Methods in Behavioral Research

Methods in Behavioral Research

CONDUCTING EXPERIMENTS 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Distinguish between straightforward and staged manipulations of an independent variable Describe the three types of dependent variables

Self-report Behavioral physiological 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Discuss sensitivity of a dependent variable, contrasting floor effects and ceiling effects Describe ways to control participant

expectations and experimenter expectations List the reasons for conducting pilot studies Describe the advantages of including a manipulation check in an experiment 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Samples May Be Drawn From the Population Using:

Probability sampling Nonprobability sampling Sampling must assure external validity to generalize to other populations Determine the Sample Size Larger samples provide more accurate estimates of population values 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Setting the Stage Types of Manipulations Straightforward manipulations Staged manipulations Strength of Manipulation

Use of a confederate or accomplice Does the study maintain external validity? Cost of the Manipulation 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. MEASURING THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE Types of Measures

Self-report measures Behavioral measures Physiological measures Galvanic skin response (GSR) Electromyogram (EMG) Electroencephalogram (EEG) Functional MRI (fMRI) 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. MEASURING THE DEPENDENT VARIABLE

Sensitivity of the Dependent Variable Ceiling effect Floor effect Multiple Dependent Measures Cost Measures Ethics

2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Controlling for Participant Expectations Demand characteristics Using unrelated filler items on a questionnaire Placebo groups Can control through the use of placebo effect

Used to assure external validity is maintained 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Controlling for Experimenter Expectations Experimenter bias or expectancy effects Research on expectancy effects Solutions to the expectancy problem Single-blind experiment

Double-blind experiment 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Research Proposals Pilot Studies Manipulation Checks Debriefing 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Statistical Analysis of the Data Examine and Interpret the Pattern of Results Decide whether there really is a relationship between the independent and dependent variables 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Journal Articles

Peer Review As many as 90% of papers submitted to the more prestigious journals are rejected Professional Meetings 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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