Motivating Factors of European Exploration of the Americas

Motivating Factors of European Exploration of the Americas

MOTIVATING FACTORS OF EUROPEAN EXPLORATION OF THE AMERICAS Level 2 VOCABULARY

Exploration: investigation of unknown regions Cartography: the construction of maps Latitude: distance north or south of the equator Longitude: distance east or west of the prime meridian Compass: instrument that finds directions by use of magnetic fields Astrolabe: an astronomical instrument that takes the altitude of the sun or stars for navigation Mercantilism: commercialism that supported a favorable balance of trade Favorable Balance of Trade: export more goods than import Nation-State: a sovereign state with a homogeneous group of people that share a feeling of common nationality Missionaries: a person sent by a church to spread their religious ideas, values and beliefs ESSENTIAL QUESTION

What were the four motivating factors for European exploration? TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN NAVIGATION Cartography Found Guide to Geography written by Ptolemy and translated it from Greek to Latin No longer thought the world was flat and knew it was globe shaped Latitude and longitude were introduced to maps Ship Building: Development of Spanish Caravels: small, fast, and easy to maneuver with shallow bottoms allowed ships in shallow water, used lateen (triangular) sails that could be positioned to take advantage of

the wind no matter which way it blew. Navigational tools: Compass Astrolabe Weapons: Cannons fired without leaving ship Horses, guns, armor CONSOLIDATION OF POLITICAL POWER WITHIN CERTAIN COUNTRIES IN EUROPE People began to consolidate their small villages into larger cities Peasants in the countryside began leasing land and being more

prosperous through the use of technological inventions for farming. Merchant middle class emerged which helped begin mercantilism Nation-states emerged: Portugal Spain England France Nation-states invested in exploration

and their militaries through the intake of taxes. DESIRE TO BREAK INTO THE EASTERN TRADE MARKETS Increased demand for goods like spices, silk and tea from Asia Spices helped preserve food Added taste to their bland diet Problems: Muslim traders carried goods to the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea from Asia and Africa. Italian merchants then brought the goods to Europe. Muslim rulers sometimes closed the trade

routes from Asia to Europe. Prices increased every time the goods changed hands. Solution: find a trade route to Asia that bypassed the Muslims and Italians Columbus tried by going across the Atlantic Da Gama found a route to the East by going around Africa MISSIONARY ZEAL Both Protestant and Catholic missionaries wanted to convert people outside their own land.

REVIEW QUESTIONS What were the four motivating factors for European exploration? List three technological advancements and the importance of each. What were the major nation-states that lead exploration? What was Missionary zeal?

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