National and Global Trends in Graduate Education ASEE Workshop on Graduate Education and Research Trends Les Sims Senior Scholar in Residence, CGS (Graduate Dean Emeritus, University of Iowa) [email protected] Dimensions of the Graduate Education Enterprise 2000-2001 1,700 institutions 1.9 million students Over million degrees annually 468,000 masters degrees 45,000 doctoral degrees CGS institutions enroll 2/3 of students, grant 75% of masters degrees, and nearly all doctorate degrees Graduate Enrollment Trends Thousands
1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Source: CGS/GRE Survey of Graduate Enrollment Total Women Graduate Enrollment by Ethnicity Thousands 100 80 American Indian Asian Hispanic African American
60 40 20 0 1986 1992 1998 2002 Source: CGS/GRE Survey of Graduate Enrollment Degrees Awarded relative to 1985-86 70% 60% 50% All BA All MA All Doctoral
40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 85- 86- 87- 88- 89- 90- 91- 92- 93- 94- 95- 96- 97- 98- 99- 0086 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 U.S. Engineering Degrees as a % of Total 15% 13% BS MS PhD 11% 9% 7% 5% 85- 86- 87- 88- 89- 90- 91- 92- 93- 94- 95- 96- 97- 98- 99- 0086 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 Growth in S & E Ph.D. Degrees (Three-year averages: US Citizens and Permanent Residents) 1999 Degrees
250% Native Amer 117 Hispanic 658 200% 150% 100% African-Amer 715 50% TOTAL 17,428 0% White 13,656 -50% Total S&E White
Afr Amer Hispanic Native Am S & E Graduate Enrollment by race/ethnicity (U.S. Citizens and Permanent Residents) 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% White Asian/P.I.
Black Hispanic Native Amer ? Ethnic International Student Enrollment Thousands 300 250 200 Undergraduate Graduate Other 150 100 50 0 1979/80 1984/85
Source: IIE, Open Doors 1989/90 1994/95 1999/00 U.S. Science and Engineering Doctorate Degrees Earned by International Students 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% Int'l S&E Int'l Engr 99 19
510 Projected International GRE Test Takers, FY03-04* China India Korea Taiwan 0% -10% -20% -30% -40% -50% -60% *Source: CGS Discussion List - ETS 1/16/04 Estimate Japan Other
InternationalGraduate Applications Fall 2003 - Fall 2004 ACE, AAU, CGS, NAFSA, AIE, NASULGC Survey 120% 100% All Grad Applications PRC Grad Applications UG Applications 80% 60% 40% 20% Decrease No Change Increase PRC UG
Top-25 Intl All UG > -50% -30-49% Top-25 Intl All PRC Over 10% Top-25 Intl Res/Doc All Grad 0% Graduate Programs: Trends and Changes Certificates growing rapidly (both stand
alone and as degree add-ons) Content related to career needs Preparing Future Faculty Preparing Future Professionals Professional Masters Degrees Composition diversity challenges: ethnic/racial, gender, other enrollment Graduate Programs: Research Content+ Content diverse, global, interdisciplinary Career considerations publicize jobs of recent graduates; early career information; continuous career planning Skills development communications, presentation, interpersonal/teamwork, technical/computer, project management Environment employer expectations, roles/responsibilities, experiential/interns Graduate Education Issues: Graduate Stipends and Funding
NSF fellowships stipends: $27,500 (F2003); $30,000 (F2004); and . . . NIH, other agencies will follow suit. Funding for masters education is miniscule compared to that for Ph.D. Tuition continues to rise at well above CPI; remissions/waivers needed. Reauthorization if HEA: an opportunity to increase priority of graduate education. Graduate Education Issues: International issues: post-9/11 SEVIS International Visitors Restrictions on research areas/materials
Bologa Accord EU Higher Education 3 + 2 proposed as common structure: 3 yrs equivalent to U.S. B.S. (?) + 2 yrs = equivalent of US M.S. (?) Graduate Education Issues: Completion/Attrition and ttd Doctoral completion rate (50% lore); varies widely; most agree is too low. Attrition rates still significant in years 2, 3, 4, of doctoral programs. Time to degree continues to increase. Similar problems, less extent, in masters programs. Graduate Education Issues: Diversity/Participation/access
Participation of underrepresented groups increasing, but slowly; still low. Strategies need to reflect new realities of court decisions, public policy. Curricula should reflect cultural, historical, societal, global diversity. Graduate Education Issues: Responsible Conduct of Research Ethical issues Human/Animal research subjects; informed consent Intellectual property issues Industry/university interactions Commercialization of research results Graduate Education Issues: Mismatch: education/employers
PFF balanced instruction in T,R,S, skills, faculty roles/responsibilities. PFP balanced instruction in R, skills, teamwork, non-academic work environments, project management. Professional Masters core MS, skills, teamwork, non-academic internship; business principles.
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