Plant systems and processes

Plant systems and processes

TEK 10B describe the interactions that occur among systems that perform the functions of transport and reproduction in plants TRANSPORT Plants have special tissues that allow the transport of essential materials. Leaves :entry and exit points for the gases Stems connect leaves to the roots and allow transport between them Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil. ROOT HAIRS Root hairs maintain homeostasis because they increase surface area of the roots This allows nutrient and water absorption

TRANSPORT- PLANTS XYLEM The stem of a plant has two main highways of transportation: Xylem and Phloem. "Highway One" Xylem: Moves WATER throughout the plant from the roots to the leaves TRANSPORT PLANTS PHLOEM "Highway Two" Phloem- Transport FOOD (glucose) throughout the plant from the leaves to the roots XYLEM transports WATER ONLY PHLOEM transport FOOD ONLY Phloem- Transport FOOD (glucose) throughout the plant from the leaves to the roots Memory Tool: Phloem makes the "F" sound like food remember "Phloem Food"

PHLOEM transport FOOD ONLY STOMATA FUNCTIONS OF STOMATA Stomata- Openings in epidermis (outside layer) of the leaf where gas exchange and water loss occurs. Stomata allow plants to take IN carbon dioxide Guard Cells: control the opening and the closing of the stomata Stomata allow plant to RELEASE oxygen Turgor pressure (water pressure) Helpo reduce water loss because the guard cells close when little water is

available High Turgor pressure: Stomata open Low Turgor pressure: Stomata close Much water Little water Which help prevent the plant from drying out! Gases move IN and OUT. Water can only move OUT through water loss TRANSPIRATION 1. Water is collected by the roots, but how does it get up to the leaves where it is needed? 2. As the plant receives sunlight, water in the plant is evaporated and escapes the plant. Transpiration is the process by which plants move water (thru the xylem) from the roots

to stem thru the stomata an release excess moisture into the air Why do plants need to need perform transipiration? Creates negative pressure that allows plants to draw water up from the roots and transport nutrients throughout the plant 3. The plant must replace the water. The water that is evaporating at the top creates suction that helps water from the roots climb to the leaves through the xylem. 4. Water passes from cell to cell until it gets to where it is needed. SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Plants have male parts and female parts Flowers are the reproductive organs of plants FEMALE PLANT ORGAN

MALE PLANT ORGAN Pistil (carpels) contains: Stamen contains: Stigma: sticky for pollen to attach. Anther: produces pollen (gamete) Style: sperm travel down to ovary. Filament: upholds anther Ovary (fruit): stores ovules Ovule: (eggs). SEEDS NEED TO BE D I S P E R S E D AWAY F R O M T H E PA R E N T P L A N T I N O R D E R T O REDUCE COMPETITION FOR

S PAC E , L I G H T , N U T R I E N T S A N D WAT E R. P O L L I N AT I O N Pollination: the transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma. Pollination may be accomplished by wind, insects, and birds. In some cases, the colored petals of a flower act as a visual attraction for insects. Nectar can also act as an attractant. Self-Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same flower or from the anther to the stigma of another flower that is part of the same plant.

Seeds can be dispersed by: Wind Water Mechanical Animals Cross pollination is the transfer of pollen from an anther on one flower to a stigma of a flower on a different plant. Cross pollination is an adaptation which causes variation among flowers.

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