Post Classical Western Europe From 476 to 1453 C.e.
POST CLASSICAL WESTERN EUROPE FROM 476 TO 1453 C.E. FROM PERIPHERAL REGION TO NASCENT GREAT POWER Collapse of Western Roman Empire Empire Divided (300s AD) Byzantine Empire (Greek & Autonomous) Latifundias replace centralized rule Decentralized, self-sufficient (E,S,P) Isolated Kingdoms of Landlords/Serfs Constant Barbarian Invasions Empire collapses (476): Isolated, Primitive = Barbarian w/ Roman (Latin) influence Rise of Christianity (Unifying Force) First Phase: (Roman) conversion through original disciples (church fathers) Bishop of Rome (Pope) replaces emperor 2nd Phase: Papal Primacy divine authority of (rock) = Pontifex Maximus over Church Hierarchal Order - Church = key to salvation & protection
Viceroys (bishops) oversee church & state Monastic Culture converts/scholars QUEST FOR POLITICAL ORDER AFTER 476 CE Germanic kingdoms Visigoths dominated Spain, from 470's to early 8th century Ostrogoths dominated Italy, the 5th century to 530's Lombards invaded, ruled Italy, 550's to the mid-8th century Franks, Burgundians controlled Gaul, Netherlands Angles, Saxons, Jutes established kingdoms in Britain Political Culture
Germans organized around tribes, families Personal loyalty to king, local noble not state Warrior aristocracy assisted royalty Masses of Germans were free peasants with duties to king Center of Europe shifted from Italy to northern area Area in Northern France, Western Germany, Netherlands Towns declined, only non-German structure was the church Most Germans were Arian Christians but tolerated Catholics RISE OF THE FRANKS The Franks Settled in Belgium, Northern France, Western Germany Developed group identity during the 3rd century C.E. Politically inexperienced, little exposure to Roman society Clovis A strong military and political leader Eliminated last vestiges of Roman authority in Gaul Launched military campaigns against other Germanic peoples Built the most powerful and dynamic state in western Europe
Clovis's conversion Most Germans were Arian Christians Converted to Arianism by St. Ulfias before migration Hostile to Catholics but generally tolerant if taxes paid The Franks converted to Roman Christianity In Hoc Signet Vince in this sign conquer Alliance with Catholics greatly strengthened the Franks EUROPE c. 526 600 C.E. CHARLEMAGNE The Carolingians Merovingian leaders lost control after Clovis's death Carolingians asserted authority, the early 8th century Charles Martel Mayor of the Palace, chief official under Merovingian kings Stops Muslim invasion of Europe, 732 at Battle of Tours Pepin becomes king, 751 Pope appointed Pepin as King of the Franks Invaded Italy to save Pope from the Lombards Pope allows Franks to reign as King of Italy
Pepin grants the area in Italy around Rome to Pope Charlemagne (reigned 768-814 C.E.) Charles Martel's grandson, founder of Carolingian empire Control extended to northeast Spain, Bavaria, north Italy Rulers of eastern Europe, southern Italy paid tribute Administration Capital city at Aachen (in modern Germany) Relied on aristocratic deputies, known as counts Used missi dominici to oversee local authorities Charlemagne as emperor Pope Leo III proclaimed Charlemagne emperor, 800 Coronation strained relations with Byzantine emperors THE RISE OF THE FRANKISH EMPIRE BREAKUP OF THE FRANKISH EMPIRE Louis the Pious (re. 814-840) Charlemagne's only surviving son, lost control of the counts His three sons divided the empire into three kingdoms, 843
Invasions Muslims raided Mediterranean coasts Conquered Spain, Sicily, Sardinia Raided coasts of S. France, S. Italy Magyars invaded from the east Vikings invaded from the north The Vikings Scandinavian homelands - Norway, Denmark, and Sweden Raided regions from Russia to Spain Established colonies in Iceland, Greenland, Canada Conquered parts of England, Ireland, Scotland, France Outstanding seafarers Fleets could go to interior regions via rivers Attacked towns and villages; favorite targets were Christian VIKINGS, MAGYARS, AND ARABS NEW REGIONAL STATES
England Small Keltic, German kingdoms merged into larger realm Fought Scandinavian raids King Alfred (reigned 871-899) expanded to the north Alfred's successors controlled England c. mid-10th century Germany and Italy After Carolingian empire, local lords took control King Otto I (reigned 936-73) defeated Magyars in 955 Imposed authority in Central Europe Led armies to support the papacy in Italy
