Minerals - Lower Dauphin School District

Minerals - Lower Dauphin School District

Activator How do rocks relate to minerals? Rock vs Mineral? Decide if each object shown better represents a rock or a mineral. Hold up the rock side or mineral side of your page. Example:

Rock Why? It has more than one substance, the bristles and the handle Chalk Mineral

It is only made up of one substance the same throughout Paperclip Mineral It is only made of metal, and it looks the same throughout

Spiral Notebook Rock It has more than one substance, the metal, spiral, and the paper. White paper

Mineral It looks the same throughout and is all paper Stapler Rock

It has more than one part. It has staples and the metal body. Globe . Rock

It has metal and plastic Spoon Mineral It is all metal and looks the same throughout.

Building Background Atoms, molecules, elements, and compounds Rock vs Mineral? quartz felspar mica

granite hornblen de Rock vs Mineral The

difference between rocks and mi nerals (clip) Rock: A mass or grouping of minerals.

Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Rocks can be big. Rocks

can be big. How large is this rock? Rocks can be big.

How large is this rock? Rocks can be little Rocks

are inorganic (non-living) How do they relate? Rocks and Minerals

Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy How do they relate? Rocks and Minerals Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

How do they relate? Rocks and Minerals Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Got the idea? Rocks and Minerals Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy The

Building Blocks: Rocks and Minerals Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Minerals Part One

Flipped Lesson Minerals Text pgs. 118-121 What are they? How do we identify them?

Minerals must meet 5 criteria in order to be considered a mineral. Option 1 - You will have to join the science class that your teacher has set up for you on Edpuzzle.com . Please join the appropriate class

by entering your class code as described below. You are to watch the video and answer the questions posed throughout viewing. Due Tuesday, Jan. 5 by class time. https://edpuzzle.com/join/lotizvo Period

1 https://edpuzzle.com/join/geezuhu Period 2 https://edpuzzle.com/join/vuododu Period 4 https://edpuzzle.com/join/rujzeme Period 6/7

Option 2 - You will read text pgs.118-121in your Geology text. Answer questions 1-11 on your reading guide. Due Tuesday, Jan. 5 by class time. Lets see how well you did gathering your answers?

The Big Ideas THE BIG IDEAS Minerals are Formed naturally (occur in nature)

Minerals are Made of materials that were never alive Minerals are gold nuggets

Solids Have a definite shape and volume Minerals have a Definite chemical composition

Minerals are Arranged in regular patterns and made of crystals (crystal structure) One example salt (halite) Using

the handheld microscope, observe the crystal shapes of the salt on your desktop. What do you see? How does this happen? Sodium chloride is also known as table salt. Its formula is NaCl. Thats one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine. One sodium atom gives up an electron in its

outer shell (giving it a negative charge) to the outer shell of the chlorine atom (creating a positive charge). The unlike charges are attracted in an ionic bond. This creates a stable molecule. What does this look like? Lets build!

Using the ingredients given by your teacher, construct an molecule of sodium chloride. Its formula is NaCl. What does this mean? Now join your atom to at least six other classmates.

Hint: You should start to see the formation of a familiar shape. How close could you get? Some minerals are metals. Aluminum

Gold Some examples of minerals are So whats the deal with Mercury?

Depends on who you ask. Mercury is officially classified as a mineral for historical reasons, and because it is distinctive in its chemical and physical properties. However, because it occurs as a liquid, it does not satisfy

the normal criteria to be a valid mineral. It crystallizes at -40 degrees celsius, at which point is forms rhombohedral crystals. It is usually found as small isolated drops associated with cinnabar, but it can also be found as large liquid masses in rock cavities. Mercury is often found, along with cinnabar and other Hg minerals, as a precipitate from hot springs and in volcanic regions. Because

of its rarity, it is not often used as an ore of mercury. Water or Ice? Mineral or Not? http://geology.com/articles/water-mineral/ Is water a mineral? If we compare the properties of

water to the five requirements of the mineral definition, we find that it fails to qualify as a mineral. Water is a liquid so it does not meet requirement #3 being a solid. However, at temperatures below

32 degrees Fahrenheit or 0 degrees Celsius water becomes the solid material that we call "ice" Is ice a mineral?

If we compare the properties of ice to the five requirements of the mineral definition, we find that it clearly meets the last four. However, requirement #1 presents a problem. A natural snowflake would be considered to be a mineral because it

forms naturally in Earth's atmosphere. However an ice cube made in a refrigerator would not be considered a mineral because it was produced by the actions of people. So, ice is a mineral when it forms naturally but it is not a mineral when people play a role in producing

. it Minerals form from Dissolved in a liquid

Melted Materials Summarize What are minerals GO key

Your Turn Using what you have learned about the five criteria used to identify minerals, decide if each of the following is an example of a mineral or not

Petroleum (oil) Not a mineral! Not a solid (usually found as a liquid) Made from organic matter (dead sea plants and microscopic animals) Naturally-occuring (found in nature)

Made of hydrocarbons (chemical composition of hydrogen and carbon) No crystal structure Sea Glass Not a mineral!

