Module - 2 Data center environment

Module - 2 Data center environment

MODULE 2 DATA CENTER ENVIRONMENT EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 1 Module 2: Data Center Environment Upon completion of this module, you should be able to: Describe the core elements of a data center Describe virtualization at application and host layer Describe disk drive components and performance Describe host access to storage through DAS Describe working and benefits of flash drives EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 2

Module 2: Data Center Environment Lesson 1: Application, DBMS, and Host (Compute) During this lesson the following topics are covered: Application and application virtualization DBMS Components of host system Compute and memory virtualization EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 3 Application A software program that provides logic for computing operations Commonly deployed applications in a data center Business applications email, enterprise resource planning (ERP), decision support system (DSS) Management applications resource management, performance

tuning, virtualization Data protection applications backup, replication Security applications authentication, antivirus Key I/O characteristics of an application Read intensive vs. write intensive Sequential vs. random I/O size EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 4 Application Virtualization Application Virtualization It is the technique of presenting an application to an end user without any installation, integration, or dependencies on the underlying computing platform. Allows application to be delivered in an isolated environment Aggregates Operating System (OS) resources and the application

into a virtualized container Ensures integrity of Operating System (OS) and applications Avoids conflicts between different applications or different versions of the same application EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 5 Database Management System (DBMS) Database is a structured way to store data in logically organized tables that are interrelated Helps to optimize the storage and retrieval of data DBMS controls the creation, maintenance, and use of databases Processes an applications request for data Instructs the OS to retrieve the appropriate data from storage Popular DBMS examples are MySQL, Oracle RDBMS, SQL Server, etc.

EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 6 Host (Compute) Resource that runs applications with the help of underlying computing components Example: Servers, mainframes, laptop, desktops, tablets, server clusters, etc. Consists of hardware and software components Hardware components Include CPU, memory, and input/output (I/O) devices

IP Software components Include OS, device driver, file system, volume manager, and so on EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 7 Operating Systems and Device Driver In a traditional environment OS resides between the applications and the hardware Responsible for controlling the environment In a virtualized environment virtualization layer works between OS and hardware Virtualization layer controls the environment OS works as a guest and only controls the application environment

In some implementation OS is modified to communicate with virtualization layer Device driver is a software that enables the OS to recognize the specific device EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 8 Memory Virtualization An OS feature that presents larger memory to Operating System the application than physically available Additional memory space comes from disk

storage Space used on the disk for virtual memory is called swap space/swap file or page file Inactive memory pages are moved from physical memory to the swap file Provides efficient use of available physical memory Data access from swap file is slower use of flash drives for swap space gives best performance EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Memory Swap in Swap out Disk Drive Module 2: Data Center Environment

9 Logical Volume Manager (LVM) Responsible for creating and controlling host level logical storage Logical Volume Physical view of storage is converted to a logical view Logical data blocks are mapped to physical data blocks Logical Volume Logical Disk Block Physical Vol. 2 Physical Vol. 3

One or more Physical Volumes form a Volume Group LVM manages Volume Groups as a single entity Logical volumes are created from the Physical Vol. 1 volume group Volume Group EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 10 LVM Example: Partitioning and Concatenation Hosts Logical Volume Physical Volume

Partitioning EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Concatenation Module 2: Data Center Environment 11 File System File System Blocks Users File System Files 1 2 3 Creates/ Manages

Reside in Mapped to Disk Physical Extents Disk Sectors 6 Mapped to EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. LVM Logical Extents 5 4 Mapped to Mapped to

Module 2: Data Center Environment 12 Compute Virtualization Compute Virtualization It is a technique of masking or abstracting the physical compute hardware and enabling multiple operating systems (OSs) to run concurrently on a single or clustered physical machine(s). Enables creation of multiple virtual machines (VMs), each running an OS and application VM is a logical entity that looks and behaves like physical machine Virtualization layer resides between Virtualization Layer (Hypervisor) hardware and VMs x86 Architecture