Ruled Germany, Netherlands, Burgundy, Austria, Switzerland Suzerain lords over Northern Italy, Slovenia, Czech lands Otto's crowned emperor by pope in 962 France Counts and other local authorities became local lords Vikings settled in northern France Nobles elect Counts of Paris as King to replace Carolingians Spain and Southern Italy Spanish Christian states in North warred against Muslim caliphs Southern Italy patchwork of loyalties; eventually overrun by Normans East Central and Northern Europe Vikings establish three kingdoms: Denmark, Norway, Sweden Poland and Hungary are large border states in east
EUROPE c. 1000 C.E. FEUDAL SYSTEM Lords and vassals Lord owned land, needs soldiers Trades land for service Grants of land called fiefs Vassal provided defense Received livelihood from land Vassals provided military equipment Vassals owed lord: Loyalty, obedience, respect, counsel Military service when called into service Lords often made smaller grant to others Called sub-division of fief Lowest, service owning noble was a knight Church often made vassals of soldiers for defense Church could hold land as a vassal to a lord Church often held land in own right Women could be vassals, own fiefs but not fight Feudal politics
Multi-layered network of lord-vassal relationships Political stability depended on discipline, control Lords, knights often had conflicting loyalties TWO FEUDAL STATES FRANCE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE MANORALISM: ECONOMIC FEUDALISM Serfdom Difference between peasants, serfs Serfs as an intermediate category
Peasants were free, owned their own land Serfs not free, could not own land Serfs, peasants lived similar lives Began under Romans Diocletian bound people to occupations Serfdom arose during invasions, marauders Slaves, peasants frequently intermarried Free peasants became serfs for protection Serfs' obligations Labor service and rents in kind Could not move without permission Serfs had right to work on land, pass job to heirs Serfs often drafted as foot soldiers in feudal armies
Manors Principal form of agricultural organization Manor was a large estate controlled by lord Many lords could execute serfs for serious misconduct Manors were largely self-sufficient communities Trade: luxuries, manufactured products, finished goods Serfs had to work lords land first, before their own plots ECONOMY OF MEDIEVAL EUROPE Agriculture Agricultural production suffered from repeated invasions Small wooden plows of Mediterranean farmers did not work well in the north Heavy plows Heavy plows appeared in 6th century, could turn soils Common from 8th century, production increased Cultivation of new lands, watermills, and rotating crops A rural society Agricultural surplus not enough to support large cities Towns were few and sparsely populated
Trade Trade, urban centers began to develop, 10th century Trade arose in Mediterranean, North Sea, Black Sea Population In 200 C.E., European population stood at 36 million In 400 C.E., 31 million In 600 C.E., 26 million In 800 C.E., edged up to 29 million In 900 C.E., 30 million By 1000 C.E., back to 36 mil THE AGE OF FAITH Post-Classical Western Europe as An Age of Faith Every aspect of life was dominated by the Church Rulers were crowned by the Grace of God Political rule viewed as divinely sanctioned All Christians were expected to tithe to the church Education, art dictated by Church ideals Calendar organized by faith holidays
Fair prices, economic practices dictated by church All answers to questions were dictated largely by faith Law was largely dictated by religion Serious matters submitted to Church for arbitration, resolution Popes, clergy held enormous power Church held lands independent of many rulers Church lands could not be taxed Church lands were often enormously wealthy Bishops could not be installed by secular rulers Secular rulers appealed to Rome for mediation Clergy could not be tried in secular courts Popes could deprive kings of their thrones Separate canon law for church Social Hierarchy of the Church Commoners could rise to leading positions Social background often unimportant in church Women in church had enormous influence Symbols of the Post-Classical Age of Faith The Cathedral The Crusades The Pilgrimage CONVERSION TO CHRISTIANITY