Made from weathered glass discarded in ocean Does not occur naturally Crystals make up glass Inorganic Solid Chemical composition is SiO2

Sulfur Is a Mineral! Occurs naturally (volcanic activity) Solid at room temperature Definite chemical composition (S

pure element) Crystal shape when forming (orthorhombic) Inorganic Brass Not a Mineral!

Solid Made up of two minerals (alloy of copper and zinc) Crystal structure of minerals that are in it Does not occur naturally

Chemical composition can vary according to desired properties Inorganic (not living) sand It is a mineral! Made

up of silicon and oxygen SiO2 (elements) definite chemical composition Also known as quartz Crystal structure Solid Naturally-occurs

Inorganic Quiz Wiz 1-10. (Oral / Hand signals) Is it a rock, mineral, or neither? 1-10 Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Need more review? Review! Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Review!

Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Review! Rock: A grouping of minerals

Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Review! Rock: A grouping of minerals Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Review! Rock: A grouping of minerals Mineral: Minerals are natural inorganic (non-living) solids that join together (crystals) to make unique compositions.

Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Review! Rock: A grouping of minerals Mineral: Minerals are natural inorganic

(non-living) solids that join together (crystals) to make unique compositions. Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Review! Rock:

A grouping of minerals Mineral: Minerals are natural inorganic (non-living) solids that join together (crystals) to make unique compositions. Neither: Not either; not one or the other. Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

Review! Rock: A grouping of minerals Mineral: Minerals are natural inorganic (non-living) solids that join together (crystals) to make unique compositions. Neither: Not either; not one or the other.

Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Review! Rock: A grouping of minerals Mineral: Minerals are natural inorganic

(non-living) solids that join together (crystals) to make unique compositions. Neither: Not either; not one or the other. Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy Review! Rock:

A grouping of minerals Mineral: Minerals are natural inorganic (non-living) solids that join together (crystals) to make unique compositions. Neither: Not either; not one or the other. Copyright 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

1 1 1 Rock

2 2 2 Mineral

3 3 3 Rock

4 4 4 Neither

Not real 5 5 5

6 6 6 Mineral

Salt Table Salt (NaCl) under electron microscope on pretzel is a mineral. 7

7 7 Mineral 8

8 8 Rock 9

9 9 Mineral 10 10

10 Mineral Part Two Text pgs. 121-126 How do we identify minerals?

Option 1 - You will have to join the science class that your teacher has set up for you on Edpuzzle.com . Please join the appropriate class by entering your class code as described below. You are to watch the video and answer the questions posed throughout viewing. Due Thursday, Jan. 7 by

class time. https://edpuzzle.com/join/lotizvo Period 1 https://edpuzzle.com/join/geezuhu

Period 2 https://edpuzzle.com/join/vuododu Period 4 https://edpuzzle.com/join/rujzeme Period 6/7 Option 2

- You will read text pgs.121-126 in your Geology text. Answer questions 12-25 on your reading guide. Due Thursday, Jan. 7 by class time. Properties of Minerals Each mineral has its own specific properties that can be used to identify it. You may

need to conduct some tests to identify the mineral. Scientists classify, or group and describe, minerals in many ways. They classify minerals by color, luster, texture, hardness, and streak.

galena C O L O R

vanadinite malachite sulfur The color (physical property) of the mineral depends on the chemicals in

them. L U S T E R

Luster is the amount of light reflected from the minerals surface (how

shiny it is). Quartz has a glassy luster. It looks like glass. L U

S T E R Magnetite and Purpurite have a metallic luster. They look like shiny metal.

L U S T E R

Peridot has a waxy luster. It looks as if it is covered with wax. L U S T

E R Kaolinite has a dull luster. It does not reflect much light, and is not very shiny. T

E X T U R E Copper - ???

Gold - ??? Peridot - ??? Calcite - ??? Texture describes how a mineral feels. Minerals

may be rough, smooth, bumpy, or soapy. Can you guess which mineral has each texture? T E X T U

R E Gold - BUMPY Peridot - SOAPY Copper SMOOTH

Calcite - ROUGH H A R D N

E S S 1.Talc 2.Gypsum 3.Calcite 4.Fluorite

5.Apatite 6.Orthoclase/ Feldspar 7.Quartz 8.Topaz 9.Corundum 10.Diamond

All minerals are hard, but some are harder than others. Scientists test the hardness of a mineral by trying to scratch it. Scientists use the Mohs

Hardness Scale (110) to rate a minerals hardness. Minerals at the top of the scale are soft and easy to scratch. Those at the bottom H

A R D N E S S

Diamond the hardest mineral talc the softest mineral

feldspar apatite Diamonds are the hardest minerals. It is almost impossible to scratch a diamond. Talc is the softest mineral. You can scratch it with your fingernail. Apatite and feldspar have medium

hardnesses. S T R E A K

Some minerals leave a trail, or streak, when rubbed on a hard surface. Scientists classify minerals by the color of their powder. Hematite leaves a red-brown streak. image Raike, CC-SA license

S T R E A K

Pyrite leaves a black streak. Rhodochrosite leaves a white streak. Crystal Systems The crystals of each mineral from atom by atom to form the minerals crystal structure.