Also known as hypervisor VMs are provided with standardized hardware resources EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. CPU NIC Card Memory Hard Disk Module 2: Data Center Environment 13 Need for Compute Virtualization Virtualization Layer (Hypervisor) x86 Architecture CPU

NIC Card Memory x86 Architecture Hard Disk CPU NIC Card Memory Hard Disk Before Virtualization After Virtualization Runs single operating system (OS) per machine at a time Couples s/w and h/w tightly May create conflicts when multiple

applications run on the same machine Underutilizes resources Is inflexible and expensive Runs multiple operating systems (OSs) per physical machine concurrently Makes OS and applications h/w independent Isolates VM from each other, hence, no conflict Improves resource utilization Offers flexible infrastructure at low cost EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 14 Desktop Virtualization Desktop Virtualization It is a technology which enables detachment of the user state, the Operating System (OS), and the applications from endpoint devices. Enables organizations to host and

Pcs and thin clients centrally manage desktops Desktops run as virtual machines within the data center and accessed over a network Desktop virtualization benefits Flexibility of access due to enablement of thin clients Improved data security Simplified data backup and PC maintenance EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. LAN/WAN Desktop VMs Module 2: Data Center Environment 15 Module 2: Data Center

Environment Lesson 2: Connectivity During this lesson the following topics are covered: Physical components of connectivity Storage connectivity protocols EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 16 Connectivity Interconnection between hosts or between a host and peripheral devices, such as storage Physical Components of Connectivity are: Host interface card, port, and cable Protocol = a defined format for communication between sending and receiving devices Popular storage interface protocols: IDE/ATA and SCSI Host

Adapter Cable Disk Port EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 17 IDE/ATA and Serial ATA Integrated Device Electronics (IDE)/Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) Popular interface used to connect hard disks or CD-ROM drives Available with varity of standards and names Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) Serial version of the IDE/ATA specification that has replaced the parallel ATA Inexpensive storage interconnect, typically used for internal connectivity

Provides data transfer rate up to 6 Gb/s (standard 3.0) EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 18 SCSI and SAS Parallel Small computer system interface (SCSI) Popular standard for connecting host and peripheral devices Commonly used for storage connectivity in servers Higher cost than IDE/ATA, therefore not popular in PC environments Available in wide variety of related technologies and standards Support up to 16 devices on a single bus Ultra-640 version provides data transfer speed up to 640 MB/s Serial Attached SCSI (SAS) Point-to-point serial protocol replacing parallel SCSI Supports data transfer rate up to 6 Gb/s (SAS 2.0) EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Module 2: Data Center Environment 19 Fibre Channel and IP Fibre Channel (FC) Widely used protocol for high speed communication to the storage device Provides a serial data transmission that operates over copper wire and/or optical fiber Latest version of the FC interface 16FC allows transmission of data up to 16 Gb/s Internet Protocol (IP) Traditionally used to transfer host-to-host traffic Provide opportunity to leverage existing IP based network for storage communication Examples: iSCSI and FCIP protocols EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 20

Module 2: Data Center Environment Lesson 3: Storage During this lesson the following topics are covered: Various storage options Disk drive components, addressing, and performance Enterprise Flash drives Host access to storage and direct-attached storage EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 21 Storage Options Magnetic Tape Low cost solution for long term data storage Preferred option for backup destination in the past Limitations

Sequential data access Single application access at a time Physical wear and tear Storage/retrieval overheads EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 22 Storage Options (contd.) Optical discs Popularly used as distribution medium in small, single-user computing environments Limited in capacity and speed Write once and read many (WORM): CD-ROM, DVD-ROM Other variations: CD-RW, Blu-ray discs Disk drive Most popular storage medium Large storage capacity Random read/write access

Flash drives Uses semiconductor media Provide high performance and low power consumption EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 23 Disk Drive Components Controller Board HDA Platter and Read/Write Head EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Interface Power Connectors

Module 2: Data Center Environment 24 Physical Disk Structure Spindle Sector Sector Track ylinder Track Platter EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 25 Logical Block Addressing Sector 8

