Monetizing Usage of Scholarly Collections with Patent Citation

Monetizing Usage of Scholarly Collections with Patent Citation

Monetizing Usage of Scholarly Collections with Patent Citation Analysis Paul Canning, [email protected] Director Publication Marketing IATUL, Porto, Portugal 22 May 2006 High Value Patent in Computer Hardware USPTO Patent Number 5,825,308 Key patent in tactile feedback technology. Granted to Immersion Corp. in 1998 Has been cited by 119 later patents (17 times as many citations as expected) Cites 9 different IEEE articles as prior art Technology licensed to Microsoft for use in game controllers and joysticks Court granted an injunction to halt sales of PlayStations, and ordered Sony to pay $90 million for infringement of Immersions patents Source: The Influence of IEEE on Key Patents, Patrick Thomas, PhD, Anthony Breitzman, PhD; 1790 Analysitics, LLC, 12 January 2006 Numerical Technologies, Inc. Phase Shifting Circuit Manufacture Method and Apparatus Patent Number 6,258,493 July 2001 Important to semiconductor manufacturing to create the features, lines

and shapes on semiconductor wafers Describes method through which limits on optical lithography can be overcome in order to shrink the size of integrated circuits, enabling more transistors to be placed on wafers of a given size Cited by 42 later patents, age and technology would expect 4 citations. March 2003 - Synopsys Inc. purchased Numerical for approximately $250 millionnoting lithography technology as a major reason Numerical built extensively on IEEE science, citing six separate IEEE papers. Levenson, M. et al., Improving Resolution in Photolithography with a Phase-Shifting Mask, IEEE Transaction on Electron Devices, vol. ED-29, No. 12, Dec. 1982, pp. 1828-1836. Paper is the foundation of phase-shifting technology. Source: The Influence of IEEE on Key Patents, Patrick Thomas, PhD, Anthony Breitzman, PhD; 1790 Analysitics, LLC, 12 January 2006 High Value Patent 6,233,550 University of California Method and apparatus for hybrid coding of speech at 4kbs, May 2001 Speech coding and compression is an important component of communication systems. Patent cites 37 previous publications. Out of these, 27 are articles in IEEE journals including articles M-LCELP Speech Coding at 4 Kbps and High-Quality Speech Coding at 2.4 to 4.0 KBPS Based on TimeFrequency Interpolation. Scientific papers are an important pre-cursor to this patent on speech compression technology. Patent cited by 26 subsequent patents; seven times the average number of citations received by patents in the same technology class and year Source: The Influence of IEEE on Key Patents, Patrick Thomas, PhD, Anthony Breitzman, PhD; 1790 Analysitics, LLC, 12 January 2006 Patents Exchange Monopoly Rights for Disclosure

Novel Useful Non-obvious Turns invention into intellectual property Protects the IP for up to 20 years Encourages companies to divulge innovations for the public good Hi-Tech Business Focus on Patents Much of the high-tech economy relies on patents. Most of the value of companies comes not from tangible assets (plants and equipment) but from intangible assets (patents, trademarks, copyrights) Patents are the most tangible of intangible assets Patent protection encourages innovation All of the top patenting companies build upon science & technology Patents with Scientific References Contain new leading-edge ideas Patents that only reference earlier patents are likely to be incremental improvements on earlier patented technologies US Universities Hold Patents

Licensing Revenues and Patent Activity Fiscal 2003 New York University $85,933,234 U California System $61,119,000 Wisconsin Alumni Research $37,573,468 U Minnesota $37,492,778 U Florida $35,248,484 U Washington $29,131,798 U Rochester $26,741,537 Cal Tech $25,359,000 Michigan State U $24,462,676 Source: Association of University Technology Managers Chronicle of Higher Education 3 December 2004 Top Patenting Companies USPTO 2004 Company IBM Hitachi Matsushita Electric Samsung Electronics Canon Hewlett Packard

Micron Technology Intel Sony Toshiba Fuji-Photo Fujitsu Siemens GE NEC Philips Electronics Bosch Texas Instruments Mitsubishi Electric Infineon Seiko Epson AMD Honda Kodak Denso # Patents 2004 # Patents 1997-2004 3270 42,900 2995 33,050 2108 24,005 1877 14,324 1847 29,153 1788 17,947 1763 11,518 1625 9,561 1529 20,171 1452 25,659 1359 19,525 1340 15,710 1339 22,756 1291

34,070 1250 21,636 1225 22,650 995 12,721 926 13,403 906 19,881 869 2,550 859 5,350 803 7,752 790 9,335 777 20,166 763 7,768 Citations by Journals, Conferences and Standards from Top 25 Companies IEEE Department of Energy AMER INST PHYSICS ELSEVIER SCIENCE ACM-ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY Journal Conference Standard SPIE-INT SOCIETY OPTICAL ENGINEERING IBM CORP IEE-INST ELEC ENG ACS-AMER CHEMICAL SOC INST PURE APPLIED PHYSICS IEEE/JPN Soc App Phys ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC IEICE-INST ELEC INFO COMM ENG Amer Vacuum Soc/Amer Inst Phys MATERIALS RESEARCH SOCIETY JOHN WILEY & SONS/WILEY-VERLAG/WILEY-LISS PERGAMON-ELSEVIER OPTICAL SOC AMER AMERICAN PHYSICAL SOC