Geologists classify these structures into six groups based on the number and angle of the crystal faces. Group - Example Cubic - Magnetitie Hexagonal - Quartz Tetragonal Rutile Orthorhombic - Sulfur

Monoclinic - Azurite Triclinic Microcline Feldspar Carbon t i h

p a r G Carbon Carbon

t i h p a r G

Diamond Activity! Teacher Create a human crystal.

assigns students one at a time to create some form of atomic structure by laying on the floor and using your arms and legs to form atomic bonds in a crystal. Activity! Teacher

Create a human crystal. assigns students one at a time to create some form of atomic structure by laying on the floor and using your arms and legs to form atomic bonds in a crystal. Activity!

Teacher Create a human crystal. assigns students one at a time to create some form of atomic structure by laying on the floor and using your arms and legs to form atomic bonds in a crystal.

Activity! Teacher Create a human crystal. assigns students one at a time to create some form of atomic structure by

laying on the floor and using your arms and legs to form atomic bonds in a crystal. Activity! Teacher Create a human crystal.

assigns students one at a time to create some form of atomic structure by laying on the floor and using your arms and legs to form atomic bonds in a crystal. Activity! Create a human crystal.

Teacher assigns students one at a time to create some form of atomic structure by laying on the floor and using your arms and legs to form atomic bonds in a crystal.

Structure of a diamond Cleavage and Fracture A mineral that splits easily along flat surfaces has the property of cleavage.

Fracture Fracture describes how a mineral looks when it breaks apart in an irregular way

image Raike, CC-SA license D E N S I

T Y Density is the mass in a given space divided by its volume. No matter what the size of a mineral sample, its density is always the same.

Specific Gravity a minerals density in water is known as its specific gravity at a certain temperature Examples The specific gravity of

gold is 19.3 g/cm3 Aluminums specific gravity is 2.70 g/cm3 Special Properties Fluorescence reacts to ultraviolet light

Magnetic attraction Reacts to an acid Radioactive, Conducts electricity, etc.

Why is it important to learn about minerals? Minerals are made as part of the Earths constructive process. We use these minerals in many ways in our daily lives.

Are minerals a renewable (able to be replaced in a short amount of time) resource? Why or why not?

No, it can take many years to replace the minerals as part of the Earths constructive process. Part Three How

do minerals form? text pgs. 128-132 More about how minerals form In general, minerals can form in two ways: through crystallization of melted materials and through

crystallization of materials dissolved in a liquid. The process through which atoms are arranged to from a material with a crystal structure is referred to as crystallization. Minerals from Magma Minerals form as hot magma cools inside the Earths crust or as lava hardens on the surface. When liquids cool to a solid state, they form crystals. The size of

the crystal depends on several factors: the rate at which magma cools, the amount of gas the magma contains, and the chemical composition of the magma all affect crystal size. When magma/lava cools slowly deep in the Earths surface, large crystals form. When magma/lava cools quickly, small crystals form.

Minerals from hot water solutions time lapse of growing crystal Sometimes minerals dissolve in solutions. A solution is a mixture in which one substance dissolves in another. When a hot water solution begins to cool, the elements and compounds

leave the solution and begin to crystallize as minerals. Pure metals that crystallize underground form veins. A vein is a narrow channel or slab of a mineral that is different from the rock surrounding it. Often these mineral form where tectonic plates spread apart forming chimneys along the mid-ocean ridge. Other minerals can be seen when the solution

evaporates. One example of this is the mineral halite (salt). Part Four How do we use minerals? Mineral Resources Text pgs. 134-139

Minerals are the sources of metals, gemstones, and other materials used to make many products that we use today. What is an ore? A rock that contains a metal or economically useful mineral is called an ore.

Most metals do not occur in pure form. A metal usually occurs as a mineral in a combination of metal and other elements. Much of the worlds copper is found in an ore containing the mineral chalcopyrite. They

must be separated from their other elements in the ore. Bauxite is an ore for aluminum. Smelting Ores must be processed before the metals they contain can be used. After miners remove ore

from a mine, smelting is necessary to remove the metal from the ore. In the process of smelting, an ore is melted to separate the useful metal from the other elements the ore contains. After smelting, additional processing may be needed

to get rid of impurities. One example is the creation of steel, an alloy a solid mixture of two or more metals. How steel is made Get ready to Rock!

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