Module 8: IPv6

Module 8: IPv6

Introducing IPv6 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 1 IPv6 Advanced Features Larger address space Global reachability and flexibility Aggregation Autoconfiguration Plug-and-play Simpler header Routing efficiency Performance and forwarding rate scalability No broadcasts

End to end without NAT No checksums Extension headers Mobility and security Transition richness Mobile IP RFC-compliant Dual stack IPSec mandatory (or native) for IPv6 6to4 tunnels BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

2 Larger Address Space IPv4 32 bits or 4 bytes long ~ = 4,200,000,000 possible addressable nodes IPv6 128 bits or 16 bytes: four times the bits of IPv4 ~ = ~ = ~ = BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 3.4 * 1038 possible addressable nodes 340,282,366,920,938,463,374,607,432,768,211,456 5 * 1028 addresses per person

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 3 Simple and Efficient Header A simpler and more efficient header means: 64-bit aligned fields and fewer fields Hardware-based, efficient processing Improved routing efficiency and performance Faster forwarding rate with better scalability BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 4 MTU Issues Minimum link MTU for IPv6 is 1280 octets (vs. 68 octets for IPv4).

On links with MTU < 1280, link-specific fragmentation and reassembly must be used Implementations are expected to perform path MTU discovery to send packets bigger than 1280. Minimal implementation can omit PMTU discovery as long as all packets kept 1280 octets. A hop-by-hop option supports transmission of jumbograms with up to 232 octets of payload. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 5 IPv4 and IPv6 Header Comparison IPv4 Header Version IHL Type of Service

Identification Time to Live IPv6 Header Total Length Flags Protocol Fragment Offset Header Checksum Version Traffic Class Payload Length Flow Label Next Header

Hop Limit Source Address Destination Address Legend Options BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 Padding Source Address Fields Name Kept from IPv4 to IPv6 Fields Not Kept in IPv6 Name and Position Changed in IPv6 Destination Address New Field in IPv6 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 6 IPv6 Extension Headers Simpler and more efficient header means: IPv6 has extension headers. IPv6 handles the options more efficiently. IPv6 enables faster forwarding rate and end nodes processing. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 7 IPv6 Address Representation x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x, where x is a 16-bit hexadecimal field Leading zeros in a field are optional: 2031:0:130F:0:0:9C0:876A:130B

Successive fields of 0 can be represented as ::, but only once per address. Examples: 2031:0000:130F:0000:0000:09C0:876A:130B 2031:0:130f::9c0:876a:130b FF01:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 >>> FF01::1 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:1 >>> ::1 0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0 >>> :: BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 8 IPv6Addressing Model Addresses are assigned to interfaces Change from IPv4 mode: Interface expected to have multiple addresses Addresses have scope Link Local Unique Local Global

Addresses have lifetime Global Unique Local Link Local Valid and preferred lifetime BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 9 IPv6 Address Types Unicast Address is for a single interface. IPv6 has several types (for example, global and IPv4 mapped). Multicast

One-to-many Enables more efficient use of the network Uses a larger address range Anycast One-to-nearest (allocated from unicast address space). Multiple devices share the same address. All anycast nodes should provide uniform service. Source devices send packets to anycast address. Routers decide on closest device to reach that destination. Suitable for load balancing and content delivery services. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 10 IPv6 Global Unicast (and Anycast) Addresses The global unicast and the anycast share the same address format. Uses a global routing prefixa structure that enables

aggregation upward, eventually to the ISP. A single interface may be assigned multiple addresses of any type (unicast, anycast, multicast). Every IPv6-enabled interface must contain at least one loopback (::1/128) and one link-local address. Optionally, every interface can have multiple unique local and global addresses. Anycast address is a global unicast address assigned to a set of interfaces (typically on different nodes). IPv6 anycast is used for a network multihomed to several ISPs that have multiple connections to each other. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 11 IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses (Cont.) Global unicast and anycast addresses are defined by a global routing prefix, a subnet ID, and an interface ID. BSCI Module 8

Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 12 IPv6 Unicast Addressing IPv6 addressing rules are covered by multiple RFCs. Architecture defined by RFC 4291. Unicast: One to one Global Link local (FE80::/10) A single interface may be assigned multiple IPv6 addresses of any type: unicast, anycast, or multicast. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

