Field energy in a dispersive medium Section 80 Energy flux density This formula has been shown to hold in vacuum (volume 2.) in metals at zero frequency (v. 8 section 30)
and in non-dispersive dielectrics (v. 8 section 75). Does the same Poynting Vector give energy flux density for dispersive media? The component of S normal to a surface involves only Et and Ht, which are both continuous across a boundary. Sn is continuous across boundary Energy flowing from vacuum across boundary must be conserved, so
remains valid for energy flux density in a dispersive dielectric. Four cases to consider: 1. Non-dispersive bodies: Internal energy 2. Monochromatic light in dispersive bodies: rate of dissipation 3. Non-monochromatic wave packet in dispersive bodies: net dissipation 4. Non-monochromatic wave packet in transparent dispersive body: Build up of internal energy
Case 1: non-dispersive bodies (75.15) Take the real parts of the fields before combining them in this quadratic function Real constants, no w dependence where = electromagnetic energy density
= internal energy difference for body with and without fields, holding entropy and density constant. =total work done by turning on the fields No energy is lost and no heat is generated! Cases 2 and 3: Dispersive media. Dispersive media dissipate energy
Dispersive media are absorbing. Mean evolved heat density per unit time Q = <-divS>t Electromagnetic energy U in the medium is not constant unless there is a net inflow of electromagnetic energy. Under conditions of constant field amplitude, there is a constant inflow of energy t = <-divS>t which is converted to heat at a rate Q
Case 2: Dispersive medium, monochromatic fields. The flow of electromagnetic energy into unit volume is dU = (E.dD +H.dB)/4p. . Some flows out the other side. Some remains as heat = t E = E0e-iwt (We cant write U itself as a definite quantity because of dissipation.)
The rate of inflow of electromagnetic energy density is dU/dt = Use real fields in non-linear functions Now take time average to find rate of heat generation Q per unit volume. Products E.E and E*.E* contain oscillating factors
Oscillations disappear from products E.E* Dissipation of field energy per unit time is determined by imaginary parts e and m Complex fields used here. Real fields used here
e and m are positive: Second law of thermodynamics dQ = TdS > 0 Recipe: For monochromatic light, e.g. CO2 laser light, dissipation is determined by the value of e at the corresponding frequency.
60.2 But what are you going to do if the light is not monochromatic? Rate of heat generation is not constant since amplitude of nonmonochromatic field is time dependent. What value of e would you
use? The average? LWIR Conversion of broad band infrared radiation to heat is an important practical problem Proc. SPIE 9819 50 (2016). Which is true?
1. 2. 3. Real and imaginary parts of permittivity are always positive. Real part of permittivity can be negative, but the imaginary part is always positive. Both parts of the permittivity can be positive or negative.
Case 3: non-monochromatic fields in dispersive medium We consider a pulse or wavepacket that goes to zero sufficiently rapidly as t All light emission processes are finite duration. Non-monochromaticity Instead of dissipation per unit time, consider time-integrated net dissipation. We have to do this because dissipative effects depend on the entire history of the fields An expression for instantaneous rate of energy dissipation isnt possible in this case.
Any time dependent field can be written as a sum of monochromatic fields Fourier expansion Required to ensure that the field is real Electric part of net dissipation is a triple integral
First integrate over w. Then the delta function changes w to -w This looks just like an integral over frequencies of the monochromatic case. (Ew has units of electric field times time). After the pulse has come and gone, energy is left behind in the medium as heat. Since the integrand is even
Electric and magnetic losses are determined by By second law and may be positive or negative Transparency ranges e and m are never zero except at w = 0. However, they may be very small e<<|e|
Then, neglect absorption. Now we can talk about definite internal energy as in the static case, except now it is not constant. In static case, these were real constants independent of w For electromagnetic waves in a transparent dispersive medium, we dont simply replace the constants e and m by the functions e(w) and m(w). Its more complicated.
Energy density U doesnt change in transparent media for purely monochromatic fields, because their amplitudes are unchanged since the dawn until the end of time. Consider nearly monochromatic wavepacket with a narrow range of frequencies These amplitudes vary slowly compared with the carrier
Long smooth pulse Substitute the real parts of the fields into Next, average over the short period The electric part is Constant over this
period. Products Leaving Average to zero The electric induction is
Integral operator In the expression for dU/dt, we need the time derivative of D and D*. This is an integraldifferential operator If = constant.
This is the zeroth approximation, where nearly monochromatic wave is assumed perfectly monochromatic. for monochromatic fields Next approximation: Smoothly varying nearly monochromatic wave packet. Expand the slowly varying amplitude as a Fourier series.
Only small frequencies a << w0 appear in the expansion of the amplitude, since its variations are slow compared to the carrier w0. We will consider just one Fourier component for now Considering only the ath Fourier component in the expansion of E0(t)
The operator is acting on a monochromatic wave Taylor expand f(a + w0) about a = 0. Now sum the Fourier components for the amplitude. Drop subscript on w0
Substitute into neglect e in transparency regions, so e is real. Two of the four terms cancel. Rate of change of electromagnetic energy density Where averaged internal
energy has definite value Averaged over fast oscillations Magnetic part added Mean value of the electromagnetic part of the internal energy density in a transparent medium Compare to result for static case and for dispersion-less medium (dynamic case 1)
If there is no dispersion Usual static result In terms of the real fields Mean value of the electromagnetic part of the internal energy density of transparent medium
If you cut off the external source of electromagnetic energy, energy in medium must all eventually convert to heat. Second law Then The formula
Was found by expanding dD/dt to first order in the small frequencies a, which are only small if the amplitude E0(t) varies slowly. The formula applies to slowly and smoothly varying wave trains, and not to short pulses.
"Iron Law of Wages." When wages are high,workers have morechildren. More children create alarge labor surplus thatdepresses wages. The Romantics: Lamented the loss of the rural lifestyle. Protested against the conditions of the urban poor. William Blake.
On the basis of renderedservices and spentresources, payment of services by providers of health services is madeby fund, while the medical data generated on the basis on which the payment is made becomes the basis for obtaining medical data that...
Types of Psychological Research. Descriptive Research - describing a particular Phenomenon. Observations. Surveys and Interviews. Case studies . Correlational Research - discovering relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together
The Usage Report is a FANTASTIC piece of software to navigate in determining one's kWh usage. When I run the Report Type using "Daily Meter Reads" in the dropdown with a specified Start and End Date (beginning with the start...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!