The Orthographic Depth Hypothesis: 25 Years Later M.
The Orthographic Depth Hypothesis: 25 Years Later M. T. Turvey University of Connecticut and Haskins Laboratories The Orthographic Depth Hypothesis (Mattingly and colleagues, 1980) Part I: Lexical representation of written words Linguistic (not visual) Morphophonological (not phonetic) Part II: Remoteness of orthography from phonetic form Shallow Deep Orthography Orthography Phoneti c Form Morphophonologic al like phonetic Reader needs little phonology Phoneti c Form Morphophonologic al unlike
phonetic Reader needs lots of phonology Deep Lexical Decision (Is this a word?) Reaction Time about 6/10 second Reaction Time about 7/10 second Yes! No! Coltheart et al., 1979 irregular) = MUST (phonologically YES RT: HAVE (phonologically regular) NO RT: MAVE (phonologically irregular) >> FUST (phonologically Dual Route Theory Phonology
Lexicon ORTHOGRAPHY WORD Occasionally (e.g., nonwords, rare words) Routinel y In a deep orthography, perhaps, the reader avoids the lots of phonology. Lexical access is routinely visual. Bialphabetic Readers of a Shallow Orthography Cyrillic Roman common X CCDD A E O F GI L J T K Lj Nj Dz
M S UZ Z VS N B R B H PC H PC ambiguous Vuk Karadzic Write as you speak and read as it is written RT English Lexical Decision RT HAVE RT MUST MAVE
FUST Serbo-Croatian Lexical Decision with Fluent Bialphabetic readers Lukatela at al. 1978, 1980 YES RT: Phonemically ambiguous BETAP >> phonemically unique VETAR RT BETAP VETAR BEMA P Unequivocal evidence for phonological code would be demonstration of its use in YES RT. VEMAR
NO RT: phonemically ambiguous BEMAP >> phonemically unique VEMAR Frost, Katz, and Bentin (1987) Hypothesis More shallow means smaller lexical role in naming relative to lexical decision OR Magnitude of [Lexical Decision RT - Naming RT] decreases with depth Serbo-Croatian Orthography English Orthography Hebrew Orthography Phoneti c Form Phoneti c Form Phoneti c Form RT
RT LD N RT LD N LD N Can Naming a Shallow Serbo-Croatian Letter String Benefit from a Visually Dissimilar but Phonemically Similar Prime? (Lukatela & Turvey, 1990; Lukatela et al., 1990) Prime and Target Differ in Alphabet, Differ in Case 600 Latency (ms) 575 550
W-W PW-W W-PW PW-PW 525 500 Similar Dissimilar Phonemic Relation Effect of Phonemic Similarity is Indifferent to Lexical Composition of Prime-Target Sequence and to Visual Similarity. In Shallow Serbo-Croatian can (Phonologically Unique) Nonwords Activate Semantics Better than (Phonologically Ambiguous) Words? AUTOMAT ***** ROBOT or ROFOT
***** appropriate W prime: ROBOT ambiguous PW prime: F b POBOT unique PW prime: RO OT 40 30 Degree of 20 Priming 10 (ms) 0 70 250 SOA (ms) Deep Dual Route Theory Shallow Dual Route Theory Lexicon Phonology
Lexicon Phonology Orthography Orthography WORD WORD Phonological Coherence Theory Semantics Phonology Orthography WORD Masked Semantic Priming of Naming in Deep English 1st 2nd 3rd mask prime mask
1st 2nd 3rd mask prime mask 4th target 4th target TODE-frog RT frog Reaction Time frog Reaction Time < TODR-frog Phonological Ambiguity Affects Identity Priming in English 1st
2nd 3rd mask prime mask 4th target Yes! Reaction Time Yes! 1st 2nd 3rd mask prime mask 4th target Reaction Time BEND-bend priming occurs at shorter time scales than BOWL- Orthographic Depth: Remoteness of Orthography from Phonetic Form
Shallow Orthography Phoneti c Form Morphophonologic al like phonetic Reader needs little phonology Deep Orthography Phoneti c Form Morphophonologic al unlike phonetic Reader needs lots of phonology Then: Orthographic Depth contributes to the formation of two different processing devices, one rule-based, one word-specific Now: Orthographic Depth modulates a single (connectionist) device. Processing differences more quantitative than qualitative. Phonology is significant in reading via deep and shallow orthographies.
The Very Deep Unpointed Hebrew Naming Lexically Unequivocal Words that Differ in Phonological Ambiguity (in respect to filling in missing vowels) Frost (1995) High Ambiguity: KBLN (contractor) read as /kablan/ Low Ambiguity: NZIR (monk) read as /nazir/ RT KBLN NZIR Phonology is always assembled and always lexically shaped, but not holistically addressed.
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