Rather be pessimistic and foresee and prepare for the worst from the beginning than to realize negative impacts after strategies have already been implemented Changing them would result in a loss of time and resources 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? 6. Using these scenarios as a baseline, rank each strategy according to the categories described later on ? Useful: Have a table with the ranking criteria handy so participants can

refer to it (MARISCO manual: p. 149-152) Printed versions for distribution are helpful Pierre Ibisch 2014 16 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ? 7. In the boxes, apply appropriately colored sticker corresponding to each category Repeat for all strategies This is only a preliminary

discussion Where resources are available, in-depth analyses should be conducted Christina Lehmann 2015 17 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ? 8. In the far right column, add together the resulting values of the analysis: Red = 1, Yellow = 2, Light Green = 3, Dark Green = 4 Strategies with the highest rankings tend to be the best strategies

Just because a strategy scores low on the ranking, does not mean it is not a worthwhile strategy Some crucial strategies will rank quite low Consider how low-ranking strategies can be altered/ implemented together with complementary strategies to improve their ranking score Pierre Ibisch 2014 18 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ? 2) The evaluation of feasibility of

existing strategies 19 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? a) Necessary resources Implementation of strategies requires different kinds of resources: ? Financial Support Time Strategy Implementation Personal

20 Knowledge Proper combinations of resources are important Although sufficient funding may be available, without the knowledge to properly plan strategies it is likely to be wasted 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? a) Necessary resources The following table is used to determine the availability of resources: ? CEEM 2014

The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies Christina Lehmann 2015 21 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? b) Level of acceptance from potential stakeholders ?

22 Conservation strategies affect many stakeholders Successful implementation of a strategy is directly dependent on the willingness of stakeholders to accept it Their willingness depends on the potential harms or benefits the strategy poses to them Important to begin by considering the effects of planned strategies, both positive and negative It is important to envision worst-case scenarios in order to develop robust strategies and to understand the mentalities of the stakeholders 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? b) Level of acceptance from potential stakeholders ?

All stakeholders who will be affected should be listed Their level of acceptance should be ranked using the following table: CEEM 2014 The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies Christina Lehmann 2015 23 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? c) Probability of benefitting from external factors (esp. opportunities)

? 24 Successful implementation of a strategy is not solely reliant on the capabilities of the management team External factors can also play an important role Sometimes opportunities can favour or support the implementation of a strategy E.g. highly flexible political situations can promote new laws or programs which directly benefit the implementation of strategies for ecosystem-based conservation Other opportunities include additional funding or collaboration with institutions which are tackling similar problems 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies

How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? c) Probability of benefitting from external factors (esp. opportunities) ? Determine the probability that external factors which could benefit the strategy will occur CEEM 2014 The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies In the table, note down the relevant opportunities or resources Christina Lehmann 2015 25

18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? d) Probability of harmful risks ? Not all flexible situations will provide benefits Risk may be posed to the effectiveness of conservation strategies E.g. insecure political situations can result in cancellation of planned funding or a decreased interest in ecosystem-based nature conservation Among others, extreme weather events and unfavorable economic investments can jeopardize the potential for implementation of a

strategy 26 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? d) Probability of harmful risks ? The table below provides the selection criteria for the probability of harmful risks This is based on the probability that they will occur together with the expected potential magnitude of their impact CEEM 2014 The rating is marked with a

sticker of corresponding colour on the summary table of existing strategies In the table, note down the relevant risks 27 Christina Lehmann 2015 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? e) Adaptability to change ?

28 Uncertainty and unexpected changing circumstances are the foundations upon which management strategies must be built Developing versatile strategies which respond adaptively to altered conditions supports the overall risk and vulnerability management of the conservation site E.g., strategies that involve the construction of buildings are often less adaptable than soft strategies, such as those related to communication 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? e) Adaptability to change Use the table below to develop the adaptability of the strategy:

? CEEM 2014 The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies 29 Christina Lehmann 2015 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? ? 3) The evaluation of impact of existing strategies

30 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? a) Causation of social, political and institutional conflicts ? 31 It is important that stakeholders engage in the strategy implementation process It sometimes occurs that conservation objectives conflict with stakeholders socio-economic interests Possible conflicts could include those over land tenure or rights, the increase or removal of subsidies or incentives, etc.