The Franks and the Church Franks viewed as protectors of the papacy Charlemagne worked to spread Christianity Reconquered parts of Spain from Muslims Charlemagne forced Saxons to convert Built churches, schools, monasteries The spread of Christianity Popes took an active roll in sending out missionaries Pagan ways did not disappear immediately Scandinavia, Baltic lands were last to convert Pagan rituals often blended into Christianity Cities, towns largely Christian but countryside weakly so By 1000 C.E., western Europe was Roman Christianity Irish, Mozarabic rites of Christianity accepted by Pope Arian Christianity eliminated by Franks THE PAPACY Pope Gregory I (590-604 C.E.) Organized defense of Rome against Lombards' menace Reasserted papal primacy over other bishops Strongly emphasized the sacrament of penance The conversion of England Gregory's missionary campaigns in western Europe First converted English kings By 800 C.E., England securely in the Roman church
Rise of Church as a Temporal Power Popes claimed that the spiritual powers were superior to temporal Italy lacked any great power; city-states constantly quarreled German emperors at war with nobles; French kings too weak Pope played one side off another, acquired lands in Italy Many European bishops acquired lands, became part of feudalism In Germany, owned 10% of the best lands In Spain, Baltic spiritual military orders led wars on pagans Papal Powers Spiritual head of all Christians including aristocrats, royalty Weapons included excommunication, interdict, canon law Economically received tithe, freedom from taxation, owned great economic wealth Popes became head of reform movements Abolished simony, insisted on celibacy of priests, reformed monasteries Established College of Cardinals to elect popes not kings, mobs Popes Gregory VIII and Innocent III defied, deposed kings Popes launched crusades against Muslims, heretic Christians, some Italians MONASTICISM
Origin Christians practiced asceticism in deserts of Egypt, 2nd and 3rd century Monastic lifestyle became popular when Christianity became legal Monastic rules St. Benedict (480-547 C.E.) provided a set of regulations Virtues of Benedictine monks: poverty, chastity, and obedience Western monastic rites differed from Eastern rites Western rites emphasized work, prayer, service to the poor Eastern rites were relatively isolated, dedicated to prayer but not outside contacts St. Scholastica (482-543 C.E.) St. Benedict's sister, a nun Adapted the Rule, and provided guidance for religious life of women The roles of monasteries Became dominant feature in social and cultural life of western Europe Accumulated large landholdings but spread knowledge Wealthy patrons donated land to monks for monasteries
Taught peasants, serfs techniques of farming Cleared forested lands, planted them Organized much of rural labor for agriculture Provided a variety of social services Inns and shelters for travelers and refugees Orphanages, medical centers Schools, libraries and scriptoria Monks served needs of rural population RISE OF REGIONAL STATES The Holy Roman Empire New Emperors France The Capetians
England: Normans to Plantagenets Duke William of Normandy invaded England Introduced Norman style of feudalism to England Warred constantly with France for control of territory Ireland and Scotland too disunited due to clan warfare at mercy of England Italy Descendants of Vikings who carved out a state in Normandy of France Nominally subject to Carolingian and Capetian rulers, but acted independently The British Isles
Hugh Capet, a minor and weak noble, was elected king in 987 In the next three centuries, Capetian kings gained power and wealth gradually Spend most of energy asserting their power over regional powerful nobles The Normans Otto of Saxony rose in northern Germany by the mid-10th century; Pope John XII proclaimed him emperor in 962 Later emperors warred alternately with powerful dukes, popes for influence in empire Eventually emperorship becomes elected by seven most powerful imperial dukes, bishops Smaller territorial states emerged, weakened centralizing efforts of the emperors Northern Italy nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire Church influence in Italy Christian and Muslim states in Iberia GROWTH OF THE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY Expansion of arable land Population rises Cleared forests, swamps