13 Aggregatable Global Unicast Addresses Provider 3 Site Host 45 Bits 16 Bits 64 Bits Global Routing Prefix Subnet Interface ID 001 Aggregatable Global Unicast Addresses Are: Addresses for generic use of IPv6

Structured as a hierarchy to keep the aggregation BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 14 IPv6 Interface ID Cisco uses the extended universal identifier (EUI)-64 format to do stateless autoconfiguration. This format expands the 48-bit MAC address to 64 bits by inserting FFFE into the middle 16 bits. To make sure that the chosen address is from a unique Ethernet MAC address, the universal/local (U/L bit) is set to 1 for global scope (0 for local scope). BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

15 MAC Address to EUI-64 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 16 Link-Local Address Remaining 54 bits Mandatory address for communication between two IPv6 devices (similar to ARP but at Layer 3) Automatically assigned by router as soon as IPv6 is enabled Also used for next-hop calculation in routing protocols Only link specific scope Remaining 54 bits could be zero or any manual configured value BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 17 Multicasting Multicast is frequently used in IPv6 and replaces broadcast. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 18 Examples of Permanent Multicast Addresses BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 19 Solicited-Node Multicast Address Used in neighbor solicitation messages Multicast address with a link-local scope Solicited-node multicast consists of prefix + lower 24 bits from unicast, FF02::1:FF: BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 20 Router Interface R1#sh ipv6 int e0 Ethernet0 is up, line protocol is up IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::200:CFF:FE3A:8B18 No global unicast address is configured

Joined group address(es): FF02::1 FF02::2 Solicited-Node Multicast Address FF02::1:FE3A:8B18 MTU is 1500 bytes ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds ICMP redirects are enabled ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1 ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds ND advertised reachable time is 0 milliseconds ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 milliseconds ND router advertisements are sent every 200 seconds ND router advertisements live for 1800 seconds Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses. R1# BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 21 Anycast

An IPv6 anycast address is a global unicast address that is assigned to more than one interface. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 22 Stateless Autoconfiguration A router sends network information to all the nodes on the local link. A host can autoconfigure itself by appending its IPv6 interface identifier (64-bit format) to the local link prefix (64 bits). The result is a full 128-bit address that is usable and guaranteed to be globally unique. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 23 A Standard Stateless Autoconfiguration Stage 1: The PC sends a router solicitation to request a prefix for stateless autoconfiguration. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 24 A Standard Stateless Autoconfiguration (Cont.) Stage 2: The router replies with a router advertisement. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 25 OSPFv3Hierarchical Structure Topology of an area is invisible from outside of the area: LSA flooding is bounded by area. SPF calculation is performed separately for each area. Backbones must be contiguous. All areas must have a connection to the backbone: Otherwise a virtual link must be used to connect to the backbone. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 26 OSPFv3Similarities with OSPFv2 OSPFv3 is OSPF for IPv6 (RFC 2740): Based on OSPFv2, with enhancements Distributes IPv6 prefixes Runs directly over IPv6 OSPFv3 & v2 can be run concurrently, because each address family has a separate SPF (ships in the night). OSPFv3 uses the same basic packet types as OSPFv2: Hello Database description blocks (DDB) Link state request (LSR) Link state update (LSU) Link state acknowledgement (ACK) BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

27 OSPFv3Similarities with OSPFv2 Neighbor discovery and adjacency formation mechanism are identical. RFC compliant NBMA and point-to-multipoint topology modes are supported. Also supports other modes from Cisco such as point-to-point and broadcast, including the interface. LSA flooding and aging mechanisms are identical. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 28 Enhanced Routing Protocol Support Differences from OSPFv2 OSPFv3 has the same five packet types, but some fields have been changed. All OSPFv3 packets have a 16-byte header verses the

24-byte header in OSPFv2. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 29 OSPFv3Differences from OSPFv2 OSPFv3 protocol processing per-link, not per-subnet: IPv6 connects interfaces to links. Multiple IPv6 subnets can be assigned to a single link. Two nodes can talk directly over a single link, even though they do not share a common subnet. The terms network and subnet are being replaced with link. An OSPF interface now connects to a link instead of a subnet. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 30 OSPFv3Differences from OSPFv2 Multiple OSPFv3 protocol instances can now run over a single link: This allows for separate autonomous systems, each running OSPF, to use a common link. A single link could belong to multiple areas. Instance ID is a new field that is used to have multiple OSPFv3 protocol instances per link. In order to have two instances talk to each other, they need to have the same instance ID. By default it is 0, and for any additional instance it is increased. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 31 OSPFv3Differences from OSPFv2