Head 0 Block 0 (Upper Surface) Cylinder 1 Block 32 (Lower Surface) Block 64 Block 128 Physical Address= CHS EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Logical Block Address= Block# Module 2: Data Center Environment 26 Disk Drive Performance

Electromechanical device Impacts the overall performance of the storage system Disk service time Time taken by a disk to complete an I/O request, depends on: Seek time Rotational latency Data transfer rate Disk service time = seek time + rotational latency + data transfer time EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 27 Seek Time Time taken to position the read/write head The lower the seek time, the faster the I/O operation Seek time specifications include Full stroke Average Track-to-track

Radial Movement The seek time of a disk is specified by the drive manufacturer EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 28 Rotational Latency The time taken by the platter to rotate and position the data under the R/W head Depends on the rotation speed of the spindle Average rotational latency One-half of the time taken for a full rotation For X rpm, drive latency is calculated in milliseconds as:

EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environnent 29 Data Transfer Rate Average amount of data per unit time that the drive can deliver to the HBA Internal transfer rate : Speed at which data moves from a platters surface to the internal buffer of the disk External transfer rate: Rate at which data move through the interface to the HBA External transfer rate measured here HBA Internal transfer rate measured here Interface

Buffer Head Disk Assembly Disk Drive EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 30 I/O Controller Utilization Vs. Response Time Based on fundamental laws of disk drive performance: Service time is time taken by the controller to serve an I/O For performance-sensitive applications disks are commonly Response time (msec) utilized below 70% of their I/O serving capability 0%

Knee of curve: disks at about 70% utilization Low Queue Size Utilization EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. 70% 100% Module 2: Data Center Environnent 31 Storage Design Based on Application Requirements and Disk Drive Performance Disks required to meet an applications capacity need (DC): Disks required to meet applications performance need (DP): IOPS serviced by a disk (S) depends upon disk service time (TS): TS is time taken for an I/O to complete, therefore IOPS serviced by

a disk (S) is equal to (1/TS) For performance sensitive application (S)= Disk required for an application = max (DC,DP) EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environnent 32 Enterprise Flash Drives Conventional Hard Drives Flash Drives Mechanical delay due to seek time and rotational latency Highest possible throughput per drive due to no mechanical movement Limited performance and I/O serving capability

Very low latency per I/O and consistent I/O performance More power consumption due to mechanical operations High Energy efficiency Lower power requirement per GB Lower power requirement per IOPS Low mean time between failure (MTBF) High reliability due to no moving parts Higher TCO due to more number of Overall less TCO disks, power, cooling, and management cost EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Module 2: Data Center Environment 33 Host Access to Storage Storage Networking Options Compute Compute Compute Application Application Application File System File System Storage Network Block-level Request

Storage Network Network File-level Request Block-level Request File System Storage System Storage Storage Storage Direct-Attached Storage Block-level Access

File-level Access EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 34 Direct-Attached Storage (DAS) Internal Direct Connect EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. External Direct Connect Module 2: Data Center Environment 35 Module 2: Data Center Environment Concept in Practice VMware ESXi EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

Module 2: Data Center Environment 36 VMware ESXi Industrys leading hypervisor Enable virtualization of x86 hardware platforms Physical machine that houses ESXi is called ESXi host ESXi host abstracts physical compute resources to run multiple VMs concurrently on same physical server Two Components VMKernel Work similar to OS responsible for process creation, resource scheduling, and so on Virtual machine monitor Performs binary translation for privileged OS instructions that can not be virtualized EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 37

Module 2: Summary Key points covered in this module: Key data center elements Application and compute virtualization Disk drive components and performance Enterprise flash drives Host access to storage EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 38 Exercise: Design Storage Solution for New Application Scenario Characteristics of new application: Require 1TB of storage capacity Peak I/O workload 4900 IOPS Typical I/O size is 4KB Specifications of the available disk drives: 15K rpm drive with storage capacity = 100 GB Average seek time = 5ms Data transfer rate = 40 MB/sec

As it is business critical application, response time must be within acceptable range Task Calculate the number of disks required for the application EMC Proven Professional. Copyright 2012 EMC Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Module 2: Data Center Environment 39

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