18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? a) Causation of social, political and institutional conflicts ? 32 E.g., strategies which set aside portions of land to protect sensitive species directly interfere with some farmers ability to use the land to produce food they need to sustain themselves They may perceive the strategies as disproportionately negatively affecting them and form an association demanding their lands to be returned to them Other stakeholders, such as those responsible for processing harvested goods, shopkeepers and others affected by this

decrease in production, may join in This could increase existing conflicts between stakeholders and institutions or create new ones 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? a) Causation of social, political and institutional conflicts ? Evaluate the probability that institutional conflicts will arise after the strategy has been delivered according to the following table: CEEM 2014 The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary

table of existing strategies Christina Lehmann 2015 33 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? b) Causation of new risks that increase the vulnerability of conservation objects ? 34 Although a thorough analysis has been carried out, it is likely that

there are elements of the ecosystem which are not fully understood During the implementation process, faulty assumptions may become evident through unexpected reactions of some system components, worsening or creating new stresses and threats 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? b) Causation of new risks that increase the vulnerability of conservation objects ? Evaluate the likelihood of strategies to result in biophysical damages in the management area or direct harm to biodiversity objects using the following table: CEEM 2014

The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies 35 Christina Lehmann 2015 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? c) Synergies with other strategies Synergistic effects: Occur when strategies are carefully constructed to work in an integrative way with other objectives and activities within the planned area

E.g., a strategy promoting the social and political organization of local communities can develop significant synergies with communication strategies or the enforcement of legal regulations ? 36 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? c) Synergies with other strategies ? The probability of developing synergies with other strategies can be analysed using the following table: CEEM 2014

The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies 37 Christina Lehmann 2015 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? d) Conflicts with other strategies ?

Some strategies will work directly against other strategies, causing an overall reduction in the effectiveness of the strategic program E.g., a strategy that improves living conditions in the management area may lead to immigration to the area Direct conflict with strategies which target human population growth After identification, changes to counter the identified conflicts must be made 38 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? d) Conflicts with other strategies

? Both, conflicts which already exist between strategies and those which could develop should be assessed according to the following table: CEEM 2014 The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies Christina Lehmann 2015 39 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? e) Threat abatement effectiveness

? 40 Degree to which a threat is alleviated or avoided by the implementation of a strategy This step promotes critical reflection of the real impact of strategies on threats This is not a measure of the efficiency (the cost-effect ratio) nor the effectiveness (the accomplishment of defined objectives within the defined timeframe) of the strategy Measure of the success of strategies to decrease the vulnerability of the conservation objects by directly tackling the threats outlined in the conceptual model 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies

assessed and prioritised? e) Threat abatement effectiveness ? Use the following table to gauge the effectiveness of strategies in treating threats: CEEM 2014 The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies Christina Lehmann 2015 41 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised?

f) Direct increases in biodiversity functionality ? 42 Some strategies are designed to directly enhance the functionality of a biodiversity object or at least restore it to an acceptable level of functionality This stage tries to assess the potential change and hopefully increase in functionality of a biodiversity object that has been subjected to the actions of a strategy 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? f) Direct increases in biodiversity functionality

? Use the following table to rate the impact a strategy on biodiversity functionality: CEEM 2014 The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies Christina Lehmann 2015 43 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised? g) Level of potential regret

? Strategies may not achieve their intended impacts, but they may still generate secondary positive impacts Therefore, the failure of a strategy does not imply a total waste of invested resources In the case where there are secondary positive effects, the strategy would be a low- or noregret option Joel Pett 2009 44 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies How are existing strategies assessed and prioritised?

g) Level of potential regret Use the following table to assess the potential level of regret: ? The rating is marked with a sticker of corresponding color on the summary table of existing strategies Christina Lehmann 2015 45 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies Practical Tips ? 46

Avoid wishful thinking! Just because a strategy needs to work does not mean that it will Some groups might need some encouragement during this step as it is very labour-intensive Often it is only few participants working while others watch or stand besides try to get them back into the process and stress the importance of this step as it is crucial for the actual implementation of strategies 18. Assessment and prioritization of existing strategies

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