Multicast addresses: FF02::5 Represents all SPF routers on the link local scope; equivalent to 224.0.0.5 in OSPFv2. FF02::6 Represents all DR routers on the link local scope; equivalent to 224.0.0.6 in OSPFv2. Removal of address semantics: IPv6 addresses are no longer present in OSPF packet header (part of payload information). Router LSA and network LSA do not carry IPv6 addresses. Router ID, area ID, and link-state ID remains at 32 bits. DR and BDR are now identified by their router ID and no longer by their IP address. Security: OSPFv3 uses IPv6 AH and ESP extension headers instead of variety of mechanisms defined in OSPFv2. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 32 LSA Overview

LSA Function Code LSA Type Router-LSA 1 Ox2001 Network-LSA 2 Ox2002 Inter-Area-Prefix-LXA 3 Ox2003 Inter-Area-Router-LSA 4

Ox2004 AS-External-LSA 5 Ox4005 Group-Membership-LSA 6 Ox2006 Type-7-LSA 7 Ox2007 Link-LSA 8 Ox2008

9 Ox2009 Renamed Intra-Area-Prefix-LSA BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. New Cisco Public 33 Larger Address Space Enables Address Aggregation Aggregation of prefixes announced in the global routing table Efficient and scalable routing Improved bandwidth and functionality for user traffic BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 34 Configuring OSPFv3 in Cisco IOS Software Similar to OSPFv2: Prefixing existing Interface and exec mode commands with ipv6 Interfaces configured directly: Replaces network command Native IPv6 router mode: Not a submode of router ospf command BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

35 IPv6 and OSPFv3 Commands Command Description Router(config)#ipv6 unicastrouting Enables the forwarding of IPv6 unicast datagrams. Router(config)#ipv6 router ospf process-id Enables an OSPF process on the router. The processid parameter identifies a unique OSPFv3 process. This command is used on a global basis. Example: Enables the OSPFv3 process number 1 on the router. Router(config)#ipv6 router ospf 1 For an IPv6-only router, a router-id parameter must be defined in the OSPFv3 configuration as an IPv4 address using the router-id router-id command. You can use any IPv4 address as the router-id value.

Router (config-router)# router-id router-id Example: Identifies 2.2.2.2 as the router-id for this router. It must be unique on each router Router (config-router)# router-id 2.2.2.2 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 36 Enabling OSPFv3 Globally router# router# configure terminal router(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing router(config)# ipv6 router ospf 1 router(config-router) router-id 2.2.2.2

BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 37 Steps for Enabling IPv6 and OSPFv3 on an Interface Step Command or Action Purpose Router(config)#interface type number Specifies an interface type and number, and places the router in interface configuration mode. Router(config-if)#ipv6 address address/prefix-length [eui-64]

Configures an IPv6 address for an interface and enables IPv6 processing on the interface. The eui-64 parameter forces the router to complete the addresses loworder 64-bits by using an EUI-64 interface ID. Enables OSPF for IPv6 on an interface. 3 Router(config-if)#ipv6 ospf process-id area area-id [instance instance-id] 4 Router(config-if)#router ospf priority priority number Priority number is used in the designated router election. 5 Router(config-if)#router ospf cost cost

The cost of sending a packet on the interface, expressed in the link state metric. 1 2 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 38 Enabling OSPFv3 on an Interface router(config)# interface Ethernet0/0 router(config)# ipv6 address 3FFE:FFFF:1::1/64 router(config)# ipv6 ospf 1 area 0 router(config)# ipv6 ospf priority 20 router(config)# ipv6 ospf cost 20 BSCI Module 8

Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 39 Cisco IOS OSPFv3 Specific Attributes Configuring area range: area area-id range prefix/prefix length [advertise | not-advertise] [cost cost] Showing new LSAs: show ipv6 ospf [process-id] database link show ipv6 ospf [process-id] database prefix BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 40

