PHRAS ES PHRASES A group of related words that lacks either a subject or a predicate or both fearing an accident at the lakes edge CATEGORIES OF PHRASES I. Prepositional Phrases
A. Adjectival B. Adverbial II. Appositive Phrases III. Verbal Phrases A. Participial B. Gerund C. Infinitive PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES A preposition connects a noun or pronoun to another word in the sentence. The noun or pronoun so connected is the object of the
preposition. The preposition plus its object and any modifiers is a prepositional phrase. on the surface with great satisfaction upon entering the room from where you are standing except for ten employees PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES A word group consisting of a preposition and its object (OP), plus any modifiers. A prepositional phrase usually functions as
an adjective or as an adverb. adjectiv al OP The boy in green stood up. adverbia l OP
He walked to the speakers platform. PUNCTUATING PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES A prepositional phrase that introduces a sentence IS set off with punctuation, usually a comma, unless it is short. 1. According to the newspaper and other sources, the governor has decided to veto the bill. 2. In 1865 the Civil War finally ended.
PUNCTUATING PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES A prepositional phrase that interrupts or concludes a sentence is NOT set off with punctuation when it restricts the meaning of the word or words it modifies. 1. The announcement of a tuition increase surprised no one. 2. Students expected new fees for the coming year.
PUNCTUATING PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES When an interrupting or concluding prepositional phrase does NOT restrict meaning, but merely adds information to the sentence, then it IS set off with punctuation, usually a comma or commas. The governor, according to the newspaper and other sources, has reluctantly decided to veto the bill.
PUNCTUATING PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES One last thing-A preposition and its object are not separated by a comma. APPOSITIVE A noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or
pronoun to identify or describe it. My teacher, Mrs. Boyd, lost her book. APPOSITIVES AND APPOSITIVE PHRASES An appositive and any modifiers the appositive has. Mrs. Boyd, my English
teacher, lost her book. VERBALS Special verb forms that can function as nouns or as modifiers. Smoking is dangerous. Verbals cannot stand alone as the complete verb in the predicate of a sentence. The man smoking Any verbal must combine with a helping verb to serve as the predicate of a sentence.
The man was smoking. THREE TYPES OF VERBAL PHRASES Participle Gerund Infinitive PARTICIPLES All verbs have two participle forms, a present and a past.
The present participle consists of the dictionary form of the verb plus the ending ing: beginning, completing, hiding. The past participle of most verbs consists of the dictionary form plus d or ed: believed, completed. Some common verbs have an irregular past participle: begun, hidden. Both present and past participles function as adjectives to modify nouns and pronouns. PARTICIPLES
1. Shopping malls sometimes frustrate shoppers. LV 2. Shoppers may feel trapped. PARTICIPLE PHRASES
Participles may take subjects, objects, or complements, and they may be modified by adverbs. The participle and all the words immediately related to it make up a participle phrase. Participle phrases always serve as adjectives, modifying nouns or pronouns. PARTICIPLES IN A POEM from I Hear America Singing by Walt Whitman
I hear America singing, the varied carols I hear, Those of mechanics, each one singing his as it should be blithe and strong, The carpenter singing his as he measures his plank or beam, The mason singing his as he makes ready for work, or leaves off work, The boatman singing what belongs to him in his boat, the deckhand singing on the steamboat deck, The shoemaker singing as he sits on his bench, the hatter singing as he stands,
PARTICIPLE PHRASES N 1. Buying things, most shoppers feel themselves in control. N 2. They make selections determined by personal taste.
GERUNDS A gerund is the name given to the ing form of the verb when it serves as a noun. N 1. Strolling through stores can exhaust the hardiest shopper. N 2. Many children learn to hate shopping. GERUNDS
Present participles and gerunds can be distinguished only by their function in a sentence. If the ing form functions as an adjective (a teaching degree), it is a present participle. If the ing form functions as a noun (Teaching is difficult), it is a gerund. GERUNDS Writers and speakers often use
gerunds and gerund phrases to talk about present or ongoing activity. GERUND PHRASES The gerund and all the words immediately related to it make up a gerund phrase. Gerund phrases ALWAYS serve as nouns. Sentence Subject/Noun 1. Shopping for clothing and other items satisfies personal needs.
Object of Preposition/Noun 2. Malls are good at creating such needs. INFINITIVES The infinitive is the to form of the verb--the dictionary form preceded by the infinitive marker to: to begin, to hide, to run. Infinitives may function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs.
INFINITIVES While gerunds and gerund phrases often refer to present or ongoing activity, infinitives and infinitive phrases often point readers to the future. gerun d Present Action: Coral-reef diving has long been a passion of mine. infinitiv
e Future Action: Someday, I would like to dive at Australias Great Barrier Reef. INFINITIVES 1. The question to answer is why adjective shoppers endure mall fatigue. noun 2. The solution for mall fatigue is
to leave. adverb 3. Still, shoppers find it difficult to quit. INFINITIVE PHRASES Infinitive phrases may serve as nouns, adverbs, or adjectives. sentence subject LV
1. To design a mall is to environment. predicate noun an create artificial adverb
2. Malls are designed to make shoppers feel safe. 3. The environment supports the impulse to shop for oneself. adjective INFINITIVE PHRASES One more last thing When an infinitive or infinitive phrase serves as a noun after verbs such as bear, let, tell, help, make, see, and watch, the infinitive marker to is
omitted: We all heard her tell [NOT to tell] the story. PUNCTUATING VERBAL PHRASES A verbal or verbal phrase serving as a modifier is almost always set off with a comma when it introduces a sentence. infinitive phrase To pay tuition, some students work at two
jobs. PUNCTUATING VERBAL PHRASES A modifying verbal or verbal phrase that interrupts or concludes a sentence is NOT set off with punctuation when it restricts the meaning of the word or words it modifies. participle phrase Jobs paying well are hard to find.
PUNCTUATING VERBAL PHRASES When an interrupting or concluding verbal modifier does NOT restrict meaning, but merely adds information to the sentence, it IS set off with punctuation, usually a comma or commas. participle phrase One good job, paying twelve dollars an hour, was filled in fifteen minutes.
IDENTIFY EACH VERBAL OR VERBAL PHRASE. THEN INDICATE WHETHER IT IS USED AS AN ADJECTIVE, AN ADVERB, OR A NOUN. 1. Laughing, the talk-show host prodded her guest to talk. 2. Shunned by the community, Hester endures her loneliness. 3. Written in 1850 by Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter tells the story of Hester Prynne. 4. Hester is humble enough to withstand her Puritan neighbors cutting remarks.
5. Despite the cruel treatment, the determined young woman refuses to leave her home. 6. By living a life of patience and unselfishness, Hester eventually becomes the communitys angel. fin
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