Lords encouraged such efforts Improved farming techniques Crop rotation methods Use of fertilizer Cultivation of beans increased More domestic animals Books on economy, agriculture New tools and technology Extensive use of watermills and heavy plows Use of horseshoe and horse collar, increased land under cultivation 3-plot rotation of planted land New food supplies Before 1000, European diet - grains After 1000, more meat, dairy products, fish, vegetables, legumes Population growth
From 29 to 79 million between 800 C.E. and 1300 C.E. EUROPE, C. EARLY 13TH CENTURY REVIVAL OF TOWNS AND TRADE Urbanization Peasants, serfs, tradesmen flocked to cities and towns Towns allowed serfs to acquire freedom if they stayed 1 year, 1 day Local nobles allowed towns charters, rights for direct taxes Towns ruled by urban elite usually from guilds, wealthy Textile production Northern Italian cities and Flanders became centers of wool textiles Trade in wool products fueled economic development of Europe Mediterranean trade Trading City-States Venice, Genoa were the most prominent but others such as Pisa, Amalfi Wealth based on sea-power, luxury trade Italians established colonies in Mediterranean, Black Sea Conquered, settled cities, built factories and trade centers Established trading alliances, signed treaties with many including Muslims The Hanseatic League
Hansa - association of trading cities, controlled trade of N. Europe German trading city-states made alliance; established factories in North, Baltic Seas Concluded treaties with many states; admitted key foreign cities to alliance So powerful could resist kingdoms, made war on opponents Trade is fish, grains, iron, cloth Major European rivers, entrepots linked Hansa to the Mediterranean Improved business techniques Bankers issued letters of credit to merchants Commercial partnerships for limiting risks of commercial investment EUROPEAN CITIES MEDIEVAL TRADE ROUTES SOCIAL CHANGES The three estates "Those who pray" clergy, spiritual estate
Ruling hierarchy: Popes, bishops, abbots Common clergy: Monks, priests "Those who fight" - feudal nobles, military estate Royalty who ran a state Land owning lords such as dukes, counts, princes Lowest nobility with no land were knights "Those who work" - mostly peasants and serfs Peasants and Serfs Those who lived in Towns (Burg = Burghers) Guilds Expansion of cities did not fit into feudal framework Urban populations were increasingly able to resist feudal nobles Chivalry
Established standards of quality for manufactured goods Determined prices and regulated entry of new workers Ran free cities as urban aristocracy Independent cities Not an estate in most countries Grew to become middle class Code of ethics and behavior for feudal nobles Church directed chivalry toward Christian faith, piety Rise of Estates General, Parliaments, and Assemblies Kings had to govern with the consent of the nobles, clergy Could not tax without their approval for which demanded rights Eventually most rulers granted nobles, clergy rights to assemble, to debate Also granted right to free peasants, citizens of towns who formed the commons Many assemblies limited rights of rulers, became permanent bodies
TRADING CITIES GENDER ROLES IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE Feminine Roles of the Day The Virgin Mary was the ideal Mother to children Supports husband quietly, diligently A patriarchal society but strong feminine roles Public Role Very limited as it was a males world
Female rulers were not unknown ALWAYS differentiate between aristocracy, poor Aristocratic Women Equally a mans world but women had to work next to males for family to survive Most women married due to pregnancy, married early in life, died young Middle Class (Urban) women Towns and cities offered fresh opportunities for women Women worked in a wide range of occupations Most guilds admitted women, and women also had their own guilds The Church Women
Women were the womb to breed the heir; marriage politics taken very seriously Roles public and private limited by convention and wealth to social roles and little else Poor women Generally seen as regents for son, grandson If widowed, lost rights if remarried or when male came of age Frequently seen in Spain, Scandinavia, England, Italy Laws would not permit women to rule in France, Germany, Eastern Europe Private Role Women could own property in own right Feudalism did not prohibit women from fighting but often they named a champion As nuns women acquired social equality with men by renouncing sexuality Abbesses, nuns could run monasteries, were educated, had great influence