OSPFv3 Configuration Example Router1# interface S1/1 ipv6 address 2001:410:FFFF:1::1/64 ipv6 ospf 100 area 0 interface S2/0 ipv6 address 3FFE:B00:FFFF:1::2/64 ipv6 ospf 100 area 1 ipv6 router ospf 100 router-id 10.1.1.3 Router2# interface S3/0 ipv6 address 3FFE:B00:FFFF:1::1/64 ipv6 ospf 100 area 1 ipv6 router ospf 100 router-id 10.1.1.4 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

41 Verifying Cisco IOS OSPFv3 Router2#show ipv6 ospf int s 3/0 S3/0 is up, line protocol is up Link Local Address 3FFE:B00:FFFF:1::1, Interface ID 7 Area 1, Process ID 100, Instance ID 0, Router ID 10.1.1.4 Network Type POINT_TO_POINT, Cost: 1 Transmit Delay is 1 sec, State POINT_TO_POINT, Timer intervals configured, Hello 10, Dead 40, Wait 40, Retransmit 5 Hello due in 00:00:02 Index 1/1/1, flood queue length 0 Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last flood scan length is 3, maximum is 3 Last flood scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec Neighbor Count is 1, Adjacent neighbor count is 1 Adjacent with neighbor 10.1.1.3 Suppress hello for 0 neighbor(s) BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

42 show ipv6 ospf R7#show ipv6 ospf Routing Process ospfv3 1 with ID 75.0.7.1 It is an area border and autonomous system boundary router Redistributing External Routes from, connected SPF schedule delay 5 secs, Hold time between two SPFs 10 secs Minimum LSA interval 5 secs. Minimum LSA arrival 1 secs LSA group pacing timer 240 secs Interface floor pacing timer 33 msecs Retransmission pacing timer 33 msecs Number of external LSA 3. Checksum Sum 0x12B75 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 43 show ipv6 ospf (Cont.)

Number of areas in this router is 2. 1 normal 0 stub 1 nssa Area BACKBONE(0) Number of interfaces in this area is 1 SPF algorithm executed 23 times Number of LSA 14. Checksum Sum 0x760AA Number of DCbitless LSA 0 Number of Indication LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 Flood list length 0 Area 2 Number of interfaces in this area is 1 It is a NSSA area Perform type-7/type-5 LSA translation SPF algorithm executed 17 times Number of LSA 25. Checksum Sum 0xE3BF0 Number of DCbitless LSA 0 Number of Indication LSA 0 Number of DoNotAge LSA 0 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public

44 show ipv6 ospf neighbor detail Router2#show ipv6 ospf neighbor detail Neighbor 10.1.1.3 In the area 0 via interface S2/0 Neighbor: interface-id 14, link-local address 3FFE:B00:FFFF:1::2 Neighbor priority is 1, State is FULL, 6 state changes Options is 0x63AD1B0D Dead timer due in 00:00:33 Neighbor is up for 00:48:56 Index 1/1/1, retransmission queue length 0, number of retransmission 1 First 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Next 0x0(0)/0x0(0)/0x0(0) Last retransmission scan length is 1, maximum is 1 Last retransmission scan time is 0 msec, maximum is 0 msec BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 45 show ipv6 ospf database

Router Link States (Area 1) ADV Router Age Seq# Fragment ID Link count Bits 26.50.0.1 1812 0x80000048 0 1 None 26.50.0.2

1901 0x80000006 0 1 B Net Link States (Area 1) ADV Router Age Seq# Link 26.50.0.1 57 0x8000003B ID

3 Rtr count 4 Inter Area Prefix Link States (Area 1) ADV Router Age Seq# Prefix 26.50.0.2 139 0x80000003 3FFE:FFFF:26::/64 26.50.0.2 719

0x80000001 3FFE:FFF:26::/64 Inter Area Router Link States (Area 1) ADV Router Age Seq# 26.50.0.2 772 0x80000001 1207959556 72.0.0.4 26.50.0.4 5

0x80000003 1258292993 75.0.7.1 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 Link ID 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public Dest RtrID 46 IPv4-to-IPv6 Transition Transition richness means: No fixed day to convert; no need to convert all at once. Different transition mechanisms are available: Smooth integration of IPv4 and IPv6 Use of dual stack or 6-to-4 tunnels

