Petroleum Fuels and Alternative Fuel Technologies Chapter 39 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives Understand how petroleum is refined Describe the different characteristics of various blends of gasolines Know the effects of the different types of abnormal combustion Decide on the best choice of gasoline or diesel
fuel for a vehicle Diagnose rich and lean fuel mixture problems Describe the advantages and disadvantages of various types of alternative fuels 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Introduction Motorists have questions about fuel used in their cars Several kinds of fuels used in motor vehicles This chapter deals with gasoline, diesel, and alternative fuels This chapter also discusses rich and lean air-fuel
mixtures and abnormal combustion Conditions can result in engine damage, poor fuel economy, and poor performance 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Crude Oil Raw petroleum (i.e., crude oil) Used to make many products Pumped from the ground Heated by pumping it through pipes in hot furnaces into a fractionating column
Light hydrocarbon molecules are separated Refining process breaks crude into fractions Some fractions are blended into gasoline to correct octane, emissions, volatility, and storage life Fractions may be used directly (e.g., kerosene and diesel) 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Diesel Engines and Diesel Fuel Diesel engine Compression ignition engine Diesel High-compression ratio Low volatility: safe at room temperature Automotive diesel fuel grades 1-D: more volatile and thinner Used in low temperatures 2-D: lower volatility
Used in most driving conditions 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Diesel Engines and Diesel Fuel (cont'd.) Cloud point: temperature at which paraffin separates from fuel Cetane rating: describes how easily fuel ignites The higher cetane rating, the easier it ignites Diesel maintenance: water must not be allowed to accumulate
More frequent oil changes required Biodiesel: renewable fuel Diesel exhaust fluid: amount used is said to be about two percent of diesel fuel consumption 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Gasoline Very flammable hydrocarbon Incomplete combustion results in CO Volatility How easily a fuel evaporates
Vapor lock Engine stalls because liquid fuel does not reach the carburetor ASTM Six volatility classes Reid vapor pressure test measures volatility 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Air-Fuel Mixture
Desirable air-fuel mixture: 15:1 Normal mixture is about 12:1 Rich mixture: too much fuel Poor fuel economy and increased emissions Lean mixture: too much air Poor drivability and higher idle speed Gasoline engine run-on: engine continues to run after ignition key is off (i.e., dieseling) Fuel ignites because of heat caused by pressure 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Spark Knocks, Carbon Noise, and Abnormal Combustion Flame front travels across combustion chamber and pushes piston down Travels 50-250 meters per second Normal combustion Air-fuel mixture burns in a controlled manner Some abnormal combustion causes Cylinder temperatures too high Too lean an air-fuel mixture
Engine overheating or driver lugs an engine 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Abnormal Combustion Abnormal combustion conditions Cause spark knock and engine damage Causes of preignition Spark plugs of too high a heat range Hot spots in combustion chamber Loose spark plug Detonation
Air-fuel mixture self-ignites due to pressure Results in cylinder wall scuffing Noise: cold knock or inaudible ping 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Excessive Carbon Buildup May cause an increase in compression ratio Oil-based carbon deposits Traditional gummy black ones Sometimes found on intake valves Caused when oil and heat come together
Carbonaceous deposits From fuel Resemble cauliflower Hard, dry, and tougher to remove Cause drivability problems 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Regular Versus Premium Fuels Octane: fuels ability to resist explosion Using premium gasoline in a car designed for regular offers no advantage Modern computer-controlled engines use a detonation sensor Learns the best timing for the fuel Changes in temperature, humidity, and pressure Affect the octane number requirement 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Octane Standards Antiknock index (AKI) Measure of gasoline octane quality Average of research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) RON gives higher reading MON measures how much engine knock present under heavy loads (R + M)/2: required by law to be listed on the octane decal on gasoline pump
2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Gasoline Additives Expensive Added in minute quantities to fuel Detergents and deposit control additives Have a large effect on gasoline quality Keep port fuel injectors from becoming fouled Required by law since 1995 in all states 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Reformulated Gasolines Gasoline refinement Affects air pollution Reformulated gasolines Clean air by providing more complete combustion Required by EPA in U.S. cities with worst air pollution Cars can damage older rubber fuel lines Less energy content, reducing fuel economy 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning
Oxygenated Fuels/Alcohols Gasolines blended with ethers or alcohols Ethyl alcohol at 10% concentration MTBE at 15% concentration Ethanol is about 35% oxygen Gasoline with less than 10% alcohol requires no fuel system changes Variables affecting fuel economy Driving and engine condition During the summer gasoline energy content
higher 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Alternative Fuels AFVs: any flexible fuel or dual-fuel vehicle Ethanol vehicles must be designed to run on a blend of up to 85% denatured ethanol P-series fuel is a liquid blend including ethanol, biomass cosolvent, and natural gas liquids Methanol is methyl alcohol Produces about half the energy of gasoline Made from coal, natural gas, oil shale, wood, or
garbage 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Alternative Fuels (cont'd.) Characteristics of alcohol fuels Invisible when burning Methanol is very corrosive and poisonous LP gas is a product of gasoline refining Mostly propane with small amount of butane Vapor above -40F Burns cleanly, fewer oil changes required, and
has higher octane Has less energy per volume than gasoline and must be stored under high pressure 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Alternative Fuels (cont'd.) Compressed natural gas Used in fleets, buses, and taxicabs
Full refill requires several hours Stored under pressure in large cylinder Gasoline engines can be retrofitted for CNG Liquefied natural gas Burns when mixed with air in ratio of 5 15% Colorless, odorless, nontoxic, and noncorrosive 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning Alternative Fuels (cont'd.) Rebuilding concerns with alternative fuel engines Besides gasoline, alternative fuel engines can run
on E85, LPG, or CNG Gasoline produces ash when it burns, which protects the valve seats from scuffing LPG and CNG are cold, dry fuels that leave the valve seats unprotected Hydrogen is a promising fuel for the future No emissions Produces about two-thirds of normal power 2012 Delmar, Cengage Learning
American Asian Supply Chain. By: Christopher Gorski, Nikola . ... In regards to the Flying Geese Model/Race-to-the-Bottom, is there an end? Future. Challenge of the lifestyle . the supply chain provides. mass consumption, constant technological updates.
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