Women of the Day Eleanor, Countess Aquitaine, Duchess of Normandy, Queen of England Most celebrated woman of her day Inherited richest lands in Europe; married King of England Supported troubadours, promoted good manners, refinement, arts, and romantic love Blessed Hildegard von Bingen Leading mystic, intellectual, advisors to bishops, popes Revolutionized techniques in music THE RELIGION OF THE MASSES Popular Religion Sacraments and Devotions
The most popular was the Eucharist Devotion to saints for help The Virgin Mary: the most popular saint Saints' relics were esteemed Pilgrimage: to Rome, Compostela, Jerusalem People were superstitious Devoted to many pagan rituals Believed in witches Reform Movements and Popular Heresies Dominicans and Franciscans Organized movements of non-cloistered religious Dominicans worked primarily as teachers Franciscans were primarily social workers Worked directly with populace, needy, sick Championed spiritual over materialistic values Zealously combated heterodox movements Popular heresy Dominicans became the Churchs police or Inquisition Movements of Waldensians and Cathars (Albigensians) THE CHURCH AND LEARNING Cathedral schools Bishops, archbishops in France, Italy organized schools Cathedral schools concentrated on liberal arts Some offered instruction in law, medicine, and theology
Universities Large cathedral schools developed into universities Most students trained for church, bureaucratic jobs Most students were from middle classes and not nobility Student guilds and faculty guilds Chief degree was theology Scholasticism: St. Thomas Aquinas Scholasticism System learning applied to Christianity Intellectual and rational St. Thomas Aquinas Dominican scholar Famous scholastic theologian Wrote Summa Theologica Sought to harmonize Greek rationality Aristotelian learning
Christianity COLONIZATION AND CRUSADES Crusading Orders and Baltic Expansion Germans launched mass settlement of Eastern lands Allowed nobles to conquer, settle lands in east Formed military-religious orders to assist Launched crusades against pagan Baltic and Slavic peoples Settled German peasants, serfs in lands The Teutonic Knights were most active in the Baltic region Baltic region was absorbed into Christian Europe by late 13th century Settled German settlers in Estonia, Latvia, Prussia Allied with the Hansa The Reconquest (for Christianity) of Sicily and Spain
The conquest of Southern Italy, Sicily by Normans, 1040 1090 Seized lands from the Byzantines, Lombards, Muslims to create a powerful, modern state Became ally, protector of the Popes; bitter enemies of the Byzantines The reconquista of Spain The reconquista began in 11th century after collapse of strong Muslim state By 1150, conquered half peninsula: leading states were Leon-Castile, Aragon, Catalonia, Portugal By the 13th century, took almost all the peninsula except Granada THE CRUSADES The Turks Arrived in Middle East in early 11th century; defeated Abbassids and Byzantines Seized much of Byzantine holdings in Anatolia, Muslim Holy Land Pope Urban II Byzantines asked West for help; Pope called for knights to seize Holy Land, 1095 Peter the Hermit traveled in Europe and organized a ragtag army The campaign was a disaster for the crusaders
The first crusade French, Normans organized a respectable military expedition, 1096 Jerusalem fell to the crusaders, 1099 Muslims recaptured Jerusalem, 1187 Later crusades By the mid-13th century, launched five major crusades which all failed 4th crusade (1202-1204) conquered Constantinople, made Schism final Consequences of the crusades Facilitated exchange of goods between Muslims, Europe Demands for silk, cotton textiles, and spices increased; spread sugar, citrus plants Italian merchants sought opportunities for direct trade in Asian markets European borrowed heavily from Muslim intellectual knowledge Reacquired Aristotle, lost Greek classics Borrowed Muslim science, mathematics, technology, paper skills Borrowed Muslim architectural techniques Helped produce a 12th century European intellectual Renaissance
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