Different compatibility mechanisms: IPv4 and IPv6 nodes can communicate BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 47 Dual Stack Dual stack is an integration method where a node has implementation and connectivity to both an IPv4 and IPv6 network. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 48

Cisco IOS Software Is IPV6-Ready: Cisco IOS Dual Stack If both IPv4 and IPv6 are configured on an interface, this interface is dual-stacked. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 49 Tunneling Tunneling is an integration method where an IPv6 packet is encapsulated within another protocol, such as IPv4. This method of encapsulation is IPv4 protocol 41: This includes a 20-byte IPv4 header with no options and an IPv6 header and payload. This is considered dual stacking. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2

2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 50 Cisco IOS Software Is IPv6-Ready: Overlay Tunnels Tunneling encapsulates the IPv6 packet in the IPv4 packet. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 51 Isolated Dual-Stack Host Encapsulation can be done by edge routers between hosts or between a host and a router.

BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 52 Cisco IOS Software Is IPv6-Ready: Configured Tunnel Configured tunnels require: Dual-stack endpoints IPv4 and IPv6 addresses configured at each end BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 53 Example: Cisco IOS Tunnel

Configuration BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 54 Configuring static routes for 6-to-4 tunnels A 6-to-4 tunnel establishes a transient link between IPv6 domains which are connected by an IPv4 backbone Create a tunnel interface Set tunnel mode with the tunnel mode ipv6ip 6to4 command Create an IPv6 specific address Set the source interface for the tunnel Configure an Ipv6 static route BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 55 Converting IPv4 addresses to IPv6 for 6-4 Tunnel A 6-4 tunnel uses special addresses in the 2002::/16 address space The first 16 bits are the hexadecimal number 2002 The next 32 bits are the original source address in hexadecimal form The IPv4 address of 172.16.12.1 is converted into AC10:0C01 The complete address would be 2002:AC10:0c01:1::1/64 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 56 Configuration example for 6-to-4 tunnel between R1 and R3

Lo0 10.1.2.1/24 R2 S0/0/0 172.16.12.2 /24 172.16.23.1 /24 S0/0/1 172.16.23.2 /24 S0/0/1 R3 Lo0 10.1.3.1/24 172.16.12.1 /24 S0/0/0 R1 Lo0 10.1.1.1/24 R1 R1(config-if)# interface tunnel 0 R1(config-if)# tunnel mode 1pv6ip to 6to4 R1(config-if)# ipv6 address 2002:AC10:0C01:1::1/64 R1(config-if)# tunnel source s0/0/0

Exit R1(config)# ipv6 route 2002::/16 tunnel 0 Verification R1#ping 2002:AC10:1703:1::3 BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. R3 R3(config-if)# interface tunnel 0 R3(config-if)# tunnel mode 1pv6ip to 6to4 R3(config-if)# ipv6 address 2002:AC10:1703:1::3/64 R3(config-if)# tunnel source s0/0/1 Exit R3(config)# ipv6 route 2002::/16 tunnel 0 Verification R3#ping 2002:AC10:1::1 Cisco Public 57 IPv6 Tunnel Static Route Configuration

Lo0 10.1.2.1/24 R2 S0/0/0 172.16.12.2 /24 172.16.23.1 /24 S0/0/1 172.16.23.2 /24 S0/0/1 R3 Lo0 10.1.3.1/24 172.16.12.1 /24 S0/0/0 R1 Lo0 10.1.1.1/24 Router 1 Router1(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing Router1(config)# ipv6 route FEC0::30/112 2002:AC10:1703:1::3 Router 2

Router2(config)# ipv6 unicast-routing Router2(config)# ipv6 route FEC0::1:0/112 2002:AC10:C01:1::1 The next hop for both routers is the IPv6 address at the other end of the tunnel BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 58 Cisco IOS Software Is IPv6-Ready: 6-to-4 Tunneling 6-to-4: Is an automatic tunnel method Gives a prefix to the attached IPv6 network BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Public 59 Translation NAT-PT NAT-Protocol Translation (NAT-PT) is a translation mechanism that sits between an IPv6 network and an IPv4 network. The job of the translator is to translate IPv6 packets into IPv4 packets and vice versa. BSCI Module 8 Lessons 1 and 2 2006 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 60

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