# Planning II: Partial Order Planning

Planning II: Partial Order Planning Sections 11.5 - 11.6 Total v. Partial Order plans Total-order planner maintains a partial solution as a totally ordered list of steps found so far STRIPS

Partial-order planner only maintains partial order constraints on operators in the plan e.g., temporal constraints: S1 < S2 [S1 must come before S2, but not necessarily immediately before it] Principle of least commitment Dont make an ordering choice, unless required to do so Keep the ordering choice as general as possible

S1 < S2 v. S1 S2 Reduces the amount of backtracking needed dont waste time undoing steps Partial-order planners have this property of least commitment

situational planners dont Types of links Temporal: ordering constraint G1 < G2: G1 must occur before G2 graph Causal

Si c Sj Si achieves c for Sj in the effects list of Si is a literal c that is needed to satisfy part of the precondition for the operator Sj

records the purpose of a step in the plan Creating partial order plans Search through a space of (partial-order) plans Each node is a partial-order plan Each arc from a state (operator) consists in either adding a new step to the plan adding a temporal & causal constraint between existing steps

Situation-space planners, conversely, commit to an ordering when an operator is applied Initializing the algorithm Start node preconditions: none effects: positive literals defining the start state Finish node

preconditions: goal effects: none Initial plan Start ---------------> Finish Finishing the algorithm A solution is a complete and consistent plan

(see page 349, for the definitions of complete and consistent plan) Example Problem Interleaving v. non-interleaving planner Non-interleaving planner

all of the steps for a sub-goal occur atomically G1 ^ G2: either all of the steps for achieving G1 occur before G2, or all of the steps for achieving G1 occur after G2 STRIPS is non-interleaving because it uses a stack mechanism cannot solve the Sussman anomaly Flawed Plan Establishment

Solve an open/unsatisfied precondition p a precondition is not satisfied if it does not have a causal link to it Simple establishment Find an existing step T prior to S in which p is true (its in the Effects list of T) Step addition

Add a new plan step T that contains in its Effects list p Add both a causal & temporal link from T to S Declobbering = threat removal Threat

G2 requires an effect of G1 (there is a causal link between G1 & G2), but the effect of G3 is to undo the needed effect picture Thus, G3 cant occur between G2 & G3 it must occur either before G1 (promotion) add temporal link G3 < G1

or after G2 (demotion) add temporal link G2 < G3 Solving the Sussman anomaly Solving the Sussman anomaly I also used the slides from chapter 11 from Russells (and some from chapter 7 on situation calculus)

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