SID-Society for Information Display 0 Source: 1790 Analytics, 2005 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 0% 10% Telecom Optics Inf. Storage Med. Device Software Hardware Semic E ls e v ie r A V S /A IP 28% 14% 8% 3% 7% Hardware IE E E S P IE

ACM 36% Software IE E E E ls e v ie r 3 % 10% 32% 40% ACM 6% 11% Med. Device IE E E IE E E E ls e v ie r 11% 4% E ls e v ie r 44% Inf. Storage L ip p . W ill& W ilk in s 5% A V S /A IP 11% 12%

Optics IE E E O S A -O p t S o c A m e r S P IE 30% 17% Telecom IE E E 20% O S A -O p t S o c A m2e% r 50% 4% 60% IE E 70% 44% 10% A CM A V S /A IP E ls ev ier 17% 21% 62% 51% 52%

43% 32% 14% A CM IE E E 16% E ls ev ier IE E E 13% 8% E ls ev ier IE E E A V S /A IP IE E E 26% 18% 8% A V S /A IP E ls ev ier 8% 10% 12% 18% A CM IE E E O S A -O pt S oc A m er IE E E

S P IE E ur T el S tds Ins t 6 % Internet S oc (IS O C ) 6 % IE E E 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% IE E E Comparison or EP and US Results European (EP) Science References US Scie nce Re fe re nce s Semic Top 25 Computer Software Companies 2005 European Patents 260 K. P hilips Electronics N.V. 194 192 Sap A G M icrosoft Corporation 142 Sony Corp 95 Siemens AG 86 Nokia Corp

67 64 58 57 53 47 Samsung Electronics IB M Canon Inc M atsushita Electric Hewlett-P ackard Co Thomson 38 34 34 33 33 29 28 27 26 26 24 24 21 F ujitsu Limited Toshiba C orp General Electric A ccenture Ltd. NEC Corp Hitachi Ltd Xerox Corp France Telecom M otorola Inc. R esearch in M otion M itsubishi Denki B ritish Telecom STM icroelectronics 0 50 100 150

200 250 References of Top Computer Software Companies 2005 Euro Patents 445 (51%) IEEE 110 (13%) Elsevier/Pergamon/Academic Press 89 (10%) ACM-Assoc Comp Machinery 52 (6%) SPIE-Int Society Opt Eng 23 (3%) Obscure/Unknow n 14 (2%) Kluw er Academic/Plenum Pub AVS/Amer Inst Phys 13 (1.5%) Wiley & Sons/Wiley-Liss/Wiley-VCH 12 (1.4%) IEEE/ACM 11 (1.3%) Springer-Verlag 10 (1.1%) European Assoc f or CompGraphics 8 (0.9%) ISO-International Standards Org

8 (0.9%) IBM Corp 7 (0.8%) AUDIO ENGINEERING SOC 4 (0.5%) IOP Publishing Ltd 4 (0.5%) Internet Society (ISOC) (IETF Stds) 4 (0.5%) International Telecom Union 4 (0.5%) IEICE-Inst Electronics Inf Comm Eng 4 (0.5%) IEE-Inst Elec Eng 4 (0.5%) 0 100 200 300 # and % of Science References 400 500 Patenting is Correlated with GDP Patent Counts versus GDP by Inventor Country 100000 United States

Log(Patents) = 1.09 Log (GDP millions) + .16 Japan # US Patents R^2 = .68 Germany 10000 United Kingdom France Spain Italy China Mexico Canada India S. Korea Australia Netherlands Brazil 1000 Switzerland Russia Sweden Austria Belgium Norway Turkey Poland Denmark Indonesia 100 10 100 1,000 10,000 GDP (millions of US $)

Figure updated from Inventing our Future, p. 4 CSIRO/ARC/CHI Research, June 2000. 100,000 Using Bibliometric analysis to support library resources Patents held by university Patents invented by individuals within a country Patents registered by technology Supporting Studies Breitzman, Anthony, (2005) IEEE and Patents: An Analysis of Patent Referencing to IEEE papers, Conferences and Standards, 1790 Analytics, LLC. 23 May 2005. Available at Breitzman, Anthony, The Influence of IEEE on Key Patents, 1790 Analytics, LLC. 12 January 2006 To be posted at Breitzman, Anthony, Analysis of European Patent Referencing to IEEE Papers, Conferences and Standards, 1790 Analytics, LLC. 13 April 2006 To be posted at www.ieee.org/patentcitations

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